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Columbia  (HnitJerssttp 

THE  LIBRARIES 


GLASGOW,   PAST   &   PRESENT 


GLASGOW 


PAST    AND    PRESENT 


By  SENEX 


IN  THREE    VOLUMES 


VOLUME    III. 


GLASGOW 
DAVID  ROBERTSON  AND  CO. 

MDCCCLXXXIV 


o' 


P7'2ntedhy  R.  &  R.  Clark,  Kciinhursh. 


(^la$g:otD  archaeological  ^ocietp 

THE   FOLLOWING    LOOSE  JOTTINGS 
RELATING   TO 

GLASGOW    AND    ITS    ENVIRONS 

ARE    RESPECTFULLY  DEDICATED 


SENEX 


PREFACE. 

It  was  altogether  a  chance  circumstance  which  suggested  to  me 
the  idea  of  noting  down  the  following  loose  and  desultory  jottings 
regarding  Glasgow  and  its  Environs,  and  particularly  respecting 
the  Low  Green  and  its  neighbourhood.  I  possessed  little  informa- 
tion on  the  subject  of  the  early  history  of  this  our  first  public 
park,  except  what  had  been  taken  notice  of  by  our  different 
Glasgow  historians ;  but  being  in  the  ninety-second  year  of  my 
age,  and  remembering  the  state  of  the  locality  in  question, 
shortly  after  the  date  when  the  Plan  annexed  to  this  pamphlet 
was  drawn  up,  and  seeing  that  no  part  of  our  city  has  undergone 
greater  changes  than  this  portion  of  it,  I  have  thought  that  a  few 
notices  regarding  the  said  locality  may  perhaps  be  acceptable  to 
many  of  our  citizens,  especially  to  those  who  take  delight  in 
lingering  over  stories  of  olden  time. 

I  eschew  all  claim  to  any  original  information  of  importance 
as  to  the  early  history  of  this  district  of  our  city,  and  now  come 
forward  merely  as  a  gleaner  from  the  works  of  others,  interspersed 
with  a  few  of  my  own  memoranda,  loosely  thrown  together. 

As  I  have  before  stated,  it  was  an  accidental  circumstance 
which  turned  my  attention  towards  writing  a  few  notanda  re- 
garding the  Low  Green  of  Glasgow,  viz.,  the  following  letter, 
addressed  to  mc  as  "  Senex,"  from  a  stranger : — 


viii  PREFACE. 

"  To  Senex. — Sir, — Many  friends  here  and  elsewhere  would  be  highly 
gratified  were  you  to  be  good  enough  to  write  any  reminiscences  of  St.  Andrew's 
Episcopal  Chapel  here.  It  is  now  the  oldest  of  the  Episcopal  communion  in 
Scotland,  and  for  many  years  was  the  sole  chapel  in  the  West,  and  was  fre- 
quented by  the  Dukes  of  Hamilton,  the  Lords  of  Douglas,  the  Cathcart  family, 
the  Pollocs,  and  the  Mite  of  Glasgow  and  vicinity.  You  might  have  materials 
for  a  few  articles,  which  would  take  well. — Yours  truly,  A.  B." 


To  this  request  I  answered  as  follows  : — 

"  To  A.  B. — Sir, — Although  it  is  not  in  my  power  to  give  a  satisfactory 
account  of  the  early  history  of  the  first  Glasgow  Episcopal  Chapel,  neverthe- 
less, as  I  possess  a  plan  of  the  grounds  on  which  the  said  Chapel  and  St. 
Andrew's  Church  were  erected  during  the  course  of  last  century,  I  think  it 
may  be  interesting  to  many  of  our  citizens  to  look  back  to  the  days  when  the 
lands  in  question  were  lying  waste,  and  open  to  the  public,  as  if  they  had 
been  a  mere  common  in  connection  with  the  Old  Green  of  Glasgow. 

"  Perhaps  no  part  of  Glasgow  has  undergone  so  great  a  change  within  the 
memory  of  our  octogenarian  citizens  as  the  Old  Green  and  its  environs,  in 
consequence  of  the  Camlachie  and  Molendinar  Burns  having  been  arched  over, 
and  formed  into  a  tunnel ;  from  the  opening  up  of  the  south  part  of  the  Gallow- 
gate,  by  the  formation  of  London  Street  and  St.  Andrew's  Square ;  by  the 
erection  of  the  splendid  mansions  of  Charlotte  Street  upon  the  ancient  lands 
of  Merkdailly ;  and,  in  short,  by  the  whole  of  the  Saltmarket  and  the  lands 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  Green  having  been  pulled  down  and  rebuilt,  so  that  the 
entire  space  in  question  has  put  on  quite  a  new  face,  and  would  scarcely  be 
recognised  by  our  forefathers  had  they  returned  to  us  on  furlough. — Yours 
truly,  Senex." 


Such,  then,  was  the  origin  of  the  following  sheets. 


CONTENTS   OF  VOL.    III. 


CHAPTER  I. 

The  Old  Green  of  Glasgow — Charter  to  Bishop  Turnbull  in  1450 — King's  Isles — The 
Bishop's  Forest — Weaponschawings,  and  penalties  for  non-attendance — Petition  of 
Hugh  Tennent  to  the  Court  of  Session — Bridget  on  in  1725 — Walkinshaw  of 
Barrowfield — Orr  of  Barrowfield — Advertisements  of  sale  of  Barrowfield 

Pages  I -14 

CHAPTER  II. 

The  Andersons  of  Stobcross — The  Bells  of  Cowcaddens,  and  Bell's  Park — Incorporation 
of  Tailors — BaiHe  Ronald,  Breeches  Maker  to  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales,  and 
Provost  M'Dowall — Feu-duties  in  Anderston  and  Finnieston — Lady  Barrowfield — 
Story  of  the  marriage  of  John  Orr  of  Barrowfield — Anecdote — The  Green  eighty 
years  ago — Craig's  Park — The  Golf  Fields  lands  in  1758 — Provost  Mackenzie — 
Sketch  of  Alexander,  Richard,  and  James  Oswald — Extracts  from  The  Glasgow 
Merairy    ........  15-41 

CHAPTER  III. 

Kelvinbank  in  1781,  and  Kelvingrove  in  1790 — Coal  Quay  at  Windmillcroft — First 
railway  in  Glasgow — The  Windmill  in  1780,  and  salmon  fishing — Deepening 
and  embanking  the  Clyde  in  1780 — Patrick  Reid,  possessor  by  "wadset"  of 
Washington  Street — Henry  Monteith's  attempted  purchase  of  Washington  Street 
for  Clyde  Trust  in  1814 — Washington  Street,  whence  named  .  42-53 


CHAPTER  IV. 

Cleland's  sketch  of  the  Green — Improvements  in  the  Green,  1638-1664 — Fleshers' 
Haugh  in  1792 — The  Green  as  it  stood  in  18 16 — Coal  under  the  Green,  and 
proposal  to  work  it  in  1858 — Discussion  in  the  City  Council — Proposed  improve- 
ments in  1813 — Subsidence  of  the  Green  in  1754 — The  Point  Isle  in  1760— Dowcot 
Green  Island — The  Horse  Ford — Battle  of  the  Bell  o'  the  Brae        .  54-71 


CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER    V. 

Regent  Murray's  approach  to  Glasgow  and  Hamilton,  after  Langside,  1568,  by  the 
Horse  Ford — Erection  of  the  stone  dyke  across  the  Clyde — Rutherglen  Quay  and 
traffic — Stoppage  of  the  fords  by  Act  of  Parliament,  1768 — Golborne  and  Clyde 
deepening  in  1773 — The  Broomielaw  in  1760— The  old  Bottlework — The  Bottle- 
work  Company — Gorbals  Church — Hutchesontown  in  1794  .      Pages  72-87 


CHAPTER  VI. 

Residenters  in  the  Briggate — Bailie  Craig's  house"  in  1736 — The  old  Custom-House — 
The  Water  Port— The  Plague  in  1574 — The  Old  Bridge  and  a  walk  over  it  in 
1778 — Attempt  by  the  Magistrates  to  shut  it  up — Provost  George  Murdoch 

88-102 


CHAPTER  VII. 

Water  Port  Dyke  and  extension  of  the  Bridge— Ben  Barton's  house — The  first  printer 
in  Glasgow,  temp.  1638 — Removal  of  spikes  for  exhibition  of  heads  of  traitors — 
General  Assembly  in  Glasgow  in  1638 — The  Crawfurds — The  mansion  of  the 
Campbells  of  Blythswood — Dillon's  lawsuit  with  John  Campbell  of  Blythswood — 
James  Campbell  and  his  creditors—James  Rankin,  tobacconist — Speculation  in 
tobacco  in  1776 — Curious  story  of  James  Maxwell,  Esq.— Flood  in  Briggate  in 
1782 — Laughable  stoiy  of  David  Dale's  dinner-party  in  1795  •  103-126 


CHAPTER  VIII. 

Fleming's  saw -mill  on  the  Molendinar — Its  demolition  by  the  Magistrates  in  1764 — 
Fleming's  lawsuit  against  the  Magistrates — Depositions  of  witnesses,  containing 
many  interesting  notices — First  introduction  of  Scots  Crown  Fir — Sawmillfield 
— Commencement  of  Forth  and  Clyde  Canal  .  .  .  127-142 


CHAPTER    IX. 

Port-Dundas  as  a  harbour  versus  the  Broomielaw — Cow-milking  on  the  Green — Rates 
for  grazing — Dell  in  the  Green — The  Washing-House,  and  Scotch  mode  of  cleans- 
ing clothes — Castle  Boins — The  Big  Tree  —  The  Green  the  scene  of  military 
punishment — A  soldier  shot,  1750 — Dispute  between  the  Magistrates  and  the 
Officers  of  Colonel  Herbert's  regiment  ....  143- 161 


CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER  X. 

Four  orphans  in  1741 — M'Call's  Black  House — Prince  Charlie  in  Glasgow  in  1745 — 
His  appearance  described — Review  of  his  host — The  Glasgow  Royal  Volunteers  in 
1778 — Mutiny  at  Leith — Collision  between  Magistrates  and  J.P.'s — Recruiting  as 
practised  in  1778 — Population  and  Mortality  Bill  of  Glasgow  in  1777 

Pages  162-175 


CHAPTER  XI. 

Injury  to  the  trade  of  Glasgow  by  the  American  War — Sale  of  Merkdailly  Lands — 
Opening  of  Charlotte  Street — St.  James's  Square — Barrowfield — Bowling  Green 
and  the  Archers'  Butts — Struther's  Brewery — First  brewing  of  porter  in  Glasgow 
— Lawsuit  in  regard  to  it — List  of  brewers  summoned  before  the  Justices  in  1777 
— Printfield  at  Fleshers'  Haugh — Favourite  bathing-place — First  person  baptized 
by  immersion  in  Clyde       ......  176-190 


CHAPTER  XH. 

Opening  up  of  Duke  Street — Glasgow  Police  in  1788,  and  measures  of  the  Magistrates 
for  regulation  of  the  city— Improvements  in  the  city — St.  Andrew's  Church — Eagles- 
holm  Croft — Dispute  about  electing  a  seventh  minister  for  Glasgow — Dr.  Porteous 
— The  "Long  Stairs" — The  "hanging  stair"  in  the  Tontine — Weavers'  riots — 
Town  herds  .......  191-205 


CHAPTER  XHI. 

Humane  Society  House  founded  in  1790 — Nelson's  Monument — The  great  storm  of 
1 8 10 — Ams  Well — The  Slaughter-House  and  regulations  thereanent — Markets  in 
1 744  —Queen  Mary  in  Glasgow  with  Darnley — Lamplighting  in  1 792 — The  Glasgow 
Streets  in  1560 — Saracen's  Head  Inn — Causewaying  in  Glasgow  in  1578 

206-218' 

CHAPTER    XIV. 

Costume  of  the  Lord  Provost  and  Magistrates  of  Glasgow — Convener  Newbigging — 
Salary  of  the  Lord  Provost  of  Edinburgh — Scotch  Episcopalians — History  of  and 
interesting  particulars  regarding  St.  Andrew's  Church — Anti-Burgher  intolerance — 
Episcopal  liberality — Union  of  Scotch  and  English  Episcopalians — Articles  of  Union 
and  Act  of  Consecration     ......  219-233 


CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER    XV. 


Lunardi's  balloon  ascent,  1785 — The  "kist  o'  whistles" — Choral  Union  in  Glasgow, 
1756 — Concert  in  1789 — The  Devil's  Kirk — Willow  Acre — Various  ministers  of 
St.  Andrew's  Church  .....  Pages  234-247 


CHAPTER  XVI. 

General  Wolfe  in  Glasgow  in  1753 — Wade's  sketch  of  the  Episcopal  Chapel — Bishop 
Home's  opinion  of  the  Scotch  Episcopalians — Roman  Catholic  Meeting- House 
eighty  years  ago — Burgess  Oath — Popery  riot  in  Glasgow  in  1779-80 — Address  to 
Lord  George  Gordon — Statute  Labour  Assessment  in  1765 — Sundry  regulations 
by  Town  Council — Bailie  Bogle's  villa,  1712 — Conclusion  .  .  248-261 


ADDITAMENTA. 

PAGE 

Preface              .........  265 

The  Water  Bailie  Court  of  Glasgow  in  olden  time            ....  267 

Municipal  elections         .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .271 

Loose  jottings  regarding  Glasgow  about  the  year  1775     .  .  .  .281 

Glasgow  in  the  olden  time           .......  285 

Much  Ado  about  Nothing  :  a  Glasgow  story  of  olden  time            .              .              .  296 

Collectors  of  Customs  in  olden  time        ......  304 

Friends  of  the  People    ........  307 

The  oldest  house  in  the  Trongate  of  Glasgow      .              .             .             .             •  3ii 

The  Glasgow  shows  of  olden  time           .             .              .             .             .             •  3 1 3 

Cotton.             .........  369 

A  French  prophecy  regarding  America   .  .  .  .  .  -378 

The  late  Mrs.  Douglas  of  Orbiston          ......  380 

The  Deanside  Well  and  the  convents  of  the  Friar  Preachers         .              .              .  382 

Answer  to  an  "  Old  Burgess  "    .              .             .             .             .             .             .  385 

My  first  decade                ........  386 

The  Lands  of  Gorbals    ........  396 

The  grandfather  of  Charles  Wilsone  Broun,  Esq.              ....  399 

The  loth  of  October,  and  the  Glasgow  Grammar  School  of  olden  time     .             .  403 

The  Glasgow  Grammar  School  a  hundred  years  ago         ....  422 

Origin  of  the  Royal  Bank  of  Scotland     .  .  .  .  .  -425 

St.  Enoch's  Church  of  old           .             .             .             .             .              . »           .  428 

St.  Enoch's  Gate  and  St.  Enoch's  Church            .....  428 

First  American  Ambassador  to  London  ......  429 

First  trader  between  Glasgow  and  Belfast,  and  first  vessel  that  passed  through 

the  Great  Canal  from  sea  to  sea  ;  also  first  Spanish  prize      .             .              .  430 


CONTENTS. 

Progress  of  locomotion  .... 

Old  Glasgow  celebrities 

Hirsling  Kate    ..... 

Depreciation  of  American  paper  money  , 

Candleriggs  Street  in  1760 

Statistics  of  the  gallows  in  Glasgow 

Compulsory  signature  of  a  Lord  Provost 

Concerning  the  Honourable  Adam  Ferrie 

Hogmanay,  or  New- Year's  Eve 

Thom  of  Govan  .... 

St.  Enoch's  Church  of  old 

Additional  Notes — 

The  Trongate  (about  1835) 

"  The  Gentle  Lochiel "       . 

Memoir  of  Captain  Archibald  Paton 

The  Tods  of  Haghill 

The  Glasgow  Grammar  School  of  olden  time 

Alexander  Macalpine 

MS.  Note  in  a  copy  of  Brown's  "  Glasgow  " 

Autobiography  of  Robert  Reid  . 
Memoir  of  James  Pagan 
Memoir  of  Dr.  Mathie  Hamilton 
Memoir  of  John  Buchanan,  LL.D. 

Index  .... 


Xlll 

PAGE 

441 
442 
446 

459 
461 
462 
464 
468 
470 


473 
477 
478 

483 
484 

485 
486 

489 
497 
500 
502 

SOS 


ILLUSTRATIONS. 


Portrait  of  "Senex" 
Plan  of  the  Low  Green  in  1760  . 
Clue  Map       .... 
Clue  Map  of  Candleriggs  in  1760 
Portrait  of  Captain  Paton 
Richardson's  Map 


Frontispiece 

I 

72 

446 

478 

S8i 


If  li 


n 


OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 


CHAPTER  I. 

The  Old  Green  of  Glasgow— Charter  to  Bishop  TurnbuU  in  1450— King's  Isles— The 
Bishop's  Forest — Weaponschawings,  and  penalties  for  non-attendance — Petition  of 
Hugh  Tennent  to  tlie  Court  of  Session— Bridgeton  in  1725 — Walkinshaw  of 
Barrowfield — Orr  of  Barrowfield — Advertisements  of  Sale  of  Barrowfield. 

With  the  exception  of  its  ancient  Cathedral,  no  part  of  Glasgow 
is  so  highly  endeared  to  and  venerated  by  our  citizens  as  their 
splendid  public  Green  of  olden  time,  with  its  beautiful  margin,  the 
River  Clyde  flowing  along  through  the  whole  extent  of  its  southern 
boundary,  and  its  fine  cirbuitous  drive  around  its  verdant  lawn  and 
graceful  slopes.      Notwithstanding  its  formidable  rivals,  the  West- 
End   Pleasance  and   Southside   Park,  the  Green  of  Glasgow  still 
stands  conspicuous  in  the  eyes  and  in  the  memories  of  all  ranks, 
like  an  aged  oak   or    sturdy  veteran,  recalling  to  remembrance 
many  thrilling  events  and  youthful  sports  which  there  took  place 
during  the  primitive  era  of  our  city.      There  are  few  individuals 
who  have  not  felt  a  sensation  of  delight  arising  from  a  retrospective 
view  of  the  scenes  and  doings  of  the  early  period  of  their  lives  ; 
and  where  is  the  octogenarian  citizen  of  St.  Mungo  who  does  not 
remember  with  rapture  the  many  merry  sports,  stirring  scenes,  and 
military  displays  which  took  place  on  the  Green  of  Glasgow,  during 
his  juvenile  years,  to  say  nothing  of  this  having  been   once  the 
favourite   mall   of  the   golfer,  and   the  fashionable  parade  of  the 
Glasgow  belles  of  olden  time.       Referring  back,  however,  to  the 
Low  Green   of  Glasgow  and   its  environs,  as  the  same   stood   a 
century  ago,  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  nauseous  manu- 
VOL.  III.  B 


2  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

factures,  we  must  not  look  with  too  critical  an  eye  at  its  then 
objectionable  drawbacks,  which  would  now  be  considered  fatal  to 
it  as  a  place  of  healthful  recreation  and  amusement;  but  we 
must  take  into  account  that  times  are  changed — et  nos  mtttaimir 
in  illis.  Our  grandsires  were  then  happy,  and  contented  to  live 
in  thatched  houses,  crowded  flats,  and  lowly  dwellings,  and  even 
our  Virginia  lords  to  congregate  in  the  polluted  atmosphere  of  the 
Briggate.  But  are  the  Crescenters,  Circusers,  and  Royal  Terracers 
of  the  present  day  more  happy  than  those  old  Fiddler's  Closers, 
Saltmarketers,  or  Briggaters  ? — I  doubt  it  very  much  ;  for,  not- 
withstanding all  the  cleaning  measures  of  our  Deans  of  Guild, 
our  Police  Captains,  and  our  City  Superintendents,  I  believe  that 
there  is  little  or  no  difference  as  to  the  duration  of  human  life 
between  the  two  periods,  however  great  the  difference  may  be  as 
to  comfort.  On  the  other  hand,  be  it  remembered  that  there  were 
of  old  no  police  assessments,  water  charges,  gas  levies,  or  poor- 
rates  to  grumble  about,  so  that  our  grandsires  could  live  happy 
and  contented,  keeping  their  household  establishments  alone  on 
what  is  now  paid  in  taxes  by  their  present  descendants.  It  is 
wonderful  how  easily  a  person  can  complacently  support  a  little 
inconveniency,  when  his  pocket  is  not  touched  ;  and  I  verily 
believe  that  there  are  many  now  in  our  city  who  would  prefer  the 
old  state  of  things  with  all  its  drawbacks,  to  the  present  polished 
position  of  city  matters  with  its  heavy  assessments. 

I  shall  now,  without  more  ado,  proceed  to  jot  down  a  few 
loose  gleanings  regarding  the  old  Green  of  (jlasgow  and  its 
environs,  etc.;  premising,  however,  that  I  make  no  pretensions  of 
giving  a  regular  history  of  the  district  in  question  as  of  old,  or  of 
its  modern  state  of  embellishment,  but  only  of  transcribing  a  few 
extracts  from  the  works  of  our  Glasgow  historians  and  others, 
along  with  some  of  the  reminiscences  of  my  early  days,  by  way  of 
help  to  a  future  more  able  Glasgow  historiographer.  I  lay  no 
claim  to  the  disquisition  and  skill  of  an  antiquary. 

Our  Glasgow  historians  have  given  us  no  information  regarding 
the  state  of  the  Low  Green  of  Glasgow  and  its  environs  previous  to 
the  year  560,  when  St.  Kentigern  founded  a  religious  establishment 
in  Glasgow  ;   and  even  during  the  period  when  the  see  of  the  city 


CHARTER  BY  JAMES  II.  3 

was  held  by  the  Roman  Catholic  Bishops  no  mention  has  been 
made  in  any  public  record  when  this  park  became  the  property  of 
the  community.  It  is  said,  however,  to  have  been  included  in  the 
grant  made  to  William  Turnbull,  Lord  of  Provan  and  Bishop  of 
Glasgow,  on  the  20th  of  April  1450,  by  the  following  charter  : — 

Charter  by  James  II.,  1450, 

"Jacobus,  Dei  gratia  Rex  Scotorum,  omnibus  probis  hominibus  totius  terrae 
suae,  clericis  et  laicis,  salutem.  Sciatis  nos,  in  honorem  et  laudem  Dei 
omnipotentis  et  gloriosse  Virginis  Mariae,  ac  beati  Kentigemi  confessoris, 
patroni  Ecclesiae  Glasguensis,  in  qua  canonicus  existemus,  et  omnium  sanc- 
torum, nee  non  pro  singulari  favore,  zelo,  et  delectione,  quos  erga  reverendum 
in  Christo  patrem  Willehelmum,  praelatum  ejustem  ecclesiae,  modernum 
nostrum  conciliarum  intime  dilectum  gerimus  propter  sua  merita  servitia, 
grata  atque  fidelia  nobis  longo  tempore  impensa,  dedisse,  concessisse,  et  hac 
prasente  carta  nostra,  confirmasse  praefato  reverendo  in  Christo  patri  Willelmo 
Episcopo  Glasguensi,  et  suis  successoribus,  Glasguensis  ecclesiae  episcopis, 
pro  perpetuo,  quod  habeant,  teneant,  et  possideant,  perpetuis  futuris  tempori- 
bus,  civitatem  Glasguensem,  Baroniam  de  Glasgu,  et  terras  vulgariter  vocatas 
Bichopforest,  in  liberam,  puram,  et  meram  Regalitatem,  tenendas  et  habendas 
praefatas  civitatem  Baroniam  et  terras  vocates  Bichopforest,  dicto  Willelmo, 
et  suis  successoribus,  Episcopis  ecclesiae  Glasguensis,  de  nobis  successoribus 
nostris,  in  meram,  puram  liberam  Regalitatem,  seu  regaliam  in  feodo  et  heredi- 
tate  in  perpetuum,  cum  universis  commoditatibus  et  proficuis,  dictis  civitati 
et  terris  pertinentibus,  in  boscis,  planis,  moris,  moressiis,  viis,  semitis,  aquis, 
stagnis,  rivolis,  pratis,  pascuis,  et  pasturis,  molendinis,  multuris,  et  eorum 
sequelis  aucupationibus,  venationibus,  piscationibus,  aquarum  decursibus,  pet- 
ariis,  turbariis,  carbonariis,  lapicidiis,  lapide  et  cake,  fabrilibus,  bracinis, 
brueriis,  et  genestis,  cum  homagiis,  curiis,  et  earum  exitibus,  eschaetis,  libero 
introitu  et  exita,  bludewits,  heryeld,  et  marchetis  mulierum,  cum  libera  foresta 
et  warrenna,  cum  forisfacturis,  justiciis,  antequisque  consuetudinibus,  customis, 
ac  cum  iteneribus  justitiariae,  et  camerariae,  et  earum  exitibus  portubus  et 
passagiis,  cum  capella,  in  liberam,  puram,  et  integram  Regalitatem,  seu 
regaliam,  cum  furca  et  fossa,  sok,  sak,  thol,  them,  infangandtheif,  outfangand- 
theif,  handsoki,  cum  tenandiis  et  tenandriis,  et  libere  tenentium  servitus  :  nee 
non  cum  piscationibus,  antiquis  usibus,  et  advocationibus  ecclesiarum,  aliisque 
omnibus  et  singulis  libertatibus,  commoditatibus,  et  asiamentis,  ac  justis  per- 
tinentiis  quibuscumque,  tarn  non  nominatis  quam  nominatis  ad  Regalitatem, 
seu  regaliam,  spectantibus,  seu  quovis  modo  juste  spectare  volentibus,  in 
futurum,  et  adeo  libere,  quiete,  plenarie,  integre,  honorifice,  bene  et  in  pace, 
in  omnibus  et  per  omnia,  sicut  aliqua  regalitas,  seu  regalia  cuicumque  ecclesiae, 
aut  personis  ecclesiasticis  quibuscumque,  in  regno  nostro  liberius,  quietius,  aut 
hononorificentius,  concedetur  aut  donatur  :  reddendo  annuatim  inde  dictus 
Willelmus,  et  successores  sui,  Glasguensis  ecclesiae  Episcopi,  nobis  haeredibus 


4  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

et  successoribus  nostris,  unam  rosam  rubeam  ad  festum  nativitatis  beati 
Johannis  Baptistae,  apud  Glasgu,  nomine  albae  firmae,  si  petatur:  et  orationum 
suffragia  devotorum  tantum,  pro  omni  alio  onere,  exactione,  questione,  de- 
manda,  seu  servitio  sacculari,  qux  de  dictis  civitate,  baronia,  et  terris  vocatis 
Bischopforest,  cum  pertinentiis,  per  quoscumque  juste  exegi  poterunt  quomodo 
libet,  seu  requiri.  In  cujas  rei  testimonium,  proesenti  cartae  nostrae  magnum 
Sigillum  nostrum  apponi  praecepimus.  Testibus,  Reverendo  in  Christo  patre 
Jacobo,  Episcopo  Sancti  Andreae,  Willo  dno.  Creighton,  nostro  Cancellario,  et 
consanguineo  praedelecto :  carissimo  consanguineo  nostro  Willelmo,  Comite 
de  Douglas  et  de  Avendale,  dno.  Gahvidiae :  venerabile  in  Christo  patre 
Andrea  Abbote  de  Melros  nostro  confessore  et  thesaurio  :  dilectis  consan- 
guineis  nostris  Patricio,  dno.  Glamis,  magistro  hospitii  nostri :  Willo  :  dno. 
Sommervil  ;  Andrea  dno.  Le  Gray :  magistris  Joanni  Arous,  aregediocono 
Glasguensi,  et  Georgio  de  Schoriswod,  Rectore  de  Cultre.  Apud  Edinburgh 
20  die  mensis  ApriHs  Anno  Domini  1450,  et  regni  nostri  14°." 

Translation. 

"  James,  by  the  grace  of  God,  King  of  Scots,  to  all  our  faithful  subjects  of 
the  land,  as  well  clergy  as  laity,  greeting.  Know  ye,  that  we,  for  the  honour 
and  praise  of  Almighty  God,  and  the  glorious  Virgin  Mary,  and  the  blessed 
Kentigern,  confessor,  patron  of  the  Church  of  Glasgow,  wherein  we  are 
esteemed  a  Canon,  and  of  all  the  saints,  and  for  the  singular  favour,  zeal,  and 
affection  which  we  bear  to  the  Reverend  Father  in  Christ,  William,  ^  present 
Bishop  of  the  said  church,  our  well-beloved  counsellor,  and  for  his  good  deeds 
and  faithful  services  done  to  us  for  time  past,  to  have  given  and  granted,  and 
by  this  our  charter  confirmed,  to  the  said  Reverend  Father  in  Christ,  WiUiam, 
Bishop  of  Glasgow,  and  his  successors.  Bishops  of  the  Church  of  Glasgow,  to 
be  for  ever  held,  possessed,  and  enjoyed  by  them  in  all  time  coming,  the  city 
of  Glasgow,  barony  of  Glasgow,  and  lands  commonly  called  Bishop's  Forest, 
in  pure  and  mere  regality,  to  be  holden  and  held,  the  said  city,  barony,  and 
lands  called  Bishop's  Forest,  by  the  said  William  and  his  successors.  Bishops 
of  the  church  of  Glasgow,  of  us  and  our  successors,  in  free,  pure,  and  mere 
regality,  in  fee  and  heritage  for  ever,  with  the  whole  commodities  and 
property  of  the  said  city  and  lands,  with  their  pertinents,  in  woods,  plains, 
moors,  marshes,  ways,  paths,  waters,  lakes,  rivulets,  meadows,  pastures, 
and  pasturages,  mills,  multures,  and  sequels  of  the  same,  hawkings,  huntings, 
fishings,  water  courses,  peats,  tufts,  coal  pits,  quarries,  stone  and  lime, 
smithies,  kilns,  breweries,  and  brooms,  with  vassalages,  courts  and  their 
issues,  escheats,  free  ish  and  entry,  bloodwits,  heralds,  and  marchetis  mulierum, 
with  free  forest  and  warren,  with  the  fee  of  the  forfeitures  of  courts  and 
ancient  usages,  together  with  the  customs  of  the  chamberlain,  and  itinerant 
courts  and  their  issues,  ports  and  passages,  with  the  chapel,  into  a  free,  pure, 
and   entire  regality,  or  royalty,  with  pit   and  gallows,  sok,  sak,  thol,  them, 

^  William  Turnbull,  elected  bishop  in  1448.  He  took  a  journey  to  Rome,  and  died 
there  in  1454.      (Keith's  Bishops,  p.  251.) 


CHARTER  BY  JAMES  II.  S 

infangandtheif,  outfangandtheif,  hamisukkin,  with  tenants  and  tenandries,  and 
services  of  free  tenants,  together  with  fishings,  ancient  usages  and  advocations 
of  churches,  and  all  and  singular  other  liberties,  commodities  and  easements, 
and  just  pertinents  whatsoever,  as  well  not  named  as  named,  belonging  to  a 
regality  or  royalty,  any  manner  of  way  in  time  coming,  and  that  freely, 
quietly,  fully,  wholly,  honourably,  well,  and  in  peace  in  all  things,  as  any  other 
regality  or  royalty,  given  or  granted  to  any  other  church  or  ecclesiastical 
person  whatsoever,  in  our  kingdom,  paying  therefore,  yearly,  the  said  William 
and  his  successors.  Bishops  of  the  church  of  Glasgow,  to  us,  our  heirs  and 
successors,  a  red  rose  upon  the  feast  of  the  nativity  of  the  blessed  John  the 
Baptist,  at  Glasgow,  in  name  of  blanch-farm,  if  asked  only,  and  the  assistance 
of  their  prayers,  and  that  for  all  other  further  exaction,  question,  demand,  or 
secular  service,  that  can  be  any  way  exacted  or  demanded,  for  or  furth  of  the 
said  city,  barony,  and  lands  called  Bishop's  Forest,  and  pertinents.  In  testi- 
mony whereof,  we  have  ordered  our  great  seal  to  be  appended  to  this  our 
present  charter,  in  presence  of  the  Reverend  Father  in  Christ,  James,  Bishop 
of  St.  Andrew's,  William,  Lord  Crichton,  our  chancellor,  and  beloved  cousin, 
our  dear  cousin  William,  Earl  of  Douglas  and  Avondale,  Lord  of  Galloway, 
the  venerable  Father  in  Christ,  Andrew,  Abbot  of  Melrose,  our  confessor  and 
treasurer,  our  beloved  cousin,  Patrick  Lord  Glamis,  master  of  our  household, 
William,  Lord  Sommervile,  Andrew,  Lord  Gray,  Messrs.  John  Arous,  Arch- 
deacon of  Glasgow,  and  George  Schoriswood,  rector  of  Coulter.  At  Edinburgh, 
the  2oth  day  of  the  month  of  April,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1450,  and  14th 
year  of  our  reign." 

In  the  copy  of  the  chartulary  in  the  library  of  the  University 
of  Glasgow  there  is  a  copy  of  the  above  charter,  said  to  have  been 
taken  "  Ex   autographo   in   archivis   ecclesiae   Glasguensis    apud 

in  pyxide  lignea  sub  litera  huic  cartae  appensum 

est  sigillum  magnum  Scotiae  et  cera  alba  integrum." 

The  foregoing  grant  is  very  extensive,  and  appears  to  have 
included  almost  every  right  of  value  which  could  have  arisen  out 
of  the  lands  within  the  bounds  of  the  Bishop's  Forest ;  which 
forest  extended  several  miles  around  Glasgow,  but  its  exact 
boundaries  are  not  known. 

It  may  be  remarked,  however,  that  there  is  no  direct  gift  of 
the  River  Clyde,  nor  of  any  part  of  it  which  flowed  through  the  lands 
of  the  Bishop's  Forest.  The  word  rivolis  can  refer  only  to  rivulets, 
or  small  brooks,  such  as  the  Molendinar  and  Camlachie  burns, 
and  not  to  a  large  river  like  the  Clyde.  There  is  nothing  said  in 
the  charter  regarding,  "  Fluvii,  Rivii,  Amnes,  or  Flumina,"  neither 
is    any  mention    made  of  islands  (Insulae  or  Inches),   of   which 


6  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

there  were  then  several  in  the  Clyde,  near  Glasgow.  About  the 
close  of  the  fourteenth  century  Robert  III.  granted  the  King's 
Isles,  below  Rutherglen,  to  Robert  Hall  {Origines  Parochialcs, 
p.  64).  The  charter  in  question  is  drawn  up  quite  in  general 
terms,  but  it  is  sufficient  to  include  the  Camlachie  and  Molendinar 
burns,  under  the  word  rivolis,  and  the  Green  of  Glasgow,  under 
the  words  pratis,  pasaiis,  et  pastiiris.  The  ancient  surface  of  the 
parish,  unless  near  the  river,  was,  with  very  few  exceptions,  a 
forest  of  wood  and  bush  land  {Origines  Parochiales,  p.  11). 
And  the  Gorbals  lands  were  not  included  as  being  within  the 
bounds  of  the  said  parish  (page  i ). 

From  the  above  circumstances  it  may  be  inferred  that  the 
north  bank  of  the  River  Clyde  then  formed  the  south  boundary 
of  the  Bishop's  Forest. 

1632. — "  In  the  Testament  and  Inventur  of  the  guidis  geir,  debtis,  and 
sowmes  of  money,  pertaint  to  umquhile,  James,  Archbishop  of  Glasgow,  there 
was  owing,  '  the  fewaries,  farmaris,  tennants,  occupiers,  and  possessiors  of  the 
lands  and  baronie  of  Bishopis-fforrister,  xxxiij.  li.  vj.  s.  viij.  d.,  as  the  few 
duties,  landis,  the  crope  and  yeir  of  God,  above  written." — (Hamilton's  Z««ar/(:- 
shire,  p.  149.) 

The  above  shows  very  clearly  that  the  Bishop's  Forest  was 
then  lying  in  a  state  of  nature,  and  consisted  almost  entirely  of 
waste  and  uncultivated  lands,  overgrown  with  forest  trees  and 
bush  wood,  the  rental  of  the  whole  forest,  extending  to  many 
miles  round  Glasgow,  being  only  ;^2  :  1 5  :  6\  sterling  (;^3  3  :6  :?> 
Scots). 

The  Bishop's  Forest  most  probably  embraced  the  whole  of  our 
Eastern  and  Western  Commons,  reaching  from  about  Parkhead 
on  the  east,  to  Hamiltonhill  on  the  west,  and  bounded  on  the 
south  by  the  River  Clyde  ;  this,  of  course,  included  the  Green 
and  the  lower  parts  of  the  city  of  Glasgow.  As  the  early  inhabit- 
ants of  our  city  were  then  congregated  on  the  high-lands,  in  the 
immediate  neighbourhood  of  the  Bishop's  Palace,  they  naturally 
resorted  to  the  commons  in  their  near  vicinity  for  pasturing 
their  cattle,  or  for  their  public  displays  and  pastimes,  in  preference 
to  descending  to  the  more  distant,  low,  and  marshy  lands  of  the 
Green  of  Glasgow.     Accordingly,  we  find  that  the  Green  was  not 


WEAPONSCHAWINGS.  7 

then  generally  used  for  public  exhibitions,  or  military  displays, 
such  as  the  Weaponschawings,  which  were  held  upon  the  Eastern 
Common  principally,  at  a  place  thereon  called  the  Butts,  near  to 
the  present  Infantry  Barracks,  Gallowgate  Street ;  the  latter  name 
showing  that  this  common  was  also  the  locality  where  criminals 
were  executed. 

The  great  meetings  for  Weaponschawings  were  held  quarterly, 
by  Act  of  Parliament,  and  no  French  conscription  could  have 
been  more  strictly  enforced  than  was  our  ancient  call  of  Weapon- 
schawing,  as  the  following  Act  shows  : — 

"Act  Third  Parliament,  James  I.,  xj.  of  March,  1425.— //^w.  It  is 
ordaned  in  the  second  Parliament  of  our  Sovereign  Lord  the  King,  that  ilke 
Schireffe  of  the  Realme  soulde  gar  Weaponschawings  be  maid  foure  times  ilke 
zeire,  in  als  monie  places  as  were  speedefuU  within  his  Bailliarie,  bot  the  maner 
how  Weaponschawings  sulde  be  received  was  not  appoynted.  Herefor,  Our 
Lorde  the  King  throw  the  haill  ordinance  of  his  Parliament  statutis,  that  ilke 
Gentleman  hauand  ten  pounds  woorth  of  land  or  mair,  be  sufficientlie  har- 
nished  and  armed  with  Basret,  haill  legge,  Harnes,  sworde,  speare,  and 
dagger ;  and  gentleman  hauand  lesse  extentes,  of  landes,  nor  na  landes,  salbe 
armed  at  their  gudlie  power,  after  the  discretion  of  the  Schireffes,  bot  all  other 
zeamen  of  the  realme  betwixt  xvj.  and  sextie  zeir,  salbe  sufficientlie  bowed  and 
schafted  with  sworde  and  buckler,  and  knife.  And  that  al  the  burgesses  and 
indwellers  within  the  Burrow  townes  of  the  realme,  in  like  maner  be  anarmed 
and  harnished  and  make  weaponschawings  within  the  Burrowis  foure  times  in 
the  zeir,  and  that  be  the  Aldermen  and  Baillies,  vpon  the  quhilk,  the  Chamer- 
lane  and  his  Deputes  sail  know  and  execute  the  said  things.  And  that  all 
men,  Seculares  of  the  Realme,  be  well  purvayed  of  the  said  harness  and 
weapons,  be  the  feast  of  Nativitie  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  next  to  cum,  under 
the  pains  follow,  and  :  That  is  to  say,  of  ilk  gentilman  that  defaltis  at  the  first 
weaponschawing  fourtie  schillinges,  and  at  the  other  default  fourtie  schillings, 
and  at  the  third  default  ten  punds,  and  as  meikle  als  oft  times  as  he  defaultis 
afterward.  And  of  ilk  bow-man  at  the  first  faulte  ten  schillinges,  at  the  other 
default  ten  schillinges,  and  at  the  third  fourtie  schillinges.  And  swa  furth  als 
oft-times  as  he  beis  funden  faultise  afterward." 

Burgh  Records,  i  ith  October  1575. — "The  quhilk  daye  Johne  Wilsone, 
and  James  Anderson,  flesche":!  burgessis  of  Glasgw,  ar  fund  in  ye  amchia'  and 
unlawis  for  absenting  yame  frae  ye  generall  wapinschawing,  haldin  on  ye  grein, 
on  ye  x  daye  of  October,  instant.  Their  being  w.'.in  ye  toune  ye  said  daye 
and  esteptuslie,  abydand,  yairfra,  and  drame  gevin  yf.upon." 

It  appears  from  another  entry  in  the  Burgh  Records,  dated 
2 1st  March,  1578,  that  the  fines  levied  for  non-attendance  at  the 


8  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Weaponschawings  were    appropriated    towards    causewaying   the 
public  streets  of  the  city. 

"1578,  Wapinschawing. — The  quhilk  day  the  prouest,  baillies,  and  counsale, 
witht  dekynis,  pntUe  convenit,  hes  appoyntet  yain  wapinshchawing  according 
to  ye  statute  to  be  on  ye  daye  of  ye  Symerhill  nixt,  yet  ye  be  as  yae  are  com- 
andit  ilk  persown  vnder  ye  pane  of  xxs.,  to  be  tane  be  ye  discretioun  of  ye 
puest,  baillies,  and  counsale,  and  to  bestowit  on  ye  calsaye  making." 

(For  an  account  of  the  battle  of  the  "Butts  "in  1543,  in 
which  the  citizens  were  defeated,  see  Pagan's  Glasgoiv,  p.  16,  and 
Glasgoiv  Pilaged.) 

It  may  be  here  remarked  that  "  Butts  "  (where  our  Weapon- 
schawings took  place)  is  not  a  Scotch  word,  but  is  derived  from 
the  French  ;  thus,  "  But,  Bute,  Butte  (Marque  a  quoi  Ton  vise)." 
"  A  mark  at  which  a  person  aims."  Jamieson  says,  "  Our  sense  of 
the  word  may  be  from  the  French  '  Butte,'  an  open  or  void  space 
appropriated  for  archery  ;"  but  he  might  have  added,  that  when  a 
man  is  made  an  object  of  ridicule,  he  is  said  to  have  been  made 
a  "  butt "  of 

The  Eastern  Common  where  our  Weaponschawings  took  place 
appears  at  a  more  recent  date  to  have  been  a  large  open  waste, 
with  roads  running  through  it  in  all  directions  ;  which  com- 
mon the  public  seem  to  have  used  with  all  manner  of  freedom, 
and  without  restraint,  not  only  by  traversing  it  ad  libittim,  but 
also  by  digging  up  and  carrying  off  stones,  clay,  turfs,  and  peats 
from  it ;  and  for  so  interfering  they  apparently  were  never  chal- 
lenged by  the  Magistrates  or  other  public  authorities. 

I  have  in  my  possession  a  Court  of  Session  paper,  dated  loth 
February  1772,  being  the  Petition  of  Hugh  Tennent,  the  grand- 
father^ of  Hugh  Tennent,  Esq.,  of  Wellpark,  to  the  Lords  of 
Session,  requesting  power  to  enclose  his  lands,  then  part  of  the 
said  Eastern  Common. 

Mr.  Tennent  in  his  Petition  to  the  Court, 
*'  Humbly  sheweth, 

"  That  to  the  North-east  of  the  Town  of  Glasgow,  there  is  a  considerable 
extent  of  ground,  which  originally  belonged  to  the  Town,  and  was  possessed 
pro  indiviso,  as  a  commonty  by  the  different  inhabitants  of  the  borough.     At 

^  Mr.  Hugh  Tennent  sen.  was  born  1695,  and  died  in  1776. 


THE  EASTERN  COMMON.  9 

the  East-end  of  this  commonty  at  that  corner  of  it  furthest  removed  from  the 
town,  there  is  a  stone  quarry,  called  the  Sheep -quarry,  belonging  to  the 
borough.  A  number  of  years  ago,  the  Magistrates  and  Town  Council  of 
Glasgow,  considering  that  this  ground,  so  long  as  it  remained  a  commonty,  or 
undivided  waste,  was  of  little  advantage  to  the  borough,  resolved  to  divide  and 
parcel  it  out  among  individuals,  who  might  cultivate  and  enclose  it,  and  who 
would  be  willing  to  pay  a  price  for  the  same.  The  Magistrates,  did,  therefore, 
first  grant  leases  to  persons  willing  to  take  tacks  of  certain  parts  of  the  com- 
monty ;  and  afterwards  they  granted  feus  thereof  to  different  persons,  who 
agreed  to  become  purchasers,  with  this  reservation  only,  that  the  Town  should 
still  have  right  to  the  stone  and  coal  within  the  ground,  and  the  necessary 
roads  to  and  from  the  same.  The  Petitioner  purchased  the  lands  of  Easter 
Commonty,  being  part  of  the  foresaid  commonty,  from  the  Magistrates  of 
Glasgow ;  the  same  having  been  exposed  to  public  roup,  in  the  year  1755,  and 
he  obtained  a  feu  contract  from  them  in  the  year  1763.  The  quarry  above- 
mentioned,  the  right  to  which  the  Magistrates  had  reserved,  and  to  a  road  to 
and  from  the  town  thereto,  lies  at  the  east-end  of  the  Petitioner's  property,  and 
at  the  time  of  the  purchase,  the  road  from  the  town  to  the  quarry  went  through 
the  middle  of  his  property.  Nay,  it  appears  from  the  proof  which  has  been 
led  in  this  process,  that  persons  going  to  and  from  the  quarry  did  not  observe 
one  uniform  road,  but  sometimes  followed  one  track,  sometimes  another, 
across  the  ground,  now  the  Petitioner's  property,  as  humour  or  inclination 
directed.  The  Petitioner's  property  was  much  lessened  in  value  by  these 
roads  running  through  the  middle  of  it ;  they  not  only  encroached  upon  a 
great  part  of  his  ground,  but  put  it  out  of  his  power  to  enclose  it." 

Proof  in  this  case  having  been  led,  David  Kirkland  depones, 

"  That  there  were  roads  every  airth  through  the  said  Easter  Common,  till 
the  same  was  feued  and  enclosed." 

James  Henderson  depones, 

"  That  during  the  time  deponed  on,  (viz.,  twelve  or  thirteen  years  prior  to 
the  year  1769,)  there  were  many  roads  passing  through  the  same  from  east  to 
west." 

John  Scott  (being  interrogated), 

"  If  there  were  many  different  roads  through  the  common  from  the  east  to 
the  west,  and  from  the  north  to  the  south,  and  whether  he  has  known  clay  and 
stones  digged  forth  of  that  moor,  and  feal  and  divot  cut  thereon,  which  were 
carried  to  different  places  by  the  different  roads  ?  depones  affirmative:'' 

James  Miller  depones, 
"  That  the  lands  called  Easter  Common,  till  such  time  as  they  were  en- 


lo  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

closed,  were  all  used  as  a  commonty,  and  for  casting  feal,  and  digging  clay 
by  the  Burgesses  of  Glasgow  ;  and  that  he  never  knew  anybody  quarrelled 
for  so  using  thereof." 

Dr.  Cleland  in  his  Annals  (p.  30)  says,  that  about  the  end  of 
the  seventeenth  century  the  ground  adjoining  the  east  side  of  the 
city,  denominated  the  Gallowmuir,  Borough  Roads,  or  Blackfaulds, 
was'^  used  as  a  grazing  common  for  the  cattle  belonging  to  the 
citizens.  In  1705  Mr.  John  Walkinshaw  of  Renfrewshire  pur- 
chased a  great  part  of  those  lands,  and  began  to  feu  out  ground 
for  a  village,  which  he  called  Barrowfield,  since  known  by  the 
name  of  Bridgeton.  The  progress  of  this  village  was  very  slow, 
for  in  the  year  1724  he  had  only  feued  nineteen  small  lots.  At 
this  period  the  Town,  in  conjunction  with  the  Trades'  House, 
became  proprietors  of  the  whole,  and  it  remained  in  their  hands 
till  173 1,  when  they  conveyed  it  to  Mr.  John  Orr,  a  merchant  in 
Glasgow,  who  was  more  successful  in  disposing  of  the  ground  than 
his  predecessors. 

It  appears,  however,  that  the  lands  above  mentioned  had  re- 
ceived the  name  of  "  Barrowfield  "  before  the  time  of  Mr.  Walkin- 
shaw's  purchase,  as  is  shown  by  the  following  extract  from  the 
Burgh  Records  of  Council,  25  th  August  1643  : — 

"  That  George  Duncan  of  Barrowfield  gave  6000  merks  to  be  warit  upon 
a  bell  to  be  hung  in  the  steeple  of  the  Blackfriar's  Kirk,  to  be  rung  every 
morning  at  Five."i 

When  Rutherglen  Bridge  came  to  be  built  in  1775,  the  lands 
next  the  bridge  received  the  appellation  of  "  Bridgeton,"  in  honour 
of  the  bridge.  This  bridge  was  said  to  have  cost  only  ;^i8oo 
sterling,  of  which  sum  there  was  about  £1000  sterling  contributed 
by  the  Burgesses  of  Rutherglen,  and  the  bridge  was  made  free  of 
toll.  It  is  curious  to  contrast  the  small  expense  of  building  the 
Rutherglen  Bridge  across  the  Clyde  with  the  enormous  outlay  for 
erecting  the  Broomielaw  and  Stockwell  Bridges  of  modern  times  ; 
one  year's  interest  of  the  respective  costs  of  the  latter  bridges  would 
amount  to  more  than  the  whole  cost  of  the  Rutherglen  Bridge. 

^  4th  February  1657. — "John  Duncan,  of  Barrowfield,  heir  of  George  Duncan,  of 
Barrowfield,  his  Father  brother  sone, — in  a  piece  of  land  callit  Denfield,"  E.  4s. — 
(Retours.) 


THE  WALKINSHAWS.  ii 

John  Orr,  mentioned  by  Cleland,  was  the  grandfather  of  John 
Orr,  late  Town-Clerk  of  Glasgow,  and  was  Bailie  of  the  city  in 
1 7 19.  He  was  elected  Rector  of  the  University  in  1734,  and 
made  a  present  of  ;^500  sterling  in  aid  of  its  library. 

With  regard  to  Mr.  Walkinshaw,  the  following  notice  is  taken 
of  him  in  Crawford's  Renfrewshire,  p.  9 1  : — 

"Gavin  Walkinshaw,  of  that  ilk,  thought  fit,  in  the  year  1683,  to  alienate 
his  estate  of  Walkinshaw  to  James  Walkinshaw,  merchant  in  Glasgow,  second 
son  of  John  Walkinshaw  of  Barrowfield,  a  cadet  of  his  family  who  died  in  the 
year  1708  ;  his  estate  devolved  upon  John  Walkinshaw,  now  of  Walkinshaw, 
his  son  and  heir." 

So  far  as  I  have  seen  none  of  our  Glasgow  historians  have 
informed  us  of  Mr.  Walkinshaw's  purchases  of  the  lands  known  as 
the  Eastern  Common  ;  but  the  following  extract  will  throw  some 
light  on  the  subject,  and  show  that  Mr.  Walkinshaw  purchased 
Barrowfield  before  the  year  1693,  and  not  in  1705,  as  Cleland 
states : — 

loth  March  1693. — "Joannes  Walkinshaw  de  Barrowfield,  haeres  Joannes 
Walkinshaw  de  Barrowfield,  patris,  —  in  4  libratis  terris  antiqui  extensus 
terrarum  de  Barrowfield,  comprehendentibus  terras  nuncupatus  Nicalhouse, 
Litle  Park,  et  Broomward  cum  decimi,  de  Broomward  inclusis,  et  maneriei 
loco  de  Barrowfield  : — "^"^ih  acris  tanquam  parte  aliarum  40  soliditarum  ter- 
rarum de  Barrowfield,  omnibus  infra  parochiam  et  regalitatem  de  Glasgow  :  E. 
£^  1 6s  5d,  &c.,  feudi  Firmae — terris  nuncupatis  Cumlachie,  comprehenden- 
tibus \\  acram  aliquando  spectantem  ad  Jacobem  Bredwoodet  Gulielmum 
Andersone,  infra  territorium  burgi  de  Glasgow : — posteriori  tenemento  cum 
horto  in  dicto  burgo  ex  occidentali  lattere  viae  de  Saltmercat — E.  servitium 
burgi.  xiiii,  292." — (Retours.) 

Translation. 

"  John  Walkinshaw  of  Barrowfield,  heir  of  John  Walkinshaw  of  Barrow- 
field, his  Father,  in  the  four  pound  land  of  old  extent  of  the  lands  of  Barrow- 
field, comprehending  the  lands  called  Nicalhouse,  Little  Park,  and  Broomward, 
with  the  teinds  of  Broomward  included,  and  the  Manor  Place  of  Barrowfield — 
33|  acres  part  of  the  other  forty  shilling  land  of  Barrowfield,  all  lying  within 
the  Parish  and  Regality  of  Glasgow.  E.,  £^  i6s  5d,  &c.,  in  feu — the  lands 
called  Camlachie  comprehending  \\  acres  formerly  portioning  to  James  Bred- 
wood  and  William  Andersone,  within  the  territory  of  the  said  Burgh  of 
Glasgow : — the  back  tenement  with  the  Garden  in  the  said  Burgh  on  the  west 
side  of  the  street  of  Saltmarket,  to  be  held  Burgage." — loth  March  1693. 
(Retours.) 


12  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Mr.  Walkinshaw  was  eldest  merchant  bailie  of  Glasgow  in 
1660,  1665,  and  1673  ;  and  it  is  unfortunate  that  we  have  not 
learned  from  any  of  our  historians  what  was  the  price  which  he 
paid  for  the  above-mentioned  lands.  Mr.  Walkinshaw  belonged 
to  the  clique  of  the  Blythswoods,  Bells,  Andersons,  and  Hamiltons, 
who  then  ruled  the  city  at  their  pleasure,  and  who  appear  to  have 
shared  the  greatest  part  of  our  great  Eastern  and  Western  Com- 
mons among  themselves.      Price  paid  by  them  unknown. 

Cromwell,  by  letter  dated  30th  September  1657,  ordered  the 
election  of  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  to  be  indefinitely  deferred  ; 
in  consequence  of  which,  and  the  death  of  Cromwell  the  ensuing 
year  (3d  September  1658),  followed  by  the  troubled  times  of  the 
Restoration,  the  said  clique  and  their  party  continued  to  vote 
themselves  into  office,  and  became  supreme  in  Glasgow  till  the 
close  of  that  century.  Hence  the  loss  of  the  largest  portion  of 
our  Eastern  and  Western  Commons,  then  parcelled  out  among 
the  leaders  of  the  clique. 

The  death  of  Mrs.  Walkinshaw  is  thus  announced  in  the 
Glasgow  Mercury  of  23d  November  1780  : — 

Edinburgh,  28th  November  1780. — "On  Saturday  last  (21st  Nov.,)  died 
here,  aged  97,  Mrs.  Walkinshaw  of  Barrowfield." 

For  an  interesting  account  of  the  Walkinshaw  family  I  must 
refer  to  an  article  in  Glasgow,  Past  and  Present,  vol.  ii.  p.  511, 
and  following,  by  our  learned  antiquarian  fellow-citizen  J.  B.,  who 
has  thrown  more  light  upon  the  former  state  of  the  eastern  parts 
of  our  city  than  all  the  other  Glasgow  historians  put  together. 
See  also  Crawfurd's  RenfrewsJure,  p.  90.  But  to  return  to  the 
subject :  there  were  several  other  feuars  of  the  Western  Common 
before  Mr.  Walkinshaw  made  the  above  purchase. 

1 6th  September  1691.  —  "Jacobus  Parland  haeres  Joannis  Parland, 
mercatoris  burgensis  de  Glasgow,  patris, — in  4^  acris  terrarum  jacentibus  in 
ilia  parte  vocata  '  Fauld,'  infra  baronium  et  regalitatem  de  Glasgow, — E. 
23rd."     (This  was  part  of  the  lands  of  Blackfaulds,  Caltonmouth.) 

1 6th  September  1691. — "Jacobus  Parland  haeres  Elizabathae  Stewart 
conjugis  Joannis  Parland  mercatoris  in  Glasgow,  matris — in  4  acris  tanquam 
dimidio  8  acrarum  terrarum  arabilium  de  Barrowfield,  et  comprehendentibus 


ROUP  OF  BARROWFIELD.  13 

duo  lie  muire  riggs,  infra  baroniam  et  regalitatem  de  Glasgow, — cum  prate 
nuncupate  Reidclothglott. — E.  2S,  &c." — (Retours.)  The  Reidclothglott  was 
the  Camlachie  Burn. 

24th  October  1676. — "  Mariota  Hamiltoune  haeres  magistri  Thomas 
Hamiltoune  doctoris  medicinae  in  burgo  de  Glasgow,  patris,  —  in  botho 
mercatoria  in  dicto  burgo  ex  orientali  latere  viae  regiae  nuncupatae  Salt- 
mercat ;  3  acris  terrae  infra  territorium  dicti  uburgi — 4  acris  terrarum  infra 
territorium  dicti  burgi  in  parte  vocata  'the  Newgallowmour :'  —  2  terris 
jacentibus  discontigue  in  ilia  parte  vocata  Newgallowmour: — 2  terris  cum 
horto  infra  territorium  dicti  burgipropa  croftam  vocatum  Egleshawes  Croft, 
— E.  firma  burogalis — xxxiii.  64." — (Retours.) 

On  the  9th  of  August  1786  the  lands  and  barony  of  Barrow- 
field  were  exposed  to  sale  by  public  roup,  John  Orr  of  Barrow- 
field  having  settled  his  affairs,  which  had  been  in  a  very  embarrassed 
state  for  a  considerable  time. 

Glasgow  Journal,  26th  December  1776. — "The  Trustees  of  John  Orr  of 
Barrowfield,  and  Matthew  Orr  of  Stobcross,  have  now  settled  their  affairs  in 
such  a  manner  as  will  enable  them  to  relinquish  the  trust -right,  and  have 
already  paid  off  the  greatest  part  of  the  debts — their  creditors  who  have  not 
already  been  paid,  are  desired  to  call  for  payment ;  on  which  the  Trustees 
propose  to  divest  themselves  of  the  trust  and  reinvest  J.  and  M.  Orr." 

Glasgow  Mercury,  20th  July  1786. — "To  be  Sold,  by  Public  Roup,  on 
Wednesday,  the  9th  day  of  August  next,  within  the  Tontine  Tavern,  Glasgow, 
between  the  hours  of  One  and  Three  afternoon, 

"The  lands  and  barony  of  Barrowfield,  with  the  lands  of  Camlachie, 
Gateside,  Selkrigs  acres,  and  some  Borough  lands  adjoining  to  them,  all  lying 
contiguous  in  the  immediate  vicinty  of  the  City  of  Glasgow,  and  Barony 
Parish  of  Glasgow  and  County  of  Lanark.  The  gross  rent  of  this  estate  for 
1786,  (including  ^i  10  per  annum  of  coal  lordship,)  is,  .^1215      i      8|- 

Deduct  public  burdens,  including  land  tax,       .  .  58   17     8"" 


Nett  Rent,  .  .  £11^6     /^     o\ 

The  upset  price  of  the  whole,  if  set  up  in  one  Lot,  will  be      ;^2o,ooo     o     o 

"  The  barony  of  Barrowfield  holds  of  the  crown,  and  is  valued  in  the  cess- 
books  of  the  county  at  £97  S^  Scots. 

"  There  is  upon  the  estate  a  good  mansion  house,  with  proper  offices,  and 
a  large  garden  enclosed  with  a  high  stone  wall,  and  well  stocked  with  fruit 
trees,  of  which  a  purchaser  can  get  possession  at  Whitsunday,  1787,  and  of 
20  acres  of  land  adjoining  the  house,  at  Martinmas  next.  If  no  purchaser 
appear  for  the  whole  estate,  it  will  be  set  up  in  the  following  lots,  viz. — 

Lot  I.  The  house,  garden,  and  sundry  fields  round  them,  ^222    15     o 

which  will  be  set  up  at  ^5,100. 


107 

lO 

o 

244 

9 

o 

195 

7 

o 

158 

o 

H 

no 

o 

o 

14  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Lot  2.   Camlachie  parks,  Gateside  mill,  and   mill   lands,  and 

feus  of  Camlachie,  .  .  .  •  £i77     o 

which  will  be  set  up  at  ^3,700. 
Lot  3.   Crown-point  houses  and  garden,  Mountain  blue,  Ford 
Neuk,  and  Stabtree, 

which  will  be  set  up  at  ^2,160. 

Lot  4.   Clyde-side,  Goosefauld,  and  feus  of  Bridgeton, 

which  will  be  set  up  at  £s,76o. 

Lot  5.   Broomward,  and  part  of  new  feus  of  Calton,     . 

which  will  be  set  up  at  ^4,000, 

Lot  6.   Old  feus  of  Calton,  and  remainder  of  new  feus  of  ditto 

which  will  be  set  up  at  ^324. 

Lot  7.   Coal  Lordship,  .... 

which  will  be  set  up  at  ^550. 

"  The  public  burdens  will  be  divided  and  proportioned  upon  the  different 
Lots,  according  to  their  different  rents. 

"  The  rental  of  this  estate  is  yearly  increasing  by  feuing  out  the  lands 
nearest  to  Glasgow  for  building  upon,  for  which  there  is  at  present  a  great 
demand. 

"  The  lots  will  be  altered,  enlarged,  or  diminished,  as  persons  intending  to 
purchase  may  desire. 

"  For  particulars,  apply  to  the  proprietor  at  Glasgow,  in  whose  hands  the 
rental,  progress  of  writs,  and  a  plan  of  the  estate  are  to  be  seen  ;  or  to  Mr, 
Lawrence  Hill,  Writer  to  the  Signet,  Edinburgh  ;  or  Mr.  Alexander  Robertson, 
writer  in  Glasgow  ;  any  of  whom  will  also  show  the  rental." 

John  Orr  appears  to  have  become  bankrupt  soon  after  this 
time. 

Scois  Magazi7te,  September  1790. — "Bankrupts, — September  ist,  John 
Orr,  of  Barrowfield,  the  only  solvent  partner  of  Colquhoun,  Shields  and  Co., 
merchants  in  Glasgow." 

"In  December,  1723,  the  Trades'  House  united  to  the  extent  of  one- 
fourth  of  the  price  in  purchasing  the  estate  of  Barrowfield,  then  sold  by  John 
Walkinshavv,  on  3d  August,  1730.  The  House  concurred  in  selling  those 
lands  to  Mr.  John  Orr  for  ^^10,000,  and  received  ^2,553  15s.  as  their  share 
of  the  price." — (Crawfurd's  Trades'  House,  p.  157.) 


CHAPTER  II. 

The  Andersons  of  Stobcross — The  Bells  of  Cowcaddens,  and  Bell's  Park — Incorporation 
of  Tailors — Bailie  Ronald,  Breeches  Maker  to  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales,  and 
Provost  M'Dowall — Feu-duties  in  Anderston  and  Finnieston — Lady  Barrowfield — 
Story  of  the  Marriage  of  John  Orr  of  Barrowfield— Anecdote — The  Green  eighty 
years  ago — Craig's  Park — The  Golf  Fields  Lands  in  1758 — Provost  Mackenzie — 
Sketch  of  Alexander,  Richard,  and  James  Oswald — Extracts  from  The  Glasgaio 
Mercury. 

John  Orr  senior,  in  1735,  purchased  the  lands  of  Stobcross,  con- 
sisting of  sixty-two  acres,  and  formerly  the  property  of  the  Ander- 
sons of  Dowhill,  of  clique  notoriety.  These  lands  anciently  formed 
part  of  the  Bishop's  Forest,  and  afterwards  of  the  Great  Western 
Common.  John  Anderson  was  bailie  of  Glasgow  in  163  1-2-7-9, 
1 64 1 -2-4-6-8,  1652-3-4,  provost  in  1655,  (his  son  John,  bailie 
in  1655),  provost  in  1656-7-8;  William  Anderson,  provost  in 
1664-5-6;  (John  Anderson  jun.,  bailie,  1666);  John  Anderson, 
provost,  1667-8  ;  William  Anderson,  provost,  1670- 1-2-3  \  John 
Anderson  jun.,  bailie,  1674;  N.  Anderson,  bailie,  1675-8-9; 
John  Anderson  j'un.,  bailie,  1683-6;  John  Anderson,  provost, 
1689-90-95-96-99,  1700-3-4.  So  that  the  Anderson  family 
formed  one  of  the  ruling  clique  of  Glasgow  Magistrates  for 
upwards  of  seventy  years,  during  which  time  the  Stobcross 
estates  appear  to  have  been  acquired  by  them.^  Those  estates 
consisted  of  Anderston,  Finnieston,  Cranstonhill,  Parson's  Haugh, 
and  others  in  that  vicinity.     Our  Glasgow  historians  have  given 

1  4th  December  1692.  —  ''Jacobus  Anderson,  haeres  Jacobi  Andersone  de  Stob- 
cross Patris — in  40  solidatis  terrarum  antiqui  extensus  de  Stobcrosse  infra  Parochiam 
Baroniam  et  Regalitatem  de  Glasgow — E.  12  bollae  farinae  avenaticae,  &c.,  et  I2d.  in 
augmentationem  feudifirmae,  xliii,  128." — (Retours.) 


1 6  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

us  no  particulars  how,  or  for  what  price,  the  Andersons  came 
into  possession  of  so  large  a  share  of  the  Great  Western  Common, 
belonging  to  the  community  of  the  city. 

The  Bells  of  Cowcaddens,  and  of  Bell's  Parks,  etc.  (another 
of  the  said  magisterial  clique  of  the  seventeenth  century),  besides 
the  above  estates  of  Cowcaddens,  etc.,  had  also  acquired  a  part  of 
the  Stobcross  lands,  as  the  following  advertisement  shows  : — 

Glasgow  Journal  i6th  August  1756. — "That  all  and  hail,  these  four 
acres  of  land,  or  thereby,  being  a  part  of  these  lands  called  Parson's  Haugh, 
or  Rankin's  Haugh,  lying  upon  the  eastmost  part  or  side  of  the  lands  of 
Stobcross  ;  as  also  a  rood  of  land  upon  the  east  side  of  Stobcross,  in  that 
part  thereof  called  the  lands  of  Drouth,  with  the  hail  houses,  well,  and  green, 
lying  in  the  Barony  parish  of  Glasgow,  belonging  to  John  Bell,  heir  of  the 
deceased  Richard  Bell,  merchant  in  Glasgow,  are  to  be  exposed  to  public  roup, 
within  the  house  of  Andrew  Armour,  late  Bailie  of  Glasgow,  in  different  lots 
or  parcels,  upon  Thursday  the  ninth  day  of  September,  1756  years,  between 
the  hours  of  eleven  in  the  forenoon,  and  two  afternoon,  said  day. 

"  The  conditions  of  roup  and  progress  of  writs  in  the  hands  of  John 
Wardrop,  writer  in  Glasgow." 

In  1605  part  of  the  lands  of  Parson's  Haugh,  or  Rankin's 
Haugh,  appears  to  have  been  possessed  by  a  Mr.  Alexander  Andro. 

Mail  17th,  1605.  — "  Magister  Alexander  Andro,  haeres  Jacobi  Andro 
fratris — in  terris  subscriptis  prebendae  de  Glasgow  vocatis,  Prependarium  de 
Glasgow -primo,  viz: — 13  acris  terrarum  vulgo  nuncupato,  'The  Parsone's 
Croft,'  ex  parte  boreah  civitatis  Glasguensis,  prope  lie  Stabillgrene  : — terris 
jacentibus  prope  Brumelaw  ex  occidentali  parte  dictae  civitatis  : — terris  vulgo 
vocatis,  the  Parsone's  Hauch,  alias  Rankynni's  Hauch,  jacentibus  prope 
Stobcross  ex  parte  occidentali  civitatis  Glasguensis,  infra  baroniam  et  regali- 
tatem  de  Glasgow: — E.  £,20 — pomario  ac  diversis  tenementis  cum  parvo 
horto  infra  territorium  dictae  civitatis,  E.  ;^8." 

The  thirteen  acres  of  the  Parson's  Croft  first  mentioned 
appear  to  have  been  acquired  by  the  Incorporation  of  Tailors  at 
a  later  time,  and  in  the  Glasgow  Mercury,  of  date  9th  March 
1780,  we  find  the  following  advertisement : — 

«'  Valuation  in  Lanarkshire." 

"The  Corporation  of  Tailors  in  Glasgow  have  about  ^120  valuation 
holding  of  the  Crown  in  the  county  of  Lanark  to  dispose  of. 

"For  particulars,  apply  to  Mr.  Robert  M'Callum,  deacon  ;  or  Claud 
Marshall,  writer  in  Glasgow." 


BREECHES  MAKER  TO  THE  PRINCE  OF  WALES.       17 

In  1857  the  Incorporation  of  Tailors,  besides  their  Gorbals 
lands,  valued  at  £SgS>  were  possessed  of  feu-duties  and  ground 
rents  to  the  extent  of  ^529  :  13s. 

The  Tailors  are  the  richest  of  the  fourteen  incorporated  crafts 
in  Glasgow,  their  stock  in  1857  amounting  to  ^57,961  118:3 
(Crawfurd's  Trades'  House,  page  164.)  The  greatest  part  of  this 
capital  has  arisen  from  their  lands  of  Parson's  Croft,  situated  at 
the  north-east  part  of  the  city.  The  principal  feuar  was  Mr.  Basil 
Ronald,  glover.  Mr.  Ronald  was  the  proprietor  of  the  estate  of 
Broomloan,  near  Govan,  which  he  sold,  and  invested  the  proceeds 
of  it  in  feuing  and  improving  a  large  part  of  the  lands  of  Parson's 
Croft.  It  however  turned  out  an  unfortunate  speculation  for  Mr. 
Ronald,  as  the  rage  for  feuing  building  grounds  about  Glasgow 
came  to  be  directed  almost  entirely  towards  the  west  part  of  the 
city,  so  that  Parson's  Croft  lands  lay  long  neglected,  or  nearly  so. 
Mr.  Basil  Ronald  was  bailie  of  Glasgow  in  1805-6,  and  Convener 
of  the  Trades  in  1811-12.  When  in  London  about  the  end  of 
last  century  Mr.  Ronald  had  the  honour  of  personally  taking  the 
measure  of  the  Prince  of  Wales  ^  (afterwards  George  IV.)  for 
a  pair  of  buckskin  breeches,  and  on  this  occasion  he  obtained  the 
privilege  from  his  Royal  Highness  of  being  appointed  "Breeches 
Maker  to  his  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  of  Wales."  This  title 
he  got  conspicuously  painted  in  front  of  his  premises  in  the  Tron- 
gate,  and  for  his  sign  he  hung  up  above  his  shop  door  a  veritable 
and  true  pair  of  buckskin  breeches,  surmounted  by  the  Prince  of 
Wales's  armorial  bearings,  and  by  his  Royal  Highness's  crest  of  three 
ostrich  feathers.  Amongst  others  I  had  the  pleasure  of  getting  a 
pair  of  buckskin  breeches  made  by  the  Prince  of  Wales's  breeches- 
maker,  which  fitted  me  to  a  "hair" — i.e.  to  the  forty-eighth  part  of 
an  inch.  Mr.  Ronald  was  a  member  of  the  Royal  Glasgow  Volun- 
teer Light  Horse,  and  was  a  man  of  high  spirit,  for  having  received 
what  he  considered  a  gross  affront  from  Provost  James  M'Dowall, 
he  immediately  made  his  will,  posted  up  his  books,  and  then 
sent  a  challenge  to  Provost  M'Dowall.     The  provost  having  been 

^  The  Prince  of  Wales  was  excessively  fond  of  finery. — Mercury,  27th  April,  1790. 
— "The  Prince  of  Wales  has  a  superb  brilliant  epaulet  now  forming  at  Jeffries,  valued  at 
;^20,ooo.      The  loop-stone  is  estimated  at  5000  guineas." 

VOL.  III.  C 


1 8  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

accustomed  to  associate  much  with  mihtary  gentlemen  was  at  a 
loss  what  to  do,  as  the  matter  in  any  point  of  view  was  a  serious 
one  for  him  ;  he  therefore  consulted  some  of  his  friends,  who 
having  met  with  the  friends  of  Mr.  Ronald,  these  gentlemen 
interfered,  and  after  having  investigated  the  matter,  they  de- 
clared their  opinion  that  the  provost  had  been  in  the  wrong,  and 
accordingly  recommended  him  to  make  an  apology  to  Mr.  Ronald, 
which  having  been  done  to  Mr.  Ronald's  satisfaction,  the  matter 
ended  into. 

The  business  of  a  glover  at  this  time  in  Glasgow  was  a  more 
lucrative  one  than  it  is  at  present,  for  besides  the  manufacture  of 
buckskin  and  doeskin  breeches  and  pantaloons,  there  was  the 
fashion  at  that  time  of  making  presents  of  white  kid  gloves  to  all 
the  members  of  a  family  to  whom  the  notification  of  a  marriage 
had  been  given  ;  and  it  was  quite  understood  by  the  receivers 
that  the  glover  who  furnished  the  articles  exchanged  any  of 
them  if  they  did  not  fit.  Some  of  the  richer  citizens  also  at 
family  funerals  laid  down  on  a  table  in  the  lobby  of  the  house 
where  funeral  service  took  place  a  lot  of  black  mourning  gloves 
for  the  selection  of  those  who  came  to  the  funeral. 

The  following  notice  is  a  curious  instance  of  the  practice  of 
making  presents  in  olden  time  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  31st  October  1758. — "The  partners  of  the  old  and 
new  silk  shops,  here,  having  been  in  use  for  some  time  past  of  giving  '  com- 
plitne7its '  of  silk  shoes  to  their  customers,  find  it  a  very  great  expense  upon 
them,  and  now  the  advance  in  the  price  of  articles,  together  with  the  extraordi- 
nary charge  of  land  carriage,  put  it  out  of  their  power  any  longer  to  continue 
the  same  :  they  therefore  take  this  method  of  making  intimation  to  their 
customers  of  this  their  resolution  to  prevent  future  *  solicitations^  " 

From  the  concluding  passage  of  the  above  notice  it  appears 
that  the  ladies  of  Glasgow  at  this  time  were  in  the  practice  of 
"  soliciting "  a  yearly  present  of  a  pair  of  silk  shoes  from  their 
silk  mercers,  nearly  as  a  matter  of  right.  Johnson  says  that 
"  compliment "  means  something  less  than  it  declares  ;  but  the 
ladies  then  considered  it  to  mean  something  ino7'e  than  it  declared. 

The  Bells  appear  to  have  acquired  the  Cowcaddens  shortly 


THE  BELLS  OF  COWCADDENS.  19 

before  the  year  1692.     Patrick  Bell  was  bailie  in  1676,  and  John 
Bell,  provost,  in  1674-5-8-9,  1 680-1. 

17th  November  1697.  — "  Patricius  Bell,  haeres  Magistrii  Patricii  Bell, 
mercatoris,  nuper  unius  Ballivorum  burgi  de  Glasgow  patris,  in  6  solidatis 
8  denariatis  terris  antiqui  extensus  de  litle  Cowcaddens,  infra  Baroniam  et 
Regalitatem  de  Glasgow,  E.  6.s,  8.d.,  &c.  Feudifirmae  et  i6.d.  in  augmenta- 
tionem.  xlvi.  905." 

Glasgow  Journal,  5th  June  1777.  —  "Notice. — These  eleven  acres  of 
ground,  or  thereby,  belonging  to  the  City,  lying  on  the  east  side  of  the  road 
belonging  to  Mr.  Peter  Bell,  of  Cowcaddens,  leading  from  the  road  to  Wishat's 
House,  to  Bell's  Haugh,  is  to  be  set  on  tack  for  19  years,  by  public  roup, 
within  the  Clerk's  Chamber,  on  the  nth  day  of  June,  current.  The  pur- 
chaser's entry  to  commence  immediately  after  the  roup,  and  the  articles  of  the 
roup  to  be  seen  in  the  hands  of  the  Town  Clerks.  N.B. — Some  dung  belong- 
ing to  the  City,  lying  near  to  the  place  where  the  Gallowgate  Toll  Bar  lately 
stood,  is  to  be  sold  by  roup,  at  the  above  time  and  place." 

The  city,  therefore,  appears  at  this  time  to  have  had  a  public 
depot  for  dung  in  the  Gallowgate. 

It  has  already  been  stated  that  John  Orr  sen.  purchased 
Stobcross  in  1735,  which  estate  having  descended  to  his  son 
William,  appears  to  have  been  bequeathed, /r^  indiviso,  between 
the  sons  of  the  said  William,  viz.  John  Orr,  Town -Clerk,  and 
Matthew  Orr,  coal-master.  John  Orr  sen.  died  in  1744,  and  his 
son  William  in  1755.  "Died  at  Barrowfield,  near  Glasgow, 
William  Orr  of  Barrowfield,  Esq.,  4th  May,  1755"  {Scots 
Magazine^  1 7  5  5  j  P^g^  210). 

The  affairs  of  John  and  Matthew  Orr,^  coal -masters,  having 
become  embarrassed,  were  placed  under  the  management  of 
Trustees,  who  in  1755  thus  advertised  the  lands  of  Stobcross 
for  sale : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  nth  May  1775. — "To  be  Sold — The  lands  of  Stob- 
cross, Cranstonhill,  and  Rankin's  Haugh,  situated  on  the  River  Clyde,  a 
mile  west  from  the  City  of  Glasgow.  The  clear  rent,  including  the  supe- 
riority of  the  villages  of  Anderston  and  Finnieston,  amounts  to  ^287  2s.  7id, 
besides  the  casualties  of  entry  from  the  heirs  and  singular  successors  "of 
Feuars.  These  lands  hold  of  the  crown,  and  are  valued  in  the  cess-books 
at  ;^2  5o  Scots." 

^  Matthew  Oit  died  at  Kings  Bay  Estate,  in  Tobago,  on  the  ist  of  August  1790. 


OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 


In    December    1776  John   and   Matthew  Orr,  having  got  a 
settlement  with  their  trustees,  advertised  as  follows  : — 

Glasgow  Journal^  3d  October  1776.  — «' To  be  Sold — The"  superiority, 
feu-duties  and  casualties  of  the  Estate  of  Stobcross,  in  the  Barony  Parish  of 
Glasgow,  and  shire  of  Lanark,  within  a  mile  west  from  Glasgow,  compre- 
hending the  villages  of  Anderston  and  Finnieston,  and  sundry  villas  and 
fields  adjacent.  The  lands  of  Stobcross,  which  are  holden  of  the  crown,  are 
valued  in  the  cess-roll  at  £1^0.  The  Feu-duties,  which  from  the  nature  of 
the  right,  are  perfectly  secure,  are  easily  collected,  the  vassals  not  being  num- 
erous, and  as  most  of  the  feu-rights  contain  prohibition  to  sub-feu  or  dispose 
to  be  holden  of  the  vassals,  or  to  allow  the  lands  to  be  in  non-entry,  under  an 
irritancy,  so  the  casualties  (which  are  doubling  the  feu-duties  at  the  entry  of 
heirs,  and  in  part  of  the  feu -rights  doubling  the  feu-duty,  in  others,  tripHng 
it,  and  in  some  paying  a  year's  rent  at  the  entry  of  singular  successors)  will 
be  regularly  paid. 

"  Yearly  Feu  Duties, 


Hugh  Niven  pays  yearly 

.       ^23 

8 

5 

William  Baird's  heirs 

24 

6 

4i 

James  Young 

15 

13 

\\ 

Matthew  Crawford 

12 

4 

5 

Andrew  Cochrane 

12 

0 

0 

Ninian  Glen  and  others 

10 

0 

0 

John  Smith  . 

8 

0 

1\ 

William  Robertson     . 

10 

0 

John  Neilson 

5 

7h 

John  Johnston 

I 

i-| 

Adam  Thomson 

10 

0 

John  Govan . 

15 

James  Miller 

9 

Mrs.  Woodrow's  heirs 

2 

2A 

David  Watson 

0 

0 

And   seventeen    other   Feuars  whose 

yearly   Feu- 

duties  are  . 

6 

5 

sh 

Together  amounting  to 

.    ^T35 

12 

H 

"And  this  ^135  12s  8|d,  is  clear  rent,  the  proprietor  of  the  Mansion 
House  and  property  lands  being  burdened  with  the  feu  and  teind  duties  and 
public  burdens.  The  feu- duties  and  casualties  will  be  sold  off  in  lots  before 
the  day  of  the  roup,  if  purchasers  offer,  and  if  any  of  the  feuars  incline  their 
own  feu -duties,  the  superior  will  be  ready  to  treat  with  them  on  reasonable 
terms.  The  progress  of  writs,  with  duplicates  of  the  original  Feu  Contract, 
and  other  articles  of  roup,  will  be  seen  in  custody  of  Thomas  and  Archibald 
Grahame,  writers,  in  Glasgow,  to  whom  any  willing  to  treat  for  whole  or  part 
may  apply." 


THE  ORRS  OF  BARROWFIELD.  21 

Glasgow  Journal,  8th  August  1757. — "To  be  set  in  tack  for  a  term  of 
years  as  can  be  agreed  upon,  the  Inn  or  PubHc  House  at  the  White  Hart,  in 
Gallowgate,  Glasgow  ;  with  BowHng  Green,  and  Garden,  and  whole  Offices 
belonging  thereto,  as  presently  possessed  by  James  Buchanan,  Vintner.  Entry 
thereto  at  Whitsunday  next ;  these  to  be  set  jointly  or  separately. 

"Also,  the  House  of  Barrowfield,  and  Offices,  with  or  without  the  Garden, 
and  with  or  without  a  Park  of  four  acres,  arable,  besides  the  grass  of  the 
avenues. 

"Apply  to  the  Lady  Barrowfield,  at  Barrowfield,  or  to  Robert  Barclay, 
writer,  in  Glasgow." 

This  lady  was  the  grandmother  of  John  Orr,  Town-Clerk, 
and  belonged  to  the  Stewart  family  of  Castlemilk.  I  think  that 
she  was  the  sister  of  Sir  Archibald  Stewart  of  Castlemilk,  and 
of  the  barony  of  Gourock,  who  died  in  1763,  and  hence,  from 
courtesy,  she  came  to  be  called  Lady  Barrowfield. 

Glasgow  Journal,  ist  July  1794. — "On  Saturday  last,  (28th  June)  died 
at  Jordanhill,  in  the  88th  year  of  her  age,  Mrs.  Margaret  Stewart.  This 
lady  was  first  married  to  Mr.  Peter  Murdoch,  Jr.,  merchant  in  Glasgow,  and 
after  his  death,  to  John  Orr,  Esq.,  of  Barrowfield." 

It  is  singular  enough  that  Peter  Murdoch,  merchant,  and 
John  Orr  of  Barrowfield,  were  joint  bailies  of  Glasgow  in  17 19, 
when  their  future  wife  was  just  commencing  her  teens. 

"  Mr.  William  Orr  [son  of  the  above-mentioned  Margaret  Stewart]  had  two 
sons,  John  and  Matthew,  and  four  daughters,  Esther,  Helen,  Martha,  and 
Janet ;  all  were  unmarried,  except  the  last,  who  became  the  wife  of  Mr. 
Kennedy  of  Auchtyfardle.  Mr.  Gilbert  Kennedy,  who  died  4th  January  1855, 
was  the  son  of  this  marriage,  with  whom  the  Hne  of  this  old  Glasgow  family 
of  Orr  became  extinct.  The  first  John  Orr,  and  all  his  descendants,  are 
interred  in  the  crypt  of  the  Glasgow  Cathedral." — {Glasgow,  Past  and  Present, 
vol.  ii.  p.  ^zi,  Jootnote,  by  J.  B.) 

Mr.  Kennedy  of  Auchtyfardle  was  an  advocate  in  Edinburgh, 
and  was  twice  married,  as  follows  : — 

Scots  Magazine,  1771. — "  May  ist.      Married  at  Glasgow, Kennedy, 

Esq.  of  Auchterfardle,  to  Miss  Peggy  Craig,  daughter  of  Dr.  Andrew  Craig, 
Physician  in  that  City."     (Her  uncle  was  Lord  Craig,  of  the  Court  of  Session.) 


2  2  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

A  daughter  of  this  marriage  married  Mr.  Archibald  Bogle, 
who  left  issue,  some  of  whom,  I  believe,  took  the  name  of  Kennedy 
Bogle. 

Weekly  Magazine,  iT]2>- — "  M^h  August.  Married  at  Edinburgh,  James 
Kennedy  of  Auchtefardle,  Esq.,  to  Miss  Jessy  Orr,  sister  of  John  Orr,  Esq. 
of  Barrowfield."  And  on  the  same  day,  14th  August  1773. — "Married  at 
Glasgow,  Thomas  Donald  of  Geilston,  Esq.,  to  Miss  Jeany  Dunlop,  eldest 
daughter  of  Colin  Dunlop  of  Carmyle,  Esq."  (Issue  from  this  marriage  was 
C.  D.  Donald,  Esq.) 

Mr.  James  Kennedy,  unfortunately,  was  a  partner  in  the  Ayr 
Bank  (a  concern  nearly  as  ruinous  to  its  shareholders  as  the 
Western  Bank  was  in  later  times),  in  consequence  of  which  he 
was  obliged  to  sell  his  estate  of  Auchtyfardle,  which  estate  was 
purchased  by  Mr.  Mosman. 

The  Ayr  Bank  commenced  business  in  1774,  and  in  the 
short  space  of  two  years — viz.  in  1776 — its  partners  had  not 
only  lost  their  whole  capital,  but  also  had  incurred  debts  to  nearly 
a  like  extent. 

The  history  of  the  marriage  of  John  Orr  of  Barrowfield,  late 
Town-Clerk  of  Glasgow,  is  rather  romantic,  and  I  believe  that  it  is 
little  known  to  the  present  generation  of  our  citizens,  the  circum- 
stance having  taken  place  more  than  fourscore  years  and  ten  ago, 
when  Mr.  Orr  was  quite  a  young  man.     It  happened  thus  : — 

There  was  a  very  handsome  and  well-educated  young  lady  at 
that  time  in  Glasgow,  who  was  the  bosom  friend  and  intimate 
companion  of  Mr.  Orr's  sisters,  Esther,  Helen,  Martha,  and  Janet, 
and  was  frequently  invited  by  those  ladies  to  pay  them  family 
visits,  during  the  course  of  which  Mr.  Orr  fell  deeply  in  love,  and 
came  under  an  obligation  to  marry  her  ;  but  the  transaction,  in  the 
meantime,  was  to  be  kept  secret.  So  matters  stood  for  some  time  ; 
but  a  lengthened  correspondence  by  letters  took  place  between  the 
parties  ;  Mr.  Orr,  however,  having  changed  his  mind,  slackened 
in  his  addresses,  and  delayed  in  performing  his  obligation,  which 
ended  in  his  endeavouring  to  get  quit  of  it  altogether,  by  denying 
its  validity. 

In  those  trying  circumstances  the  poor  young  lady,  as  might 
have  been  expected,  was  distressed  beyond  measure,  and  totally 


MARRIAGE  OF  JOHN  ORR.  23 

at  a  loss  what  to  do.  Being  of  a  mild  and  gentle  disposition,  she 
hesitated  to  take  any  legal  steps  against  Mr.  Orr  ;  knowing  his 
energy  of  character  and  influence  in  society,  she  doubted  of  being 
able  to  obtain  redress  by  applying  to  a  court  of  law.  Here,  how- 
ever, fortunately  for  herself,  she  met  with  a  warm  and  devoted 
friend  in  Mr.  Thomas  Buchanan  of  Ardoch,  a  gentleman  as 
energetic  and  as  influential  in  society  as  Mr.  Orr  himself  Mr. 
Buchanan  took  the  greatest  interest  in  the  young  lady's  case,  as 
much  so  as  if  he  himself  had  been  interested  in  the  issue  ;  and  he 
strongly  advised  this  lady  to  commence  an  action  of  declarator  of 
marriage  against  Mr.  Orr.  She  accordingly  put  herself  entirely  in 
the  hands  of  Mr.  Buchanan,  who  thereon  immediately,  on  the  part 
of  the  young  lady,  raised  an  action  of  declarator  before  the  Court 
of  Session,  which  action  was  strenuously  opposed  by  Mr.  Orr. 
The  action  had  proceeded  some  length,  with  the  usual  delays  of 
the  law,  when  Mr.  Buchanan  one  day  happened  to  ask  the  young 
lady  to  show  him  the  wJwle  of  the  letters,  without  exception,  which 
she  had  received  from  Mr.  Orr  during  the  time  of  their  corre- 
spondence. This  at  first  she  expressed  her  unwillingness  to  do, 
as  it  hurt  her  feelings  to  show  some  of  those  letters  to  a  third 
party ;  she,  however,  consented  to  Mr.  Buchanan's  request,  and 
placed  in  his  hands  th^  entire  correspondence  which  had  taken 
place  between  Mr.  Orr  and  herself 

Mr.  Buchanan  having  scanned  over  a  great  file  of  correspond- 
ence to  no  suitable  purpose,  at  length  hit  upon  a  letter  from  Mr. 
Orr  to  the  lady,  in  which  he  concluded  by  signing  himself,  "  Your 
affectionate  husband,  John  Orr."  No  sooner  did  Mr.  Buchanan 
see  this  signature  than  he  quickly  thrust  the  letter  into  his  pocket, 
exultingly  exclaiming,  "  This  will  do — this  will  do;"  and  so  in  fact 
it  did  ;  for,  on  its  production  in  Court,  their  lordships  found  John 
Orr  and  the  young  lady  to  be  lawfully  married  persons. 

Mr.  Orr  did  not  appeal  to  the  House  of  Lords  against  the 
judgment  of  the  Court  of  Session  ;  but,  being  greatly  chagrined 
and  disappointed  at  this  forced  marriage,  he  obstinately  refused  to 
cohabit  with  his  wife  or  to  have  any  intercourse  whatever  with  her, 
so  that  Mrs.  Orr  remained  a  number  of  years  a  sort  of  forlorn 
widow  ;  she,  however,  conducted  herself  towards  Mr.  Orr  in  those 


24  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

trying  circumstances  with  such  prudence  and  propriety  as  to 
command  the  sympathy  and  regard  of  all  classes  in  Glasgow. 

A  considerable  number  of  years  having  elapsed  without  Mr. 
Orr  having  paid  any  attention  to  his  wife,  but,  on  the  contrary, 
having  wilfully  neglected  her,  she,  by  the  advice  of  her  friends 
raised  an  action  of  divorce  in  the  Court  of  Session  against  Mr.  Orr 
for  wilful  desertion.  Mr.  Orr  made  little  opposition  to  this  action, 
except  such  as  the  forms  of  Court  required,  for  he  was  as  anxious 
to  obtain  a  divorce  as  Mrs.  Orr  herself,  in  consequence  of  which 
Mrs.  Orr  readily  succeeded  in  divorcing  Mr.  John  Orr,  who  never 
afterwards  married.  By  statute  1573,  c.  55,  it  is  enacted  that 
where  any  of  the  spouses  shall  divert  from  the  other  without 
sufficient  grounds  for  four  years,  the  party  injured  may  sue  for  a 
divorce.  Mrs.  Orr  was  married  a  second  time,  and  lived  happily, 
greatly  regarded.  She  died  on  the  7th  of  April  1790  ;  Mr.  Orr 
died  on  the  i6th  of  December  1803,  and  Mr.  Thomas  Buchanan 
on  the  loth  of  December  1789. 

Although  Mr.  Orr's  conduct  towards  this  lady  cannot  be 
justified,  nevertheless  it  ought  to  be  kept  in  view  that  he  was  then 
a  young,  thoughtless  man,  whose  companions  were  all  dashing 
country  gentlemen,  horse  racers  and  fox  hunters,  who  were  not 
very  rigid  as  to  morals.  Mr.  Orr's  future  conduct,  however,  was 
such  as  to  command  the  highest  respect  from  all  classes  in  Glas- 
gow as  a  gentleman  of  strict  honour  and  integrity,  discharging  all 
his  duties,  public  and  private,  without  reproach. 

In  1794  Mr.  Orr  was  elected  captain -commandant  of  the 
Glasgow  Volunteer  Light  Horse  by  the  votes  of  the  troop,  on 
which  occasion  I  had  the  pleasure  of  giving  him  my  vote,  and  can 
vouch  for  his  general  affability  and  gentlemanly  manners  during 
the  time  that  he  was  our  captain-commandant.  He  was  a  first- 
rate  horseman  in  his  early  days  ;  but  in  1794  the  gout  prevented 
his  being  very  agile  at  a  rapid  charge  of  the  troop,  or  at  the 
Austrian  sword  exercise. 

On  the  20th  of  June  1781  Mr.  Orr  was  elected  by  the 
Magistrates  and  Town  Council  of  Glasgow  one  of  the  clerks  of 
the  city,  in  place  of  Archibald  M'Gilchrist,  deceased,  being  at  that 
time  an  advocate  at  the  Bar  in  Edinburgh. 


TOAST-DRINKING  ANECDOTE.  25 

In  1804  a  monument  was  erected  at  the  public  expense  in 
the  choir  of  the  Cathedral  to  the;  memory  of  John  Orr,  advocate, 
and  Town -Clerk  of  Glasgow,  on  which  there  is  the  following 
inscription  : — 

"  This  Monument, 

Erected 

By  the  Lord  Provost,  Magistrates,  and  Council, 

In  Honour  of  the  Memory  of 

JOHN    ORR,   OF   Barrowfield, 

Advocate, 

Principal  Town-Clerk  of  Clasgow, 

Records 

The  Sense  Entertained  by 

A  Grateful  Community, 

Of  the  Zeal,  Talents,  and  Integrity 

Displayed  by  him,  during  a  period  of  22  years, 

In  discharging  the  various  duties  of 

A  most  important  Office. 

Died  the  i6th  December,  MDCCClll,  Aged  58  years." 

The  following  gossiping  little  anecdote  is  perhaps  somewhat 
out  of  place  ;  nevertheless,  as  characteristic  of  the  merry  mode 
of  conducting  dinner-parties  in  Glasgow  during  last  century,  its 
rehearsal  may  be  pardoned. 

Our  elderly  citizens  must  remember  that,  on  the  occasion  of  a 
dinner-party  being  given,  it  was  customary,  immediately  after  the 
ladies  had  retired,  to  place  the  great  punch-bowl  upon  the  table, 
and  the  landlord  to  proceed  in  calling  for  a  round  of  toasts  of 
young  ladies. 

On  one  of  those  occasions  the  landlord  commenced  by  toast- 
ing, in  full  bumper,  "Miss  Esther  Orr,"  which  was  drunk  with 
applause. 

The  next  gentleman  being  called  for  his  toast,  gave  "  Miss 
Esther  Crawfurd,"  which  was  received  with  like  honour. 

The  third  gentleman  being  requested  to  name  a  lady  for  his 
toast,  gave  "  Miss  Esther  Gray,"  which  was  also  honoured  by  the 
usual  applause. 

It  now  came  to  the  turn  of  an  Irish  gentleman  to  give  a  lady 
for  his  toast  ;  but  he  not  being  acquainted  with  our  Glasgow 
customs,  on    being   called    to    name   a  lady,  thus  addressed  the 


26  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

landlord  : — "  Sir,  I  am  sorry  that  I  cannot  give  you  '  my  sister,' 
as  I  have  never  '  a  sister '  to  give  you  ;  but  I  will  give  you  *  my 
mother,'  "  which  toast  was  received  with  thunders  of  applause  and 
merriment.  Such  little  stories  in  olden  times  soon  passed  from 
mouth  to  mouth  through  the  whole  city,  then  a  small  place,  and 
formed  the  tittle-tattle  of  most  social  parties. 

From  this  digression  I  must  now  proceed  to  take  notice  of  the 
Low  Green  of  Glasgow  and  its  environs,  and  to  give  a  few  extracts 
from  various  writers  who  have  handed  down  to  us  sundry  scattered 
details  of  the  former  state  of  the  district  in  question. 

In  the  Origines  Parochiales,  page  15,  it  is  stated  that  the  first 
notice  we  have  of  the  "Common  Green"  was  in  the  year  1487, 
and  of  the  Gallowmuir  and  Barrowfield  in  i  529. — (Lib.  Coll.  N.D. 
200;  and  Reg.  Glasg.  500.) 

M'Ure,  in  his  history  of  Glasgow,  published  in  1736,  thus 
writes : — 

"  This  City  hath  acquired  three  parks,  one  lying  at  the  east  corner,  which 
is  inclosed  with  a  strong  wall,  and  which  now  belongs  to  the  merchants, 
commonly  called  the  '  Craig's  Park,'  nobly  beautified  with  a  stately  grove  of 
trees,  which  is  a  beautiful  view  to  all  resorting  to  the  High  Church  and  the 
burials  within  the  church-yard  thereof.  This  great  planting  was  set  by  order 
of  the  worthy  Adam  Montgomery,  merchant,  then  dean  of  gild."     (17 15-16.) 

"  The  second  park  is  commonly  called  the  '  New  Green,'  adorned  with 
pleasant  galleries  of  elm  trees,  and  situated  upon  the  south-east  corner  of  the 
City,  and  is  enclosed  with  a  stately  stone  wall  2500  ells  in  length,  and  fenced 
on  the  south  with  the  river  Clyde,  it  hath  all  the  summer  time  betwixt  two 
and  three  hundred  women  bleaching  of  linen  cloth  and  washing  linen  cloths  of 
all  sorts  in  the  river  Clyde,  and  in  the  midst  of  this  inclosure  there  is  an 
useful  well  for  cleansing  the  cloths  after  they  are  washed  in  the  river ;  likewise 
there  is  a  lodge  built  of  freestone  in  the  midst  of  it,  for  a  shelter  to  the  herd 
who  waits  upon  the  horse  and  cows  that  are  grazed  therein.  The  third 
inclosure  is  the  old  green  lying  closs  to  the  south-west  corner  of  the  City,  and 
is  much  less  than  any  of  the  other  two.  It  is  only  fenced  round  with  pali- 
sadoes,  and  no  stone  wall,  but  that  loss  is  made  up  by  one  hundred  and  fifty 
trees  growing  round  the  green  pretty  large.  Within  this  green  is  the  rope 
work,  which  keeps  constantly  about  twenty  men  at  work,  and  the  proprietors 
thereof  can  furnish  as  good  tarr'd  cable  ropes,  and  white  ropes  untarr'd,  as  any 
in  Britain.     On  the  west  end  of  this  green  is  the  Glass  Work." 

I  remember  the  three  parks  mentioned  by  M'Ure,  more  than 
fourscore  years  ago,  when  they  stood  in  pretty  much  the  same 


PROVOST  JAMES  M'KENZIE.  27 

state  as  described  by  that  historian.  Craig's  Park,  now  the 
Necropolis,  was  then  a  piece  of  bleak  hilly  ground,  on  which 
grew  a  clump  of  skranky  fir  trees.  This  park  could  not  with 
propriety  have  been  called  a  beautiful  stately  grove,  as  M'Ure 
calls  it,  but  the  view  from  it  was  certainly  very  grand.  Besides 
the  grounds  of  the  present  Necropolis,  "  Craig's  Parks  "  included 
all  the  Golf-Hill  lands;  both  of  these  appear  originally  to  have 
formed  part  of  the  Bishop's  Forest,  and  afterwards  of  the  great 
Eastern  Common,  where  the  golf  no  doubt  was  played,  long 
before  the  time  when  that  game  came  to  be  fashionable  last 
century  in  the  Green  of  Glasgow.  In  1758  the  Golf- Field 
lands,  then  belonging  to  the  Merchants'  House,  were  let  for  four 
pounds  sterling  of  annual  rent.  When  Provost  James  M'Kenzie 
purchased  the  Golf-Hill  property,  it  was  lying  quite  open  to  the 
public,  who  rambled  through  it  at  their  pleasure ;  but  Mr. 
M'Kenzie  put  a  stop  to  this  state  of  matters  by  erecting  fences, 
and  by  turning  off  his  grounds  all  persons  who  made  their  appear- 
ance thereon.  This  he  did  without  ceremony,  and  in  what  was 
then  considered  a  very  rough  and  rude  manner,  causing  much 
ill-\Vill  to  himself  He,  however,  had  previously  stuck  up  notices 
at  several  places  of  the  grounds  giving  intimation  that  trespassers 
on  them  would  be  prosecuted,  as  the  grounds  were  private  pro- 
perty. Provost  James  M'Kenzie  was  the  first  person  in  Glasgow 
who  openly  and  avowedly  changed  the  pronunciation  of  the  name 
of  "  M'Kenzie."  Provost  M'Kenzie  and  his  brothers,  Daniel  and 
Matthew,  and  his  sisters,  Jess  and  Mary,  were  known  in  Glasgow 
in  my  early  days  only  by  the  surname,  pronounced  "  M'Kingie," 
or  "  M'Keengie  ;"  indeed  the  whole  clan  were  so  named  at  that 
time.  As  English  pronunciation  gradually  came  to  be  fashionable 
in  Glasgow,  the  change  from  "  M'Kingie,"  or  "  M'Keengie,"  to 
"  M'Kenzie  "  soon  became  general.  The  above  M'Kenzie  family 
resided  in  the  corner  tenement  of  Bell  Street  and  Candleriggs, 
where  the  Herald  newspaper  was  afterwards  printed.  I  re- 
member about  eighty  years  ago  of  having  been  sent  a  message 
to  one  of  this  family,  and  checked  by  the  maid-servant  for  using 
the  name  "  M'Keengie,"  saying  that  she  supposed  I  meant 
"  M'Kenzie." 


2  8  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS, 

With  regard  to  the  second  park  mentioned  by  M'Ure,  it  is 
shown  on  the  plan  annexed  to  these  jottings ;  the  saw -mill, 
however,  did  not  exist  till  after  M'Ure's  time.  It  may  be  re- 
marked that  this  park  was  called  by  M'Ure  the  "  New  Green," 
from  which  it  may  be  inferred  that  the  great  Eastern  and  West- 
ern Commons  were  anterior  to  the  Low  Green  of  Glasgow  as 
commons.     Of  this  park  more  will  be  said  in  the  sequel. 

As  to  the  third  enclosure,  called  by  M'Ure  the  "Old  Green," 
I  remember  it  very  well  in  the  exact  state  as  described  by  our 
said  Glasgow  historian,  only  the  150  growing  trees  had  dis- 
appeared, and  the  space  on  which  they  flourished  was  purchased 
in  my  time  by  Mr.  Alexander  Oswald  of  Shieldhall,  the  father  of 
the  late  James  Oswald,  Esq.,  M.P.,  for  los.  per  square  yard; 
which  ground  he  held  for  many  years  till  he  got  a  profit  thereon. 
Mr.  Oswald  was  a  great  speculator,  and  generally  succeeded  in 
his  land  purchases,  as  he  was  a  stiff  holder ;  but  he  almost  always 
failed  in  his  produce  speculations,  as  his  system  of  steadily  holding 
out  for  a  rise  of  price  very  frequently  ended  in  a  heavy  loss.  He 
did  not  seem  disposed  to  adopt  the  plan  of  selling  quickly  on  the 
occasions  of  a  falling  market.  Mr.  Alexander  Oswald  jun., 
appears  in  the  books  of  the  Merchants'  House  to  have  become 
a  member  26th  January  1786,  as  the  son  of  the  Rev.  James 
Oswald,  Perthshire, 

The  Custom  House  in  Great  Clyde  Street  is  built  upon  the 
west  boundary  of  Mr.  Oswald's  purchase  in  the  old  Green. 

Richard  and  Alexander  Oswald,  the  early  members  of  the 
Glasgow  Oswald  family,  were  rather  remarkable  persons.  In 
1742  they  built  a  large  four-storey  tenement  and  offices,  also  an 
extensive  court  of  storehouses  and  cellars  shut  up  by  a  gate, 
having  stone  vaults  and  arched  premises  that  would  hold  upwards 
of  700  hogsheads  of  tobacco,  besides  brew -house,  shades,  and 
stabling,  all  entering  by  a  paved  cartway  from  the  street,  and  the 
whole  shut  up  with  an  outer  gate.  This  property  stood  on  the 
eastern  boundary  of  the  old  Green  of  Glasgow,  and  now  forms  the 
Ropework  Court,  108  Stockwell  Street.  In  the  year  1778  the 
above-mentioned  premises,  or  a  great  part  of  them,  were  occupied 
by  Gilbert  Hamilton  as  agent  for  the  Carron  Company, 


RICHARD  OSWALD. 


Glasgow  Mercury^  17th  September,  1778. 


29 


"  London  Porter 

of  the  best  quality,  either  for  home  sale  or  exportation 

in  hds.  or  in  bottles. 

Sold  by  Gilbert  Hamilton  and  Co.,  at  their  cellars,  in  Mr.  Oswald's  Close, 

Stockwell,  Glasgow. 

"  At  the  same  place  may  be  had  Bath-Stove  Grates  of  the  newest  patterns, 
and  of  all  sizes.     Likewise, 

Boilers,  Tea  Kettles, 

Bars  and  Bearers,  Tea  Boilers, 

Pots,  Sad  and  Box  irons, 

Pans,  Adjusted  Weights, 

Bushes,  Ship  Hearths, 

Girdles,  Cabin  Stoves, 

Cylinder  Ovens,  Wheels  and  Pinions, 

And  all  other  goods  manufactured  at  Carron. 

"  Also,  Oil  of  Vitrol  of  the  very  best  quality  from  the  works  of  Preston 
Pans." 

Mr.  Hamilton  afterwards  occupied  premises  now  the  south 
part  of  Exchange  Square,  where  he  acted  as  agent  for  the  Carron 
Company,  and  the  Bank  of  Scotland.  He  was  Dean  of  Guild  in 
1790-91,  and  Provost  of  Glasgow  in  1792-93. 

Glasgovj  Jottrnal,  19th  April  1756. — "They  write  from  London  that  Mr. 
Richard  Oswald,  merchant,  there,  is  appointed  Commissary  of  Provisions 
and  Stores  for  the  Camp  on  Burham  Downs,  consisting,  it  is  said,  of  25,000 
men." 

This  appointment  led  to  others  of  a  like  lucrative  character, 
and  ended  in  Mr.  Richard  Oswald  being  promoted  to  the  situa- 
tion of  head  commissary  to  the  English  Army  during  the  time 
when  Britain  was  engaged  in  war  with  France  and  Spain  in 
Europe,  and  Canada  in  America.  Mr.  Oswald's  contracts  for 
supplying  our  troops  with  necessaries  were  renewed  from  time  to 
time,  as  the  war  continued  ;  in  the  course  of  these  transactions 
Mr.  Oswald  acquired  an  immense  fortune.  Peace  was  concluded 
on  the  lOth  February  1763. 

In  1783,  the  country  having  become  tired  of  the  American 
War  of  Independence,  and  the  House  of  Commons  having  ex- 
pressed   a    strong  opinion    against    its    continuance,    Government 


30  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

employed  Mr.  Richard  Oswald  jun.  privately  to  negotiate  for  a 
peace,  for  it  was  not  the  wish  of  the  Ministry  to  appear  on  the 
stage  at  the  outset  of  these  negotiations.  The  preliminaries  of 
the  peace  of  1783,  therefore,  came  to  be  arranged  principally 
through  the  agency  of  Mr.  Richard  Oswald  jun.  About  the 
time  when  these  matters  were  going  on,  a  great  disaster  had 
taken  place  in  our  Scotch  mercantile  affairs  by  the  bankruptcy 
of  the  Ayr  Bank,  in  which  a  large  number  of  landed  proprietors 
in  Ayrshire  held  shares.  The  result  of  this  failure  brought  a 
great  many  estates  in  that  county  into  the  market,  and  Mr. 
Oswald,  taking  advantage  of  the  opportunity,  made  large  pur- 
chases of  lands  in  various  parts  of  Ayrshire,  amongst  which  was 
the  estate  of  Auchincruive.  It  was  reported  that  he  had  laid  out 
half  a  million  sterling  in  land  before  his  death,  which  brought 
him  in  a  rental  of  ;^20,ooo  per  annum. 

These  lands  came  by  inheritance  to  James  Oswald,  Esq.,  M.P., 
who  died  in  1853,  but  before  succeeding  to  them  Mr.  James 
Oswald  had,  unfortunately,  lost  his  all  by  an  unlucky  cotton 
speculation.  The  lands  in  question,  however,  being  strictly  en- 
tailed, still  remain  in  the  Oswald  family. 

Mr.  James  Oswald  opened  up  Maxwell  Street  to  Great  Clyde 
Street,  through  that  portion  of  the  old  Green  of  Glasgow  which 
had  been  purchased  by  his  father.  He  likewise  subscribed  ;^ioo 
towards  defraying  the  expense  of  widening  the  said  street  ten 
feet  on  the  north  part.  Before  this  time  Maxwell  Street  was  a 
narrow  lane,  shut  up  on  the  south  by  the  extensive  works  of 
Stephen  Maxwell,  coppersmith.  Owing  to  the  state  of  the 
different  properties  on  the  line  of  Maxwell  Street,  it  became 
necessary  to  give  the  street  a  slant  at  Howard  Street.  East 
Howard  Street  was  also  formed  by  the  energy  of  Mr.  Oswald,  the 
greatest  part  of  its  ground  (being  the  old  ropework  mentioned  by 
M'Ure)  then  belonging  to  Mr.  Oswald.  This  ropework  within 
my  memory  was  a  tiled  shed  extending  from  Ropework  Court  to 
the  corner  of  the  now  St.  Enoch  Square,  and  from  thence  con- 
tinued as  an  open  ropework  to  Jamaica  Street,  so  that  a  cable 
could  have  been  spun  there,  reaching  from  Stockwell  to  Jamaica 
Street. 


THE  OSWALDS.  31 

A  considerable  portion  of  the  front  line  of  East  Howard 
Street  belonged  to  the  city  of  Glasgow,  being  the  north  boundary 
of  the  Town's  Hospital  ;  and  here,  I  remember,  were  placed  the 
cells  for  lunatics,  having  small  iron-grated  windows  looking  into 
the  hospital  burying -ground.  These  cells  were  most  wretched 
holes,  on  the  ground-floor,  in  which  the  unhappy  sufferers  for  the 
most  part  had  to  sustain  the  additional  affliction  of  solitary  con- 
finement, and  the  violent  ones  to  pine  on  a  bed  of  straw.  Regard- 
ing the  change  which  has  taken  place  in  our  city  in  this  respect, 
we  have  only  to  cast  our  eyes  upon  the  splendid  establishment  at 
Gartnavel. 

The  property  next  to  the  Town's  Hospital  was  Bogle  and 
Scott's  timber-yard,  on  which  the  Roman  Catholic  Chapel  has 
been  built.  Howard  Street  was  so  named  by  Mr.  Oswald,  in 
honour  of  the  celebrated  philanthropist,  John  Howard. 

Glasgow  Journal^  27th  January  1763. — "On  Monday  last,  (24th)  Died 
at  Scotstown,  Alexander  Oswald,  Esq.,  a  gentleman  of  great  probity,  honour, 
and  knowledge  in  trade,  by  which  he  acquired  a  handsome  fortune.  For 
some  years  past  he  Hved  retired  from  public  business,  employing  himself 
in  acts  of  friendship,  generosity,  and  hospitality." 

Glasgow  Jotirnal,  14th  August  1766. — "On  Tuesday  last,  (12th  August), 
Died  at  Scotstown,  Richard  Oswald,  Esq.,  late  merchant  in  Glasgow," — 
{Old  Statistical  Accoiitit  of  Scotland^  vol.  20,  p.  533.) 

"Town  and  Parish  of  Thurso,  1798. 
"  The  Oswalds  of  Glasgow,  who  have  long  been  eminent  merchants, 
derived  their  origin  from  Thurso.  Their  ancestor  was  one  of  the  baihes  of 
Thurso,  in  the  last  century.  Richard  Oswald,  late  merchant  in  London,  and 
one  of  the  plenipotentiaries  from  the  court  of  Great  Britain,  at  settling  the 
peace  of  1783,  was,  in  his  younger  days,  an  unsuccessful  candidate  upon  a 
comparative  trial  for  the  office  of  Master  of  the  Parochial  School  of  Thurso, 
whereof  the  salary  was  ^100 — Scotch  (^8  6s  8d,)  and  took  his  disappointment 
so  much  to  heart  that  he  left  the  country,  and  never  more  returned  to  it.  But 
for  that  circumstance,  it  is  probable  he  would  have  lived  and  died  in  obscurity."  1 

Oswald  is  not  a  Glasgow  name  ;  we  look  in  vain  for  the  name 
in  the  pages  of  M'Ure,  and  other  early  Glasgow  historians,  or  in 
the  primitive  Annals  of  Cleland.  Even  in  the  present  Glasgow 
Directory  there  are  only  two  individuals  of  the  name  of  Oswald, 

^  I  think  this  anecdote  must  refer  to  Richard  Oswald  sen.,  who  died  in  1766. 


32  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

neither  of  whom  are  related  to  the  families  of  Scotstovvn  and 
Auchincruive. 

Glasgow  Journal,  iith  November  1784. — "On  the  5th  current,  died,  at 
the  House  of  Achincruive,  Richard  Oswald,  Esq." 

1 8th  November  1784. — "The  late  Richard  Oswald,  Esq.,  was  formerly 
an  eminent  merchant  in  London,  and  lately  employed  at  Paris  as  Minister 
Plenipotentiary  from  Great  Britain,  to  settle  a  treaty  of  peace  with  the  com- 
missioners of  the  United  States  of  America.  Perhaps  there  are  few  men 
whose  loss  will  be  more  generally  felt  or  more  sincerely  regretted  than  that  of 
Mr.  Oswald,  for  few  men  possessed  a  finer  understanding,  more  liberal  senti- 
ments, or  more  extensive  information.  Blessed  with  affluence,  his  principal 
study  seemed  to  be  to  employ  it  in  acts  of  kindness  and  generosity." 

From  Crawfurd's  Renfrewshire,  page  347,  we  learn — 

"That  Scotstown  was  purchased  in  the  year  1748  from  Mr.  Walkinshaw's 
creditors,  by  Messrs.  Richard  and  Alexander  Oswald,  brothers,  merchants  in 
Glasgow.  They  were  never  married,  but  conveyed  the  estate  of  Scotstown,  with 
their  contiguous  lands  of  Balshagrie,  to  George  Oswald,  merchant  in  Glasgow, 
eldest  son  of  their  cousin  the  Rev.  Dr.  James  Oswald,  late  minister  of  Methven, 
in  Perthshire,  whose  second  son,  Alexander  Oswald,  Esq.  of  Shieldhall,  died  in 
1 813,  and  his  brother,  Richard  Oswald,  Esq.  of  Auchincruive,  died  in  1784-" 
"  George  Oswald  succeeded  to  the  estate  of  Scotstown  in  1766.  He  married, 
in  1764,  Margaret  Smyth,  second  daughter  of  David  Smyth,  Esq.,  of  Methven. 
She  died  in  1792,  leaving  four  sons  and  seven  daughters." 

Glasgow  Journal,  26th  January  1764.  —  "Edinburgh,  i8th  January, 
1764. — Last  night  (Tuesday,  17th  January),  Mr.  George  Oswald,  merchant 
in  Glasgow,  was  married  here  to  Miss  Peggy  Smyth,  second  daughter  to 
David  Smyth,  of  Methven,  Esq." 

Of  this  marriage  there  remains  here  yet  alive  Miss  Oswald  of 
Scotstown,  who  was  born  on  the  6th  of  July  1767,  consequently  in 
the  ninety-seventh  year  of  her  age,  and  unquestionably  the  matron 
of  the  city.  Miss  Oswald  is  well  known  over  all  Glasgow  ;  and  it 
may  be  truly  said  of  her  what  was  said  of  the  founder  of  the  family, 
"  Blessed  with  affluence,  her  principal  study  seems  to  be  to  employ 
it  in  acts  of  kindness  and  generosity." 

Crawfurd,  in  his  Renfrewshire,  page  347,  says  that  Richard 
Alexander  Oswald  was  the  eldest  son  of  George  Oswald  of  Scots- 
town  ;  but  I  cannot  reconcile  this  with  an  entry  in  the  books  of 
the  Merchants'  House,  viz. —  Merchant  House  Records,  18 14  — 
"  Richard  Alexander  Oswald,  son  of  Alexander  Oswald  of  Shield- 


THE  BOTTLEWORK,  ROPEWORK,  ETC.  33 

hall,  entered  the  Merchants'  House  on  the  26th  of  August, 
1 8 14."  This  entry  must  have  been  made  by  Mr,  R.  A.  Oswald 
himself. 

Scots  Magazine,  1750,  page  549. — "The  Commission  of  General  Assembly, 
on  the  14th  of  November,  appointing  a  committee  of  their  own  number,  three 
of  whom  to  be  a  quorum,  to  admit  Mr.  James  Oswald  to  be  minister  of 
Dunnet,  to  the  ministry  at  Methven,  on  the  12th  of  December,  or  if  hindered 
by  the  rigour  of  the  season,  on  any  other  day  the  committee  shall  appoint, 
before  the  Commissioners'  meeting  in  March  next  :  and  nominate  Mr. 
Alexander  M'Laggan,  moderator.  As  the  Presbytery  of  Perth  had  been 
ordained  by  the  last  Assembly  to  admit  Mr.  Oswald  on  or  before  the  loth 
of  July  last,  the  Commission  issued  a  warrant  for  summoning  them  to  appear 
at  their  bar  in  March  next,  to  answer  for  their  disobedience."  (Page  590, 
Mr.  Oswald  was  admitted  12th  December,  1750,  without  opposition.) 

N.B. — James  Oswald,  Esq.,  M.P.,  was  named  "  James  "  after 
his  grandfather,  the  Rev.  James  Oswald. 

Before  the  Bottlework  at  the  Broomielaw  was  built  in  1730 
the  ground  on  which  it  was  erected  formed  part  of  the  old  Green, 
which  Green  included  at  that  time  the  whole  of  St.  Enoch  Square 
and  Jamaica  Street.  We  find  by  the  following  notice  that  in 
1766,  being  two  years  before  the  Broomielaw  Bridge  was  built, 
there  had  been  a  ropework  in  Argyll  Street  and  Anderston  Walk, 
at  the  head  of  Jamaica  Street. 

Glasgow  Journal,  12th  June  1766. — "This  is  to  give  notice,  that  whoso- 
ever has  got  ropes  or  twine  from  Adam  Paterson,  ropemaker,  at  the  head  of 
Jamaica  Street,  Glasgow,  from  and  after  the  first  of  May,  1765,  and  which 
may  be  unpaid,  are  hereby  desired  not  to  pay  the  price  thereof  to  the  said 
Adam  Paterson,  as  he  has  no  right  thereto.  And  whoever  has  got  ropes  or 
twine  from  the  said  Adam  Paterson,  and  is  owing  money  for  them  since  the 
time  above  mentioned,  are  desired,  as  soon  as  convenient,  to  pay  the  same  to 
James  Graham  at  the  said  ropework." 

The  above  appears  to  have  been  an  open  ropework,  extend- 
ing from  Jamaica  Street  westwards  upon  the  Anderston  Road, 
opposite  Grahamstone,  and  to  have  been  taken  possession  of  by 
the  Dumbarton  Road  Trustees  shortly  before  the  foregoing  date. 

Glasgow  Journal,  19th  July  1764. — "The  Trustees  appointed  by  Act  of 
Parliament,  on  the  toll  roads  betwixt  Glasgow  and  Dumbarton,  having  of  late, 
at  a  great  expense,  caused  make  a  path  for  persons  travelling  on  foot,  to  and 
VOL.  III.  D 


34  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

from  Anderston  and  Grahamstone,  and  for  preventing  horses  and  carriages 
going  thereon,  have  erected  cross-bars  at  proper  distances  ;  some  mahcious 
and  ill-disposed  persons  have  broken  down  some  of  those  cross-bars ;  and 
within  these  eight  days  past  have  also  broke  down  sundry  gates  of  the  fences 
about  Anderston,  particularly  of  those  possessed  by  the  proprietors  of  the 
brewerie  and  delphhouse,  Hugh  Niven,  John  Brown,  and  James  Graham. 
Whoever  shall  discover  the  perpetrators,  so  as  they  may  be  convicted  of  all 
or  any  of  the  forenamed  crimes,  shall  receive  ten  pounds  sterling  of  reward 
from  the  Trustees.  And  the  Trustees  hereby  discharge  all  persons  whatever 
from  travelling  on  the  said  footpath,  with  horses,  or  any  manner  of  carriages 
for  the  future,  with  certification  to  the  contraveners  that  they  will  be  prosecuted 
therefor  in  terms  of  law.  Proper  persons  are  appointed  by  the  Trustees  to 
notice  and  inform  of  such  as  offend  in  this  respect." 

The  proprietors  of  the  ground  on  the  south  side  of  Anderston 
Walk  at  this  time  appear  to  have  been  the  above  James  Graham, 
owner  of  the  ropework,  Matthew  Reid,  Hugh  Niven  for  the  Delft- 
house  Company,  Bailie  John  Brown  for  Brown,  Carrick,  and 
Company's  Bleachfield,  and  the  Anderston  Brewery  Company. 
I  remember  the  cross-bars  standing  upon  the  footpath  of  the 
Anderston  Walk.  They  were  constructed  so  as  to  admit  a  free 
passage  to  a  traveller  on  foot,  but  prevented  all  regular  or  con- 
tinuous intercourse  by  horses  or  carriages.  In  1756  there  seems 
to  have  been  a  toll-bar  at  Grahamstone. 

Glasgo%u  Journal,  29th  March  1756. — "By  order  of  the  Trustees,  there  is 
to  be  set  in  tack,  for  one  year,  by  public  roup,  the  tolls  of  the  bar  at  Grahamstone 
and  Broomielaw,  on  Dumbarton  Road,"  etc. 

Besides  the  Road  Trustees,  Mr.  James  Monteith  (father  of 
the  late  Henry  Monteith,  Esq.,  M.R)  seems  to  have  taken  a 
special  charge  of  the  Anderston  footpath,  as  the  following  extract 
from  the  Glasgozu  Jotirnal  shows  : — 

Glasgow,  1 6th  August  1781. — "  Gravel  walk  betwixt  Glasgow  and 
Anderston.  That  the  gravel  walk  betwixt  Glasgow  and  Anderston  is  to  be 
repaired  immediately.  Any  persons  willing  to  undertake  it  are  desired  to 
apply  to  James  Monteith,  manufacturer  in  Anderston,  who  will  show  the  plan, 
and  receive  estimates." 

The  value  of  ground  at  this  time  upon  the  line  of  the  Ander- 
ston Walk  may  be  seen  by  the  following  advertisement : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  24th  February  1785. — "To  be  sold,  by  public  roup, 


BROWNFIELD— BROOMIELAW  CROFT.  35 

etc.,  all  and  whole  that  piece  of  garden  ground,  in  Broomielaw  Croft,  consist- 
ing of  three  acres  and  a  half,  or  thereby,  lying  immediately  to  the  east  of  the 
Delft-house  grounds,  and  presently  possessed  by  John  M'Aulay,  gardener. 

'*  For  the  encouragement  of  bidders,  this  piece  of  ground  will  be  exposed 
at  the  upset  price  of  ^{^400  sterling." 

Here  there  is  nothing  said  about  square  yards,  or  the  one  half 
of  the  street  to  be  included  in  the  measurement  ;  but  half  acres, 
or  thereby,  are  set  forth  in  a  fine  slumpy  manner. 

In  1775  the  greatest  part  of  Jamaica  Street  on  the  west  was 
waste  ground,  on  which  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  had  erected  a 
depot  for  dung. 

"Brown's,  Glasgow,  113 — Brownfield,  a  part  of  the  Broomielaw  Croft  in 
the  burgh  roods  of  Glasgow,  consisting  of  not  more  than  ten  acres,  was  feued 
off  in  1791,  at  a  ground  annual  amounting  to  upwards  of  ;!{^30o  per  annum. 
About  1766,  this  plot  of  ground  was  feued  from  the  College  of  Glasgow  by 
Brown,  Carrick,  and  Co.,  and  was  used  by  them  as  a  bleachfield." 

Glasgow  Journal,  20th  April  1775. — "The  grass  for  this  season  of  the 
plot  of  ground  on  this  north  side  of  the  new  breast,  as  railed  in,  to  be  set  for 
a  cutting  only  this  season.  Also  the  dung  on  the  west  side  of  Jamaica  Street. 
Likewise  the  grass  of  the  old  Green,  adjoining  the  ropework ;  the  square 
thereof  from  Mr.  Bogle's  (timber-yard)  to  the  glasswork  dyke  only,  being 
upwards  of  two  acres,  are  to  be  let  for  three  years." 

The  two  acres  last  mentioned  were  purchased  afterwards  by 
Mr.  Alexander  Oswald,  as  before  stated,  and  descended  to  his  son, 
James  Oswald,  M.P.,  who  opened  Maxwell  Street  through  them. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  loth  April  1777. — "Notice,  That  the  Magistrates  of 
and  Council  of  Glasgow  have  resolved  to  sell  the  ground  for  building  on  the 
old  Green  of  Glasgow,  St.  Enoch's  Square,  on  the  west  of  Jamaica  Street, 
fronting  to  Argyll  Street,  and  the  steadings  on  the  east  and  west  sides  of 
Jamaica  Street.  Any  person  inclining  to  purchase  may  apply  to  the  town 
clerks  of  Glasgow." 

Mercury,  13th  March  1777. — "  Notice. — The  Cowcaddens  Hill  Park,  and 
the  three  acres  of  the  Laigh  Cowcaddens  Park,  will  be  rouped  for  a  19  year 
tack." 

Glasgow  Journal,  3d  April  1777. — '<  A  new  street  to  be  opened. — To  be 
sold  in  lots,  for  the  purpose  of  building  upon.  That  park  or  inclosure  in  the 
Broomielaw  Croft,  fronting  the  lower  Quay  at  the  Broomielaw.  In  this  in- 
closure there  is  to  be  laid  open  a  street  70  feet  wide,  leading  from  the 
Anderston  Road  to  the  river  Clyde,  parallel  with  Jamaica  Street.  Apply  to 
Mr.  William  Martine,  at  the  Delft-house." 

8th  August  1776. — "On  Tuesday,  a  fine  field  of  oats  was  cut  down  at 
St.  Enoch's  Croft,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  this  city." 


36  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Glasgow  Journal,  20th  February  1777. — "The  College  of  Glasgow  pro- 
pose to  sell  immediately  their  3^  acres,  more  or  less,  of  land,  lying  near  the 
Broomielaw.  Their  terms  are  £,x$  yearly  of  feu  duty  or  ground  annual  in 
the  option  of  the  College,  and  a  sum  of  money  in  cash.  Offers  will  be  received 
by  Principal  Leachman,  till  Monday,  the  3d  of  March  next,  and  the  highest 
offer  made  on  or  before  that  day  will  be  preferred  without  delay." 

On  these  lands  a  short  cross  street  has  been  formed  called 
College  Street,  which  runs  from  M'Alpine  Street  to  Brown  Street. 

It  appears  that  the  said  property  had  been  originally  a  gift  to 
a  monastic  establishment,  which  at  the  Reformation  was  bestowed 
by  the  Crown  upon  the  College  of  Glasgow.  The  College,  being 
exempted  from  the  payment  of  certain  local  taxes,  claimed  relief 
from  the  said  taxes  which  had  been  charged  upon  the  lands  in 
question,  alleging  that  as  these  lands  formed  a  part  of  the  College 
estates,  they  came  within  the  right  of  exemption  enjoyed  by  the 
College  itself.  This  claim,  however,  was  disputed,  and  failed  of 
success,  so  that  College  Street  lands  are  held  in  a  like  manner 
with  the  contiguous  properties. 

Glasgow  Journal^  2d  November  1775. — "  Notice. — The  inhabitants  of 
Finnieston  request  of  those  gentlemen  who  send  their  horses  to  the  fields  for 
exercise,  that  they  will  desire  their  servants  not  to  ride  through  the  village  in 
such  crowds,  and  at  such  speed,  as  has  been  done  for  some  time  past.  The 
bleachfields,  from  the  quantities  of  dust  dispersed  by  the  horses,  are  almost 
ruined,  and  the  lives  of  the  inhabitants,  from  the  number  and  fury  of  the 
riders,  have  been  often  in  danger.  They  request  also  that  no  person  after 
this  will  carry  away  sand  from  the  High  Street,  as  they  propose  at  their  own 
expense  to  form  that  street  in  such  a  manner  as  to  be  convenient  for  those 
who  have  occasion  necessarily  to  pass  along  it." 

Glasgow  Journal,  i8th  July  1776. — "To  be  sold  or  set  immediately. 
Three  acres  of  garden  ground  in  St.  Enoch's  Croft,  on  the  north  side  of 
Argyll  Street  of  Glasgow,  as  presently  possessed  by  John  Kennedy  and  John 
Colquhoun,  gardeners,  with  several  dwelling  houses  and  byres,  together  with 
the  growing  crop  of  garden  stuffs,  cattle,  and  fruits  on  the  premises.  The 
said  three  acres  are  lying  together  between  Queen  Street  and  Mr.  Andrew 
Buchanan's  lands,  running  straight  north  to  the  rising  grounds,  and  will  admit 
of  laying  out  an  elegant  square  or  street  thereon.  The  entry  from  Argyll 
Street  thereto  by  Bailie  King's,  now  Bailie  Buchanan's,  Close. — Apply  to 
John  Kennedy,  the  proprietor." 

These  lands  now  form  part  of  Buchanan  Street  on  the  west. 

Glasgow  Journal,  3d  April  1777. — "  A  street  to  be  opened  directly 
opposite  to  St.  Enoch's  Square." 


OLD  ADVERTISEMENTS.  37 

"  Andrew  Buchanan,  Esq,  merchant,  proposes  to  enlarge  his  entry  in 
Argyll  Street,  opposite  to  St.  Enoch's  Square,  to  40  feet,  free  of  every  incum- 
berance,  such  as  stairs,  or  other  projections.  This  entry  will  lead  into  a  street 
running  to  the  northward,  opening  equally  on  each  side,  so  as  to  make  a 
street  of  70  feet  in  breadth.  The  ground  abounds  in  fine  pit  water  in  digging 
I  o  or  12  feet.  Access  also  may  be  had  at  small  expense  to  good  running 
water,  (viz.,  St.  Enoch's  Burn).  It  is  proposed  that  purchasers  should  subject 
themselves  to  some  regulations  for  the  ornament  of  the  street.  For  sight  of 
the  ground  and  plan  of  the  street,  please  apply  to  the  proprietor." 

The  above  notice  accounts  for  the  narrow  entrance  to 
Buchanan  Street  from  Argyll  Street,  which  at  the  time  in  question 
was  a  narrow  close. 

Glasgow  Journal^  loth  October  1776. — "To  be  sold,  by  private  bargain, 
that  large  kiln  and  brewery  lying  on  the  north  side  of  Argyll  Street,  next  to 
St.  Enoch's  Burn.  It  will  make  a  fine  steading  of  houses,  being  84  feet  in 
front. — Apply  to  Alexander  Gordon,  the  proprietor."  {N.B. — Now  part  of 
Stewart  and  M 'Donald's  warehouse.) 

Glasgow  Journal,  28th  May  1759. — "  The  mansion  house  at  Hyde  Park, 
near  Anderston,  lately  built,  and  consisting  of  eight  fine  rooms,  kitchen,  and 
closets,  with  cellars,  offices,  houses,  barn,  a  large  beautiful  garden,  with  great 
variety  of  thriving  fruit  trees  of  the  best  kinds,  with  the  ground  above  the  said 
house,  and  park  immediately  below,  and  on  the  south  side  of  the  garden  and 
water  side,  grass  of  the  exact  breadth  of  the  said  park,  all  consisting  of  eight 
acres  of  land  or  thereby ;  as  also  the  tann  yard,  lofts,  cellars,  several  convenient 
dwelling  houses,  barn,  miln,  pump  well,  which  is  provided  with  good  water, 
and  ground  below,  or  on  the  south  side  of  tann  house,  and  underside  grass  of 
the  precise  breadth  of  the  last  grounds,  consisting  of  about  four  acres  of  land, 
are  jointly,  or  in  two  separate  lots,  to  be  sold  by  public  roup,  on  the  13th 
June,  1759. — Apply  to  John  Wardrop,  writer  in  Glasgow." 

Journal,  ist  August  1757. — "To  be  let,  or  sold,  by  way  of  public  roup, 
on  the  first  Wednesday  of  September  next,  within  the  house  of  Andrew 
Armour,  Vintner  in  Glasgow,  The  whole  houses  and  utensils  belonging  to  St. 
Enoch's  Factory  at  Grahamstone,  consisting  of  a  large  dwelling  house,  with 
office  houses,  and  working  shops,  A  large  garden,  stables,  and  houses, 
and  working  shops,  a  large  garden,  stables  and  other  conveniences,  with  a 
pump  well  in  the  court ;  large  entry  from  the  street  ;  the  working  shops, 
looms,  and  utensils,  to  be  entered  into  at  Martinmas  next,  and  the  dwelling 
house  and  garden,  at  Whitsunday  thereafter. — Apply  to  Ale.xander  Gordon,  the 
possessor." 

Mercury,  17th  August  1780. — "To  be  Sold,  or  let,  as  may  be  agreed 
upon,  that  large  and  commodious  brewerie,  at  Grahamstone,  which  consists  of 
steeps,  maltbarn,  kiln,  loft,  cellars,  vaults,  &c.,  sufficient  for  carrying  on  an 
extensive  business  in  brewing  strong  ale,  small  beer,  two  penny,  and  whisky, 


38  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

with  proper  utensils  for  the  same,  and  at  a  small  expense,  may  likewise  be 
rendered  fit  for  making  porter.  Also,  a  good  dwelling  house  contained  in  the 
same  square;  together  with  servants'  houses,  stable,  hay  loft,  &c.,  with  a 
large  garden  behind  the  brewerie,  and  an  excellent  well  in  the  close,  remarkable 
good  water  for  brewing.  Free  of  Multure  to  the  town  of  Glasgow,  and  all 
other  public  burthens  whatever,  excepting  a  feu  of  seven  pounds  sterling,  to 
Mr.  Graham  of  Dougalston. 

*'  For  particulars,  apply  to  Sir  John  Stewart  of  Castlemilk,  by  a  letter  put 
into  the  post  house  at  Glasgow." 

{N.B. — Grahamstone  was  named  for  John  Graham  of  Dougal- 
ston, who  died  in  1749.  Scots  Magazine,  i  ith  September  1749. 
— "  Died  at  his  country  seat,  John  Graham  of  Dougalston, 
Esquire.") 

Mercury,  19th  October  1780. — "To  be  exposed  to  sale  by  public  roup, 
&c.,  the  following  subjects  belonging  to  the  trustees,  for  the  creditors  of 
Messrs.  Buchanan,  Hastie,  and  Co.,  merchants  in  Glasgow,  and  the  partners 
of  that  company. 

"  1st,  That  shop  lying  on  the  West  side  of  the  High  Street  above  the 
Cross  of  Glasgow,  and  at  present  possessed  by  Walter  Graham. 

*'  2d,  One  third  part,  pro  indiviso,  of  the  ground  storey  of  the  eastmost  of 
two  tenements,  built  by  John  Robertson,  Wright  in  Glasgow,  on  the  North 
side  of  Argyll  Street,  as  the  said  ground  storey  is  possessed  by  Messrs.  William 
Cuninghame  and  Company,  and  William  Rose,  Grocer — (corner  of  Virginia 
Street).  ' 

*«  3d,  One-half,  pro  indiviso,  of  the  Westmost  of  the  foresaid  tenements  as 
possessed  by  Mrs,  M'Lae  (widow  of  WiUiam  M'Lae  of  Cathkin),  and  Mrs. 
Henderson,  (mother  of  Richard  Henderson,  Town-clerk). 

**  Also,  an  acre  and  a  half,  or  thereby,  of  ground,  lying  in  Blythswood 
Holm,  to  the  West  of  Buchanan  Street,  as  possessed  by  James  Young,  &c." 

Mercury,  7th  October  1788. — "  To  be  sold,  by  auction,  on  the  4th  Novem- 
ber, that  large  and  substantial  range  of  grain  lofts  built  about  eighteen  months 
ago,  on  the  stance  of  the  old  theatre  at  Grahamstone,  without  the  territory  of 
the  burgh  of  Glasgow. 

"  These  premises  consist  of  three  lofts  or  storeys,  besides  garrets,  and  are 
divided  towards  the  centre  by  a  thick  stone  partition,  whereby  each  division 
has  a  distinct  front  entry.  Each  of  the  lofts  on  the  north  division,  are  forty 
feet  square  within  the  walls,  and  the  upper  one  or  garret  is  forty  by  thirty-six. 
The  lofts  again  on  the  southmost  division  measure  each  forty  by  thirty-six,  and 
the  upper  one  forty  by  thirty-three  feet,  and  adjoining  to  this  last  division 
there  is  a  convenient  writing  office,  consisting  of  two  well-lighted  apartments, 
each  of  which  has  a  vent  or  fire-place. 

"  The  granary  is  capable  of  containing  with  the  greatest  safety  near  3000 
bolls  of  grain,  and  from  its  particular  situation  has  the  privilege  of  exemption 


OLD  ADVERTISEMENTS.  39 

from  the  Town's  Custom,  or  duty  of  Ladle  on  importation,  which  is  very  con- 
siderable. 

"Also,  a  tack  whereof  (y'j  years  are  to  run,  after  next  Whitsunday,  of 
ground,  called  Bankhead,  delightfully  situated  on  the  water  of  Kelvin,  near 
Clayslap.  The  proprietor,  a  few  years  ago,  erected  a  large  house  on  this 
property. — Apply  to  James  Mathie,  writer." 

Journal,  23d  May  1782. — "To  be  sold,  by  public  roup,  on  the  4th  of 
June  next,  that  field  at  present  occupied  as  garden  ground,  but  well  situated 
for  building,  consisting  of  three  acres  and  a  half,  or  thereby,  within  the  terri- 
tory of  Glasgow,  adjacent  to  and  east  of  the  Delft-field  ground,  on  the  South 
side  of  the  street  leading  to  Dumbarton." 

Mercury,  8th  May  1783. — "To  be  sold,  by  public  roup,  on  the  21st  May, 
the  lands  of  Enoch  Bank,  Mansion  House,  offices  and  garden,  lying  within 
ten  minutes'  walk  of  the  Cross  of  Glasgow.  The  house  consists  of  1 3  fire 
rooms,  with  light  and  dark  closets.  In  the  kitchen  there  is  a  remarkably  fine 
well,  the  water  greatly  superior  to  any  in  the  neighbourhood.  There  is  a 
stable  neatly  fitted  up,  byre,  laundry,  Gardener's  room,  and  washing  house,  com- 
pletely finished  ;  Chaise  house  ;  house  for  poultry,  and  several  other  necessary 
conveniences,  A  little  Dovecot,  stocked.  The  garden  consists  of  near  an  acre 
of  ground,  well  enclosed,  and  having  a  brick  wall  on  the  west  and  east  sides, 
the  walls  covered  with  fruit  trees  of  the  very  best  kinds,  all  in  flourish,  and  in 
the  most  complete  order.  The  garden  and  walls  contain  103  fruit  trees, 
besides  a  great  number  of  gean  and  plum  trees  planted  in  the  pleasure  grounds, 
to  which  there  is  a  canal  well  stocked  with  fish,  the  banks  of  which  are 
covered  with  an  hundred  different  kinds  of  shrubs.  The  park  to  the  north  of 
the  house  ^  is  enclosed  with  double  hedging,  and  verges  of  various  kinds  of 
wood.  The  garden  is  sown  with  all  kinds  of  vegetables  for  a  family,  and  the 
whole  may  be  entered  on  the  day  of  sale. — Apply  to  James  Hill,  writer." 

Mercury,  6th  January  1789. — "Lands  and  a  Printfield  for  Sale. — To  be 
sold,  by  public  roup,  on  the  4th  of  February  next,  &c.,  all  and  whole  the  lands 
of  that  hill  called  Gilmourshill,  being  a  part  of  the  thirty-three  shilling  fourpenny 
land  of  old  extent,  lying  on  the  east  side  of  the  village  of  Partick,  in  the  parish 
of  Govan  and  sherififdom  of  Lanark.  These  lands  consist  of  about  thirty  acres, 
and  are  within  a  mile  and  one  half  of  the  town  of  Glasgow,  and  are  all  in- 
closed and  sub-divided  into  six  inclosures,  with  thriving  hedges,  belts  of 
planting,  and  a  stone  dike.  The  situation  is  most  delightful,  and  commands 
a  most  extensive  and  pleasant  prospect. — A  very  eligible  situation  for  setting 
down  a  house,  the  avenues  to  which  are  already  formed,  and  the  planting  on 
each  side  thereof  in  great  forwardness.  The  water  of  Kelvin  runs  alongside 
of  the  lands  on  the  east  and  south,  and  from  near  the  summit  of  the  hill  a  long 
stretch  of  the  river  of  Clyde  to  the  west  is  in  view,  and  also  the  towns  of 
Glasgow  and  Paisley  and  country  adjacent.  About  24  acres  of  the  land  are 
at  present  in  labour,  the  tack  whereof,  which  was  for  19  years,  expires  at 

1  {N'.B. — The  park  above  mentioned  was  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  present 
Sauchiehall  Road.) 


40  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Martinmas,  1791,  and  the  remaining  part  of  the  lands,  which  consists  of  near 
seven  acres,  is  occupied  as  a  printfield,  and  whereon  there  are  every  necessary 
and  convenient  house  for  carrying  on  that  business  to  great  extent,  besides 
several  dwelling  houses,  the  tack  whereof,  which  was  also  for  1 9  years,  expires 
at  Martinmas,  1789,  and  from  the  houses  and  yards  at  Candlemas  and  first  of 
May,  1790.  The  lands  are  full  of  coal,  and  which  can  be  wrought  at  an  easy 
and  cheap  rate. — Apply  to  Benjamin  Barton,  commissary  clerk  of  Glasgow," 

Journal,  5th  June  1758. — "To  be  sold,  The  lands  and  estate  of  North- 
woodside,  with  the  Barley  mill,  lying  within  two  miles  of  Glasgow,  and  all 
well  inclosed,  with  stone  dykes  and  hedges  ;  upon  which  lands  there  :=;  a  very 
convenient  dwelling  house  and  proper  office  houses,  pleasantly  situate  upon 
the  water  of  Kelvin ;  and  there  is  also  upon  the  said  lands  a  considerable 
number  of  trees  of  different  kinds,  regularly  planted,  besides  a  wood  which 
sells  every  nineteen  years  at  two  thousand  merks  and  upwards.  The  pur- 
chaser's entry  to  the  lands  may  commence  at  Martinmas  next,  and  to  the 
houses  at  Whitsunday  thereafter. — Apply  to  Hugh  Stuart,  the  proprietor ;  or 
Alexander  Stevenson,  commissary  clerk  of  Glasgow." 

Journal,  17th  January  1765. — "Notice,  That  John  Gibson  of  Hillhead, 
having  sett  in  tack  to  James  Gibson,  late  deacon  of  the  weavers  in  Glasgow, 
and  his  assigns,  for  the  space  of  55  years  from  Martinmas,  1759,  for  three 
pounds  sterling  of  yearly  rent,  a  piece  of  his  ground,  consisting  of  about  one 
acre,  lying  on  the  side  of  the  water  of  Kelvin,  near  opposite  to  Woodside- 
muir,  which  has  since  been  made  a  good  bleaching  field,  and  commodious 
dwelling  house,  work  house,  and  boiling  house,  built  by  the  said  James  Gibson 
thereon.  The  benefit  of  the  said  field,  houses,  and  tack  thereof,  for  the  whole 
years  thereof  yet  to  run  hereafter,  to  be  sold  by  public  roup,  within  the  dwelling 
house  of  William  Muir,  vintner,  opposite  to  the  Tron  Church  of  Glasgow,  upon 
Thursday,  the  31st  day  of  January,  1765,  betwixt  the  hours  of  12  and  2  mid- 
day. Any  person  wanting  to  make  a  private  bargain  about  the  aforesaid 
subject,  may  apply  to  William  Marshall  or  Robert  M'Lintock,  senior,  mer- 
chants in  Glasgow,  trustees  for  James  Gibson's  creditors." 

Glasgow  Journal,  26th  June  1777. — "For  sale,  by  public  roup,  within 
the  Exchange  Coffee  House,  in  Glasgow,  on  Thursday  the  7th  day  of  August 
next,  to  begin  precisely  at  12  o'clock,  and  to  continue  till  all  is  sold  of, 

"  The  lands  of  Overnewton,  adjoining  the  village  of  Clayslap,  with  Sundiy 
acres  in  Kelvinhaugh,  the  property  of  Messrs.  Barclay  and  Bogle,  acquired 
from  the  late  William  Cathcart,  and  others,  consisting  of  about  sixty  acres  of 
land,  in  the  near  neighbourhood  of  Glasgow,  and  beautifully  situated  upon  the 
rivers  Clyde  and  Kelvin.  The  lands  will  be  sold  together,  or  in  parcels,  as 
may  best  suit  purchasers.     If  in  parcels,  the  following  lots  are  proposed  : — 

I.  The  houses  and  yards  at   Clayslap,  and  grass  plot  before  the  door, 

about  two  acres  in  all, 
n.  The  park  of  Blackfauld,  adjoining  thereto,  as  now  set  off  and  inclosed, 

about  eight  acres. 
III.   The  Phoenix  Park,  lately  set  off  and  inclosed,  about  ten  acres. 


OLD  ADVERTISEMENT.  41 

IV.  The  Yorkhill  Park,  about  twenty-two  acres. 
V.  The  west  division  of  Kelvinhaugh,  about  nine  acres. 
VI.  The  east  division  of  ditto,  about  nine  acres. 

"  These  may  be  also  joined,  if  desired,  and  the  several  lots  proposed  will 
be  further  varied  at  or  before  the  roup,  so  as  to  fit  the  views  and  convenience 
of  purchasers.  For  further  particulars,  apply  to  the  proprietors  ;  or  to  Maxwell 
and  Graham,  writers,  &c." 


CHAPTER  III. 

Kelvinbank  in  1781,  and  Kelvingrove  in  1790 — Coal  Quay  at  Windmillcroft — First 
Railway  in  Glasgow — The  Windmill  in  1780,  and  Salmon  Fishing — Deepening 
and  embanking  the  Clyde  in  1780 — Patrick  Reid,  possessor  by  "Wadset"  of 
Washington  Street — Henry  Monteith's  attempted  purchase  of  Washington  Street 
for  Clyde  Trust  in  1 814— Washington  Street,  whence  named. 

The  following  notices,  relating  to  the  lands  of  Kelvinbank,  now 
the  property  of  the  Trades'  House,  and  Kelvingrove,  now  the 
West  End  Park,  may  prove  interesting. 

Glasgow  Mercury^  22d  February  1781. — "  Notice. — To  be  sold,  by  private 
sale,  the  lands  of  Kelvinbank,  consisting  of  about  twelve  acres  of  ground, 
lying  between  Anderston  and  Partick,  in  the  Barony  parish  of  Glasgow.  The 
lands  are  pleasantly  situated,  and  are  within  one  mile  and  a  half  of  Glasgow. 
They  command  an  agreeable  prospect ;  are  properly  inclosed  and  subdivided 
by  ditch  and  hedge  in  fine  order ;  and  there  is  plenty  of  free  stone  quarry  in 
the  lands  which  can  easily  be  wrought.  The  house,  offices,  and  garden  on 
the  lands  are  in  good  order ;  supplied  with  water  from  a  spring  well,  the 
water  excellent  and  quantity  large.  There  are  also  a  washing  house  and 
washing  field  on  the  lands  adjoining  the  water  of  Kelvin. — Apply  to  Archibald 
Govan,  writer,  &c." 

Kelvinbank  was  purchased  about  1792  by  John  Wilson  jun.. 
Town -Clerk,  for  ;^iooo,  and  was  sold  to  the  Trades'  House  of 
Glasgow  by  Dr.  W.  Rae  Wilson,  the  nephew  of  Mr.  Wilson. 
George  Crawfurd,  Esq.,  in  his  interesting  sketch  of  the  Trades' 
House  of  Glasgow,  page  207,  informs  us  that,  on  the  4th  of 
April  1846,  the  said  Incorporation  purchased  the  lands  of  Kelvin- 
bank, "stated  as  containing  70,588  square  yards  of  unchequed 
measurement,  into  the  centre  of  the  river  Kelvin,  at  ;^i 9,640  3s. 
9d."     Also,  "  the  adjoining  part  of  the  lands  of  Sandyford,  said 


KELVINGROVE. 


43 


to  contain  18,531  square  yards  of  unchequed  and  uninvestigated 
measurement,  at  ;^  10,2  50." 

Glasgow  Mercury,  12th  January  1790. — "Sale  of  land  in  Lanarkshire. — 
To  be  sold,  by  auction,  in  the  Tontine  Tavern,  on  Wednesday,  27th  January, 
1790,  between  the  hours  of  two  and  three  o'clock  afternoon. 

*'  The  villa  and  lands  of  Kelvingrove,  beautifully  situated  upon  the  banks 
of  the  river  Kelvin,  and  perfectly  retired,  although  within  one  mile  of  the  city 
of  Glasgow. 

"  The  house,  which  overlooks  the  river,  is  built  upon  a  very  comfortable 
plan,  containing  a  dining  room,  drawing  room,  eight  bed  rooms,  two  lumber 
rooms,  a  kitchen,  larder,  and  three  cellars  under  ground.  The  offices  consist 
of  a  stable,  with  stalls  for  four  horses,  a  cow  house,  milk  house,  chaise  and 
cart  house,  a  hay  loft,  pigeon  house,  poultry  houses,  all  in  the  most  complete 
order.  There  are  also  a  pump-well  in  the  yard,  a  convenient  wash  house 
with  a  pipe  from  the  river,  and  a  large  and  commodious  cold  bath.  The 
garden  (which,  as  well  as  the  offices,  is  hid  from  the  dwelling  house  by  trees 
and  shrubbery)  is  well  stocked  with  fruit  trees  and  small  fruit,  and  is  sur- 
rounded by  a  brick  wall,  part  of  which  has  flues,  and  the  whole  of  it  is  at 
present  covered  on  both  sides  with  a  great  variety  of  fruit  trees  of  the  best 
kinds.  There  is  also  upon  the  ground  a  great  variety  of  flowering  shrubs, 
and  a  considerable  quantity  of  barren  timber,  part  old,  and  part  lately  planted, 
all  in  the  most  thriving  condition,  and  the  whole  disposed  in  such  a  manner 
as  to  greatly  add  to  the  beauty  of  the  place. 

"  The  lands  of  Kelvingrove  consist  of  about  sixteen  English  acres  :  the 
public  burdens  are  very  moderate,  and  no  claim  can  be  made  by  the  superior 
in  consequence  of  the  property  being  transferred. 

"  Also,  to  be  sold,  the  benefit  of  a  long  lease  of  the  farm  of  Woodside, 
consisting  of  about  seventeen  acres,  which  lie  adjacent  to  the  lands  of  Kelvin- 
grove. The  lands  of  Kelvingrove  and  the  grounds  under  lease  for  near 
half-a-mile  are  bounded  by  the  river  Kelvin,  and  being  surrounded  on  all 
hands  by  beautiful  landscapes,  form  such  a  situation  as  is  rarely  to  be  met 
with. 

"Apply  to  William  Blair,  W.S.,  Edinburgh;  or  John  Maxwell,  of  Dar- 
gavel,  writer,  Glasgow,  &:c." 

Glasgow  Mercury,  27th  May  1784. — "To  be  sold,  that  square  piece  of 
ground,  being  the  east  side  of  Kelvinhaugh,  consisting  of  twelve  Scots  acres 
or  thereby,  inclosed  by  a  bank  on  the  east  side  and  hedge  on  the  west. 
— Apply  to  Robert  M'Lintock." 

GlaSi;ow  Mercury,  ist  May  1792. — "The  Provost-Haugh,  about  24  acres, 
has  been  purchased  at  private  sale  for  no  less  than  four  thousand  pounds. 
This  added  to  the  other  pleasure  ground  along  the  river  belonging  to  the  city, 
is  a  valuable  acquisition.  The  philanthropic  Mr.  Howard,  when  surveying 
this  tract  of  ground,  declared  it  to  be  of  inestimable  value  for  preserving  the 
health  of  the  inhabitants. 

•'An  acre  of  ground  down  the  river,  where  the  Coal   Key  stood,  and 


44  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

bounded  by  the  Kinning  House  burn,  was  sold  by  public  roup  for  ^350 
sterling.     It  was  let  for  five  pounds  yearly  for  sixteen  years  past." 

I  remember  the  Coal  Quay,  which  stood  at  the  present  ferry, 
west  end  of  Windmillcroft.  It  was  built  by  the  Dumbarton 
Glasswork  Company  to  convey  coals  from  the  lands  of  Little 
Govan  to  their  works  at  Dumbarton.  The  river  was  then  deeper 
at  the  Coal  Quay  than  at  Broomielaw.  There  was  a  timber 
tramway  from  the  Little  Govan  Coalworks  to  the  said  quay, 
which  ran  through  the  lands  of  Kingston,  and  by  the  road  on  the 
east  side  of  Springfield.  I  have  walked  upon  this  tramroad, 
which  I  believe  was  the  first  of  our  Glasgow  railways.  The 
Dumbarton  Glasswork  Company  also  possessed  a  tramroad  on 
the  north  side  of  the  Clyde,  from  the  coalworks  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Gartnavel ;  but  I  do  not  recollect  the  exact  place  in  the 
river  where  the  coals  were  shipped. 

The  footpath  along  the  south  bank  of  the  river  from  the 
bridge  westward  crossed  the  south  end  of  the  Coal  Quay,  and 
when  the  traveller  came  to  the  Kinninghouse  Burn  he  was 
obliged  to  find  his  way  over  it  by  a  narrow  wooden  plank,  with- 
out any  protective  railing.  I  have  often  crossed  the  Kinning- 
house Burn  by  this  primitive  bridge. 

At  this  time  there  was  a  small  wood  on  the  lands  of  Wind- 
millcroft, within  a  hedge  on  the  south  of  the  footpath  which  ran 
along  the  banks  of  the  river.  This  wood  stood  nearly  on  the 
place  now  occupied  as  the  north  extremity  of  West  Street. 

When  a  little  boy  I  went  afishing  one  Saturday  with  some  of 
my  companions  in  the  river  between  the  Kinninghouse  Burn 
and  the  Mile  Burn  (at  the  west  end  of  the  General  Terminus). 

Among  my  associates  was  Archibald  M'Guffie  of  Greenock 
(afterwards  agent  for  the  Bank  of  Scotland  there). 

We  had  all  duly  set  our  fishing  lines  in  the  river,  and  were 
waiting  for  a  short  time  to  give  the  fish  time  to  swallow  our 
baits,  when  Archie  M'Guffie  said  that  he  would  not  draw  his  lines 
till  the  gabbert  which  appeared  at  the  Broomielaw  (coming  right 
down  the  river  with  a  large  square  sail  and  fair  wind)  had  passed 
his  lines.  We  laughed  at  Archie's  speech,  but  for  the  fun  of  the 
thing  said  nothing  ;  so  we  all  proceeded  to  draw  our  lines,  while 


THE  WINDMILL— SALMON  FISHING.  45 

Archie  had  his  eyes  always  directed  towards  the  gabbert,  which 
appeared  coming  down  the  river  at  full  sail  with  a  fair  wind  and 
ebb  tide,  yet  nevertheless  did  not  seem  to  move  out  of  the  spot. 
Archie  now  got  tired  of  waiting  for  the  arrival  of  the  gabbert, 
and  so  began  to  draw  his  lines,  when  all  of  us  in  great  glee 
informed  him  that  the  gabbert  he  was  so  long  looking  for  was 
just  the  windmill  near  the  bridge,  which,  seen  from  the  lands  of 
the  now  General  Terminus,  certainly  had  quite  the  appearance  of  a 
gabbert  in  full  sail. 

The  site  where  the  windmill  stood  is  now  near  the  centre  of 
the  river,  a  little  below  the  bridge.  At  this  time  the  windmill 
was  without  a  roof,  and  its  ground  floor  subjected  to  all  manner 
of  nuisances,  so  that  a  visit  to  it  was  rather  trying  to  those  who 
had  delicate  olfactory  nerves.  On  this  piscatory  excursion  our 
fishing  was  pretty  successful,  as  each  of  us  had  caught  a  number 
of  flounders  and  a  few  eels,  but  the  great  prize  came  to  me  of  a 
very  fine  large  salmon  fry.  I  was  delighted  at  my  good  luck, 
but  in  great  terror,  lest  the  Sheriff,  who  lived  close  at  hand,  in 
Park  House,  or  some  of  the  tacksmen  of  the  Salmon  Fishery 
should  get  hold  of  me,  and  clap  me  up  in  prison  for  destroying 
salmon  fry,  the  Sheriff  having  just  issued  the  following  notice : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  27th  April  1780. — "By  the  Sherifif  of  Lanarkshire. — 
Whereas,  notwithstanding  the  pubHc  promonitions  that  have  been  given,  and 
the  pubHc  examples  which  have  been  made,  the  illegal  practice  of  killing 
salmon  fry  still  prevails  in  this  country,  to  the  great  prejudice  of  the  salmon 
fishing,  a  reward  of  Half  a  Guinea  is  hereby  offered  for  each  information  upon 
that  head  left  at  the  Sheriff  Clerk's  office  in  Glasgow,  mentioning  the  names 
and  designations  of  the  offenders  and  the  names  and  designations  of  the  wit- 
nesses by  whom  the  offences  can  be  proved,  to  be  paid  by  the  Sheriff  Clerk 
upon  their  conviction.  The  names  of  the  informers  shall  be  carefully 
concealed." 

Having  this  notice  in  view,  I  carefully  hid  my  salmon  fry 
under  the  hedge  at  Greenlaw  till  our  departure,  when  I  ventured 
to  carry  it  home,  in  tribulation,  but  rejoicing. 

The  salmon  fishing  on  this  part  of  the  Clyde  was  then  of  some, 
value,  for  in  fourteen  years  afterwards  it  appears  to  have  been  let 
for  ;^I04  per  annum. 


46  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  2 1st  January  1794. — "A  few  days  ago  the  salmon 
fishing  in  the  river  Clyde,  belonging  to  certain  proprietors  of  the  parish  of 
Govan,  was  let  for  three  years  at  ^104  per  annum." 

The  fishermen  erected  a  hut  on  Greenlaw  lands,  near  the 
Mile  Burn.  It  was  built  of  wattles  and  turf.  I  have  often  seen 
gentlemen  there  purchasing  on  speculation  for  is.  or  is.  6d  the 
draught  of  a  fisherman's  net,  but  in  general  the  speculators  only 
got  a  few  small  flounders.  I  had  a  strong  suspicion  that  on  these 
occasions,  when  the  fishermen  felt  by  handling  their  nets  that  they 
had  a  salmon  enclosed  in  them,  they  purposely  allowed  the  salmon 
to  escape,  in  the  hopes  of  securing  it  to  themselves  in  the  next 
cast  of  the  nets.  As  the  saying  goes,  there  are  tricks  in  all 
trades. 

It  was  fortunate  for  Glasgow  that  the  salmon  fishing  on  the 
River  Clyde  was  not  of  very  great  value  ;  for  if  it  had  been  as 
lucrative  to  the  proprietors  of  the  lands  on  its  banks  as  that  of  the 
Tay  and  some  other  rivers  on  the  east  coast,  the  Magistrates  of 
Glasgow  would  have  met  with  very  strong  opposition  to  all  their 
Navigation  Bills.  It  is  curious  that  none  of  the  proprietors  of  the 
lands  on  the  banks  of  the  River  Clyde  have  ever  made  application 
to  the  Clyde  Trust  or  to  the  Glasgow  Magistrates  for  indemnifica- 
tion for  the  loss  of  the  salmon  fishery,  occasioned  by  the  operations 
of  deepening  and  embanking  the  navigation. 

In  1759  an  Act  of  Parliament  was  obtained  for  rendering  the 
River  Clyde  navigable  to  Glasgow  for  large  vessels,  by  means  of 
locks  ;  and  from  the  following  advertisement  it  will  be  seen  that 
the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  were  the  first  who  set  the  example  of 
gaining  ground  from  the  river  by  means  of  placing  stobs  on  its 
margin,  and  then  filling  the  space  so  stobbed  in  with  furze  and 
rubbish. 

Glasgow  Journal,  26th  April  1764. —  "Any  person  who  is  willing  to 
undertake  for  the  delivery  of  a  considerable  quantity  of  new  hoed  whins,  to  be 
laid  down  on  each  side  of  the  river  Clyde  below  the  Broomielaw,  may  apply 
to  Robert  Finlay,  master  of  work.  And  any  person  who  can  provide  a  large 
quantity  of  stobs,  six  feet  and  a  half  long,  may  also  apply  as  above." 

The  proprietors  of  the  lands  on  the  banks  of  the  river  were 
not  long  in  discovering  that  they  would  derive  more  benefit  from 


THE  RIVER  BANKS.  47 

the  channel  of  the  river  being  narrowed,  than  from  the  salmon 
fishery,  as  the  ground  gained  to  them  by  the  navigation  operations 
came  to  be  added  to  their  lands  facing  the  river,  and  this  done 
without  their  bearing  any  share  of  the  expense. 

I  remember  many  of  the  proprietors  of  lands  next  the  river 
filling  up  the  vacancies  between  the  jetties  with  the  cuttings  of 
hedges  and  all  kinds  of  rubbish,  so  as  to  form  firm  land  by  the 
deposits  of  floods.  Mr.  David  Todd  at  Springfield,  and  Mr. 
Francis  Reid  at  Greenlaw,  each  gained  above  an  acre  of  river-side 
ground  by  such  operations,  which  ground  came  afterwards  to  be 
purchased  back  by  the  River  Trustees  at  £2  :  2s.  per  square  yard 
or  thereby. 

In  1780  the  Pointhouse  and  Ferry  appear  to  have  been 
private  property. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  9th  March  1780. — "To  be  sold,  privately,  the  Point- 
house,  with  the  ferry  and  boats,  and  some  lands  adjoining  the  same. — Apply 
to  William  Robertson,  at  Smithfield.  22d  November  1781. — To  be  sold, 
jointly,  or  separately,  the  Smithfield  houses  and  lands  on  the  Broomielaw  Croft, 
near  the  Key  of  Glasgow,  with  the  lands  and  houses  at  Point  House,  and  the 
slitting,  rolling,  and  grinding  mills  and  houses  on  Kelvin,  with  smith's  tools 
and  materials.  Progress  of  writs  and  inventories  of  the  whole  to  be  seen  in 
the  hands  of  William  Robertson,  Smithfield." 

The  above  Smithfield  property  not  being  sold  at  the  time, 
was  again  advertised  for  sale  on  15th  February  1786,  at  the  upset 
price  of  ;^2  200,  there  being  a  street  sixty  feet  wide  delineated  on 
the  plan. 

'^Glasgow  Mercury,  29th  December  1786. — "To  be  sold,  the  lands  of 
Greenlaw,  with  the  salmon  fishing  effeiring  thereto.  The  lands  of  Greenlaw 
consist  of  fifteen  acres  or  thereby,  very  rich  arable  ground,  delightfully  situated 
upon  the  river  Clyde,  and  roads  leading  to  Paisley  and  Greenock,  well  inclosed 
and  sub-divided,  lying  opposite  to  Lancefield,  within  one  mile  of  Glasgow. — 
Apply  to  Alexander  M'Culloch,  writer  in  Glasgow." 

Greenlaw  was  purchased  by  Francis  Reid,  Esq.,  for  ;^iooo, 
and  was  sold  by  the  trustees  of  his  widow  for  ;!^38oo.  About 
three  acres,  lying  between  the  Greenock  and  Paisley  roads,  were 
sold  by  Mr.  Reid's  widow  to  Mr.  Mair  of  the  Plantation,  for  ^300, 
and  the  remainder  now  forms  the  General  Terminus. 


48 


OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 


Mercury,  31st  January  1787, — "  To  be  sold,  the  house  and  lands  of  Mavis 
Bank,  about  one  mile  west  of  the  new  bridge.  The  lands  consist  of  about 
six  acres,  of  excellent  quality,  and  divided  into  several  small  enclosures. — 
Apply  to  George  Smith,  writer." 

Mercury,  23d  May  1787. — "To  be  sold,  the  Bottle  House  and  other 
buildings,  at  Verreville,  together  with  the  ground  adjoining  it,  consisting  of 
about  three  acres. — Apply  to  John  Geddes." 

Mercury,  25th  July  1787. — "To  be  sold,  six  roods  of  land,  or  thereby, 
in  the  Broomielaw  Croft  of  Glasgow,  whereof  three  roods  lie  from  east  to 
west  upon  Clyde,  and  the  other  three  roods  run  from  south  to  north,  and  lie 
upon  the  south- side  of  the  road  leading  to  Anderston. — Apply  to  Gilbert 
Hamilton." 

Mercury,  ist  December  1789. — "  To  be  sold,  feued,  or  let,  that  bleachfield 
called  Brownfield,  near  to  the  Broomielaw.  As  the  field  is  an  extensive  square 
piece  of  ground,  containing  more  than  ten  acres,  and  runs  from  Anderston 
road  to  the  Clyde,  few  places  are  so  well  adapted  for  the  purpose  of  building 
squares  or  streets  upon. — Apply  to  Brown,  Carrick,  and  Company." 

Mercury,  1st  December  1789. — "Lands  to  be  let. — The  committee  ap- 
pointed by  the  Magistrates  and  Town  Council  of  Glasgow,  for  setting  those 
parts  of  the  barony  of  Gorbals,  which  now  belongs  to  the  City,  do  hereby 
intimate  that  they  will  set,  for  one  year,  from  and  after  Martinmas  last,  1789, 
the  sundry  plots  of  ground,  as  after  mentioned,  viz. — 

Acres. 

Part  of  Windmill  Croft  .  .  .13 

Waterside,  west  of  the  Coal  Quay     .  .       i 

Part  of  Trades'  Croft  and  Croft  Andrew         .     1 9 


ods. 

Falls. 

I 

30 

I 

35 

3 

18 

34  3  3 

"The  above  lands  are  situate  upon  the  side  of  the  river  Clyde,  a  little 
below  the  windmill. 


Acres. 

Roods. 

Falls. 

Gushet  Fauld 

8 

2 

30 

Bryce  Land 

8 

0 

34 

Gallow  Know 

3 

0 

19 

Bryce  Land 

6 

3 

34 

Coply  Hill  Park       . 

9 

I 

38 

Coply  Hill  . 

3 

2 

18 

Seeve-wright  and  Cameron's 

Eye      . 

16 

3 

3 

56 


16 


"The  last- mentioned  lands  are  situate  south  from  the  Gorbals,  upon 
each  side  of  the  road,  leading  from  thence  to  Pollokshaws. — Apply  to  Bailie 
M'Lehose,  Mr.  John  Lowrie,  or  the  Master  of  Work." 

Mercury,  ist  December  1789. — "Lands  in  Gorbals  to  be  let. — The 
Trades'  House  of  Glasgow,  and  the  Incorporations  of  Hammermen,  Tailors, 


BARONY  AND  TRADESTON.  49 

Cordiners,  Maltmen,  Weavers,  Flashers,  Bakers,  Skinners,  Wrights,  Coopers, 
and  Masons,  who  are  proprietors  of  a  fourth-part  of  the  lands  and  barony  of 
Gorbals,  having  appointed  a  delegate  from  each  body  to  act  as  a  general 
committee  in  the  management  of  the  fourt-part  of  the  barony,  which  has  been 
awarded  to  them  by  the  Arbiters  in  the  submission  with  the  magistrates  and 
council  and  the  patrons  of  Hutchesons'  Hospital,  the  proprietors  of  the  residue 
of  the  barony :  the  committee  do  now  intimate  that  they  are  willing  to  give  a 
set  of  their  fourth-part  of  the  lands,  either  in  whole  or  in  parcels,  and  for  one 
year  or  a  longer  term, — Apply  to  Mr.  John  M 'Asian,  convener ;  or  to  James 
Mathie,  writer." 

Merctiry,  6th  April  1790. — "Gorbals  ground,  belonging  to  Hutchesons' 
Hospital,  to  be  feued.  That  large  inclosure  on  the  south-west  of  Gorbals, 
called  Stirling  Fold  and  Well  Croft,  measuring  29  acres,  3  roods,  23  falls,  and 
that  strip  of  ground  opposite  to  the  road  leading  to  the  new  bridge,  and  of  the 
same  breadth  with  that  road,  measuring  3  roods,  and  8  falls.  The  upset  yearly 
feu-duty  of  the  said  Grounds  is  to  be  ^257  i6s  6d,  or  eight  guineas  per  acre. 
The  coal  and  minerals  are  to  be  reserved  to  the  proprietors. — Apply  to  James 
Hill,  writer  in  Glasgow." 

Mercury,  nth  September  1792. — "Building  ground  in  Gorbals  Barony, 
(Tradeston).  To  be  sold,  a  great  variety  of  Steadings  belonging  to  the  Trades' 
House  and  Incorporations,  partly  fronting  the  public  road  leading  to  Paisley, 
at  the  west  end  of  the  Toll  Bar,  and  in  other  respects  fronting  public  streets 
sixty  feet  wide  in  parallel  lines  with  the  streets  of  the  town,  which  is  going  on 
briskly  at  the  end  of  the  new  bridge.  The  price  to  be  converted  into  a  feu- 
duty. — Apply  to  convener  M'Lehose,  or  J.  T.  Mathie,  writer." 

The  town  of  Tradeston  was  laid  off  by  John  Gardner  sen., 
optician. 

Mr.  Crawfurd,  in  his  sketch  of  the  Trades'  House  (page  186), 
thus  writes  : — 

"  The  price  originally  paid  by  the  Trades'  House  and  Incorporations,  for 
the  Gorbals  Lands,  as  their  one-fourth  share  of  the  whole  price  paid  to  Sir 
Robert  Douglas,  in  1660,  was  thirty-one  thousand  merks,  equal  to  ^^1743  13s 
sterling. 

"The  Trades'  House  and  Incorporations  received  ^1692  12s  6d  from  the 
proprietors  of  the  Glasgow,  Paisley,  and  Ardrossan  Canal,  in  18 14,  for  2  acres, 
I  rood,  and  36  falls  of  the  lands  taken  for  the  purpose  of  making  the  canal, 
and  ^732  los  further,  in  1823,  for  3257  square  yards  taken  for  increasing 
the  company's  accommodation.  For  those  sums  the  Trades'  House  and  Incor- 
porations took  payment  in  shares  of  the  stock  of  the  Canal  Company,  and 
those  shares  are  now  worthless  through  the  total  failure  of  that  enterprise.  In 
1829,  however,  the  Trades'  House  and  Incorporations  received  ^10,000  from 
the  trustees  for  improving  the  navigation  of  the  Clyde,  for  the  ground  which 
lay  between  Clyde  Street  on  the  south,  the  river  on  the  north,  the  bridge  on 
VOL.  IIL  E 


50  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

the  east,  and  West  Street  on  the  west.     This  ground  is  now  chiefly  excavated 
for  the  Harbour  of  Glasgow,  and  is  partly  occupied  by  the  south  wharf. 

«  In  1831  the  steadings  which  had  been  feued  yielded  feu-duties  to  the 
amount  of  ^1769  us  gd,  the  highest  price  obtained  having  been  3s  6d  a 
square  yard.  Between  183 1  and  1856  the  whole  of  unfeued  ground  was 
feued,  the  last  feus  effected  being  los.  The  lowest  price  taken  during  this 
period  being  8s,  and  the  highest  obtained  25s  a  square  yard.  These  amounted 
to  ;i{^64,i27  IS  8d,  converted  into  feu-duties  amounting  to  ^3206  7s  id.  These 
feu-duties,  added  to  the  amount  payable  in  1831,  makes  £4975  i^s  lod  of 
feu-duties  now  payable.  Every  yard  of  the  78  acres,  3  roods,  and  14  falls, 
conveyed  to  the  Trades'  House,  as  their  one-fourth  part,  is  now  sold  or  feued. 
The  purchase  and  the  fortunate  management  of  these  lands  are  the  chief 
source  of  the  wealth  of  the  Trades'  House  and  Incorporations." 

The  following  account  relative  to  the  lands  now  of  Washington 
Street  is  taken  from  a  private  MS.  in  my  possession  : — Patrick 
Reid,  maltman  in  Glasgow,  in  early  life  had  lent  a  few  hundred 
merks  to  the  proprietor  of  the  lands  which  now  form  Washington 
Street,  upon  the  terms  of  Wadset,  by  which  the  lands  are  absolutely 
disponed  to  and  enjoyed  by  the  lender,  and  the  borrower  pays  no 
interest  upon  the  loan  ;  liberty  of  redemption,  however,  is  reserved 
to  the  borrower  within  a  certain  time  agreed  upon,  but  which  time, 
if  allowed  to  elapse  without  repayment  of  the  loan,  the  lands 
become  the  absolute  and  irredeemable  property  of  the  lender. 

Under  the  provisions  of  the  said  contract  of  Wadset,  Patrick 
Reid  continued  to  enjoy  the  use  and  usufruct  of  the  said  lands  of 
Washington  Street,  till  the  term  of  redemption  agreed  upon  had 
passed  over  without  payment  of  the  loan,  consequently  the  said 
lands  became  irredeemably  invested  in  Patrick  Reid  as  absolute 
proprietor  of  the  same.  Patrick  Reid  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest 
son  John,  who,  dying  intestate,  was  succeeded  by  his  uncle,  Matthew 
Reid,  merchant  in  Leicester,  as  heir  at  law  to  the  said  lands  of 
Washington  Street,  and  he  dying,  bequeathed  by  his  will  his  estates, 
heritable  and  movable,  to  his  wife,  Mary  Aitcheson,  as  his  universal 
legatee. 

In  the  meantime  a  granddaughter  of  the  original  proprietor 
of  the  lands  of  Washington  Street  having  married  a  writer  in 
Edinburgh,  that  gentleman  conceived  that  there  was  a  flaw  in  the 
deed  of  Wadset,  and  that  Patrick  Reid  had  not  taken  the  usual 
legal  steps  to  invest  himself  in  the  said  lands  at  the  expiration  of 


WASHINGTON  STREET  LANDS. 


51 


the  term  of  redemption  ;  consequently  that  the  property  in  question 
was  still  redeemable  upon  payment  of  the  original  loan  by  Wadset, 
Accordingly,  he  made  a  judicial  offer  of  repayment  of  the  loan, 
and  demanded  a  re-conveyance  of  the  lands  of  Washington  Street. 
This  demand,  of  course,  brought  on  a  lawsuit  before  the  Court 
of  Session,  which,  having  been  litigated  there  for  upwards  of 
eighteen  years,  Mrs.  Matthew  Reid,  the  defender,  became  so 
disgusted  with  the  delay  of  the  proceedings,  and  harassed  in  her 
mind  by  the  various  technical  objections  brought  forward  against 
the  validity  of  the  Wadset,  that  she  offered  to  make  over  her 
rights,  in  the  subjects  in  question,  to  her  eldest  son  Matthew, 
merchant  in  Leicester,  if  he  would  relieve  her  of  the  lawsuit. 
Her  son  accepted  his  mother's  offer,  and  immediately  thereafter 
set  on  foot  an  arrangement  for  a  compromise  with  the  Edinburgh 
writer,  which  he  fortunately  accomplished  by  the  payment  to  him 
of  ;^iooo  sterling,  thereby  becoming  the  unquestionable  proprietor 
of  the  lands  of  Washington  Street.  On  the  death  of  Matthew 
Reid  jun.  (the  son)  intestate,  the  lands  of  Washington  Street  fell 
by  inheritance  to  his  brother.  Dr.  John  Reid,  physician  in  London, 
who  not  long  after  dying  without  issue,  his  sister  Mary  succeeded 
to  the  said  lands.  This  Miss  Mary  Reid  being  on  very  intimate 
terms  with  her  cousin.  Miss  Aitcheson,  the  two  young  ladies 
entered  into  a  mutual  contract,  by  which  the  longest  liver  of  them 
was  to  inherit  the  estates  of  the  one  who  should  first  die.  Accord- 
ingly, on  the  death  of  Miss  Aitcheson,  Miss  Reid  succeeded  to 
that  lady's  fortune,  which  was  pretty  considerable.  Miss  Mary 
Reid  was  a  literary  lady,  and  was  spoken  of  as  a  blue  stocking  in 
my  early  days.  She  was  a  keen  politician,  of  the  Foxite  school, 
and,  accordingly,  employed  Robert  Grahame,  Esq.,  writer,  as  her 
Glasgow  agent,  that  gentleman's  political  opinions  being  in  unison 
with  her  own.  Mr.  Grahame  took  the  entire  management  of  the 
Washington  Street  property,  for  behoof  of  Miss  Reid,  who  then 
resided  in  Leicester.  About  the  year  1 8 14,  when  Henry  Monteith 
was  Lord  Provost  of  Glasgow,  the  River  Trustees,  having  thought 
of  excavating  docks  at  the  Broomielaw,  to  accommodate  the  increas- 
ing shipping  of  the  harbour,  authorised  Mr.  Monteith  to  treat  with 
Mr.  Grahame  for  the  purchase  of  the  said  lands  of  Washington 


52  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Street,  then  vacant  ground.  Mr.  Monteith  accordingly  waited 
on  Mr.  Grahame,  to  know  the  price  which  Miss  Reid  would  take 
for  the  said  lands,  fully  expecting  to  acquire  them  at  a  very 
moderate  price,  seeing  that  they  were  waste  grounds  bringing  in 
no  return.  In  reply  to  Mr.  Monteith's  inquiry  as  to  the  price 
which  Miss  Reid  would  take  for  the  said  property,  Mr.  Grahame 
at  once  said  that  the  very  lowest  price  would  be  ^10,000.  Mr. 
Monteith,  who,  in  his  younger  days,  had  remembered  the  trifling 
value  of  ground  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  Anderston, 
at  the  mention  of  ;^  10,000  held  up  his  two  hands  in  amazement, 
at  what  he  considered  its  absolute  absurdity,  exclaiming  that  the 
price  demanded  was  so  utterly  extravagant  and  ridiculous  that  it 
was  quite  unnecessary  to  say  a  word  more  on  the  subject,  and  so 
forthwith  left  Mr.  Grahame's  office.  Provost  Monteith  reported 
so  strongly  against  the  whole  project  that  the  River  Trustees 
hesitated  about  making  any  further  attempt  to  acquire  Miss  Reid's 
lands  ;  but  about  a  year  afterwards,  the  said  Trustees  having  again 
taken  the  matter  into  their  consideration,  came  to  be  of  opinion 
that  the  lands  in  question,  being  so  favourably  situated  for  a  dock, 
should  be  purchased  by  the  Trust,  notwithstanding  of  the  price 
being  likely  to  be  rather  extravagant ;  they  therefore  again 
requested  Mr.  Monteith  to  wait  on  Mr.  Grahame  with  an  offer  of 
i^Sooo  for  the  said  lands.  When  Mr.  Monteith  again  waited  on 
Mr.  Grahame  he  commenced  his  address  to  him  by  saying  that  the 
River  Trustees,  contrary  to  his  opinion,  had  now  agreed  to  make 
Miss  Reid  an  offer  of  i^Sooo  for  the  Washington  Street  lands,  and  he 
added  that  he  was  confident  that  no  such  offer  would  ever  again 
be  made  for  these  vacant  grounds.  But  Mr.  Grahame,  in  reply  to 
this  offer,  repeated  what  he  had  before  said,  that  the  very  lowest 
price  would  be  ^10,000.  In  consequence  of  this  answer  the 
treaty  for  the  purchase  of  the  lands  in  question  was  finally 
broken  off,  and  thus  the  River  Trustees  lost  a  most  convenient 
site  for  a  dock,  in  the  very  heart  of  the  harbour,  and  of  the 
city,  Mr.  Grahame  shortly  afterwards  laid  off  Washington 
Street  for  feuing,  and  ultimately  the  feus  realised  a  price  equal 
to  ;^30,ooo. 

Miss  Mary  Reid,  in  accordance  with  her  political  principles. 


WASHINGTON  STREET  LANDS.  53 

named  the  new  street  "Washington  Street,"  in  honour  of  the 
founder  of  American  independence. 

Miss  Mary  Reid  died  on  the  14th  of  August  1839,  aged 
seventy,  and  was  succeeded  by  her  nephews  and  nieces,  the  Pearces 
of  Leicester. 

By  looking  at  Fleming's  large  map  of  Glasgow,  published  in 
1 81  5,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  lands  now  of  Washington  Street 
then  consisted  of  a  large  oblong  piece  of  ground,  stated  to  be  the 
property  of  Matthew  Reid.  On  the  west  it  formed  the  western 
boundary  of  the  city,  lying  between  Clyde  Street  and  M'Alpine 
Street.  It  stood  north  and  south  from  Anderston  Walk  to  the 
margin  of  the  River  Clyde — a  glorious  situation  for  a  dock,  which 
our  city  authorities  unfortunately  allowed  to  slip  through  their 
hands. 


CHAPTER    IV. 

Cleland's  Sketch  of  the  Green — Improvements  in  the  Green,  1638- 1664 — Fleshers' 
Haugh  in  1 792 — The  Green  as  it  stood  in  1816 — Coal  under  the  Green,  and 
proposal  to  work  it  in  1858 — Discussion  in  the  City  Council — Proposed  Improve- 
ments in  1813 — Subsidence  of  the  Green  in  1754 — The  Point  Isle  in  1760 — Dowcot 
Green  Island — The  Horse  Ford — Battle  of  the  Bell  of  the  Brae. 

Dr.  Cleland  in  his  Annals,  vol.  ii.  p.  457,  has  given  us  a  more 
detailed  statement  of  the  history  of  the  Green  of  Glasgow  than 
our  other  Glasgow  historians,  and  in  particular  has  narrated  the 
improvements  made  on  it  during  the  time  that  he  held  the 
municipal  office  of  superintendent  of  public  works.  He  says  that 
although  it  is  by  no  means  certain  at  what  period  the  Green  became 
the  property  of  the  community,  it  is  more  than  probable  that  it  was 
included  in  the  grant  which  James  II.  made  to  William  Turnbull, 
bishop  of  Glasgow,  on  20th  April  1450.  The  original  grant, 
whether  it  emanated  from  King  James  or  any  other  having  power 
to  confer  it,  was  of  very  small  extent  when  compared  with  what 
the  Green  is  at  present,  being  wholly  comprehended  in  what  is 
now  known  by  the  name  of  the  Laigh  Green,  bounded  on  the 
west  by  what  was  termed  the  Skinners'  Green,  now  the  site  of  the 
Gaol  and  public  offices,  on  the  north  by  the  Molendinar  Burn  and 
Camlachie  Burn,  on  the  south  by  the  River  Clyde,  and  on  the  east 
by  the  lands  of  Kinclaith,  at  the  west  end  of  the  High  Green 
where  the  Washing-House  is  placed.  It  would  appear  that  this 
gift  was  of  very  little  use  for  a  long  period  after  it  became  the 
property  of  the  community,  as  the  principal  part  of  the  inhabitants 
resided  at  the  upper  part  of  the  town  ;  and  when  in  process  of 
time  they  came  gradually  to  reside  in  the  lower  part  of  the  town. 


GLASGOW  GREEN.  55 

the  Laigh  Green  lay  so  low  as  to  be  affected  by  every  spring-tide, 
so  that  pools  and  islands  were  formed  in  it,  which  have  only  been 
removed  since  the  year  1635. 

From  the  year  1638  till  1661,  during  the  provostshlps  of 
Patrick  Bell  of  Cowcaddens,  John  Anderson  of  Dowhill,  and  John 
Campbell  of  Blythswood,^  the  Laigh  Green  was  greatly  improved. 

In  1664,  during  the  provostship  of  John  Bell,  the  magistracy 
and  council,  in  consideration  of  the  great  increase  of  inhabitants, 
and  the  want  of  a  suitable  park  or  green,  resolved  to  purchase 
such  parts  of  the  lands  of  Kinclaith  and  Dafifiegreen,  now  called 
the  High  Green,  as  should  from  time  to  time  he  brought  into 
the  market.  2  Accordingly,  in  the  course  of  thirty  years,  the 
Magistrates  and  Council  had  purchased,  from  a  great  number  of 
individuals,  the  whole  of  the  High  Green,  bounded  on  the  west 
by  the  east  end  of  the  Laigh  Green,  on  the  north  by  the  Reid- 
clothglott  or  Camlachie  Burn,  on  the  south  partly  by  the  River 
Clyde,  and  partly  by  Provost  Haugh,  and  on  the  east  by  the 
boundary  of  the  royalty,  as  it  was  anciently,  and  is  now  set  off 
by  landmarks. 

In  the  year  1686,  immediately  before  the  Revolution,  and 
during  the  provostship  of  John  Barnes,  Esq.,  the  Magistrates  and 
Council  resolved  to  purchase  the  run-riggs  of  Craignestock,  now 
known  by  the  name  of  the  Calton  Green.  These  purchases, 
which  had  been  begun  by  Provost  Barnes,  were  completed  by 
Provost  Anderson  in  1699. 

The  lands  of  Craignestock  were  bounded  on  the  west  by  a 
road  on  the  east  of  Merkdailly  lands,  now  the  continuation  of  St. 
Mungo's  Lane,  on  the  north  by  the  loan  leading  to  Rutherglen, 
on  the  south  by  the  Reidcloth  Burn,  and  on  the  east  by  other 
lands  of  Craignestock. 

In  a  few  years  after  this  purchase  was  completed,  the  Magis- 
trates and   Council  built  a  stone  wall  along  the  north  boundary  of 

1  Queiy. — Was  it  at  this  time  that  those  three  active  provosts  acquired  among  them- 
selves such  large  slices  of  our  Great  Western  Common  ? 

2  Was  the  High  Green  purchased  for  the  community  as  a  Bonne  Bouche  to  stop 
complaints  for  the  loss  of  so  valuable  a  part  of  the  Western  Common,  which  had  been 
previously  so  disposed  of? 


56  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

the  Green,  commencing  at  Skinners'  Green,  and  terminating  at 
the  east  extremity. 

It  does  not  appear  that  there  was  any  other  addition  made  to 
the  Green  till  the  year  1773,  when  the  Magistrates  and  Council 
purchased  upwards  of  28  acres  from  Colin  Rae,  Esq.,  of  Little 
Govan,^  and  several  smaller  lots  of  the  lands  of  Kinclaith  from 
other  persons,  which  have  since  continued  to  form  a  part  of  the 
Green  at  the  east  end  ;  and  that  the  park  might  be  as  extensive 
and  complete  as  the  special  localities  would  possibly  permit,  the 
Magistrates  and  Council,  in  1792,  puchased  from  the  late  Patrick 
Bell  of  Cowcaddens,  the  lineal  descendant  of  the  respectable 
provosts  of  that  name,  the  lands  of  Provost  Haugh,  etc.,  or 
Fleshers'  Haugh,  so  called  from  the  pasturage  being  let  out  to 
certain  members  of  that  incorporation. 

The  lands  of  Kinclaith  being  thus  partially  acquired  at  dif- 
ferent periods  from  a  number  of  individuals  who  all  exercised 
their  own  mode  of  improving  their  property,  some  by  erecting 
small  houses,  others  by  letting  out  runnings  for  cropping,  or  for 
the  purpose  of  trade,  as  might  best  suit  their  respective  interest 
or  views,  it  is  not  surprising  that  the  surface  was  irregular, 
rendered  more  so,  in  consequence  of  the  Camlachie  Burn  which 
separates  the  Calton  from  the  High  Green,  lying  considerably 
under  the  surface  of  either.  The  greater  part  of  the  trees  in  the 
Green  were  planted  during  the  time  that  Robert  Roger,  John 
Aird,  Peter  Murdoch,  Andrew  Ayton,  Archibald  Ingram,  and 
Arthur  Connel  held  the  office  of  Chief  Magistrate. 

^  Glasgoiv Jow-nal,  28th  November  1776. —  "Notice,  that  these  11  acres,  I  rood,  and 
12  falls  of  land,  belonging  to  the  city  of  Glasgow,  lately  acquired  from  Colin  Rae,  of  Little 
Govan,  lying  beyond  the  head  of  the  Green  of  Glasgow,  and  on  the  east  side  of  the 
road  belonging  to  Peter  Bell,  of  the  Cowcaddens,  leading  from  his  haugh  on  the  north 
side  of  the  river  Clyde  to  the  high  road  leading  from  the  Green  to  "Wishart's  House. 
As  also  the  lands  called  vSt.  Enoch's  Croft,  presently  possessed  by  William  Horn, 
Wright,  belonging  to  the  said  city,  are  to  be  let  in  tack  for  the  space  of  seven  years, 
after  Martinmas  last,  1776,  by  public  roup,  within  the  Council  Chambers,  on  the  i6th 
curt.  Also  that  part  of  St.  Enoch's  Croft,  on  the  west  side  of  Jamaica  Street,  now 
used  as  a  timber  yard,  to  be  let  in  tack  for  seven  years  after  Martinmas. 

"  N.B. — The  old  dyke  at  the  head  of  the  Green  is  to  be  removed  and  re-built  in  the 
march  of  the  town's  ground,  on  the  west  side  of  the  said  Patrick  Bell's  foresaid  road. 
The  new  dyke  to  be  five  quarters  high,  twenty  inches  thick  at  bottom,  and  ten  inches 
thick  at  top,  and  to  be  coped  with  the  cope  stones  on  the  said  old  dyke.  Any  person 
willing  to  contract  for  executing  the  above  work  may  apply  to  the  town-clerk  of  Glasgow." 


GLASGOW  GREEN.  57 

In  1730,  during  the  time  that  Peter  Murdoch  was  provost, 
the  Public  Washing -House  was  erected;  a  lead  or  watercourse 
was  afterwards  taken  from  the  Camlachie  Burn  for  driving  the 
machinery,  by  which  water  was  forced  from  the  river  into  the 
Washing-House. 

In  1756  Provost  George  Murdoch  commenced  the  formation 
of  walks  in  the  Green,  which  has  been  continued  by  several  of  his 
successors.  The  serpentine  walks,  which  were  formed  with 
shrubbery,  came  to  be  so  much  abused  by  idle  and  dissolute 
persons  that  it  became  necessary  to  root  out  a  considerable  part 
of  them.^ 

In  1777  the  Arns  Well  or  Reservoir  was  opened,  during  the 
provostship  of  Robert  Donald,  Esq, 

In  the  year  1 744,  during  the  time  that  Andrew  Cochran  was 
provost,  the  Magistrates  and  Council  would  have  sold  a  part  of  the 
Laigh  Green,  but  for  the  general  voice  of  the  public  being  raised 
against  it. 

In  1 8 1 0  the  Gaol  and  public  offices  were  erected  on  the  west 
side  of  the  continuation  of  Saltmarket  Street,  at  the  bottom  of 
the  Laigh  Green,  chiefly  on  the  ground  which  was  formerly  the 

1  Glasgcnv  Journal,  isth  March  1756. —  "By  order  of  the  Magistrates. — The 
Magistrates  having  directed  a  further  improvement  to  be  made  upon  the  Town's  Park 
or  new  Green,  by  forming  a  walk  and  planting  trees,  do  hereby  give  public  notice, 
that  in  case  any  of  these  trees  shall  be  cut,  peeled,  or  any  way  destroyed,  they  are 
determined  to  take  recourse  upon  the  inhabitants  of  Calton  as  lying  nearest  to  the  new 
plantation,  in  terms  of  the  Act  after-mentioned  :  and  they  likewise  offer  a  reward  of  five 
guineas  to  those  who  will  discover  the  persons  guilty  of  destroying  the  trees,  fences,  or 
walks,  so  as  they  can  be  brought  to  punishment,  in  terms  of  the  Act  passed  in  the  first 
Parliament  of  King  George  the  First." 

Mercury,  5th  April  1756.  —  "Whereas,  the  City  of  Glasgow  hath  made  new 
improvements  upon  their  new  Green,  by  making  of  walks  and  planting  of  young  trees, 
and  that  the  Magistrates  hath  advertised  in  the  public  papers  that  if  any  of  these  their 
new  improvements  be  damaged  any  manner  of  way,  that  they  are  resolved  to  take 
recourse  upon  the  inhabitants  of  the  Calton  for  the  same.  Bailie  Miller,  in  the  Calton, 
does  hereby  give  notice  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  Calton  of  Glasgow,  and  others,  that 
they  resolve  to  be  so  neighbourly  to  the  City  of  Glasgow,  as  to  be  at  al!  due  pains  to  be 
watchful  of  their  interest  to  make  discovery  of  any  who  shall  damage  the  said  walks, 
fencing,  or  planting  ;  and  that  he,  with  the  concurrence  of  some  of  the  principal 
inhabitants  of  Calton,  will  give  two  guineas,  over  and  above  what  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow 
hath  offered,  to  any  who  shall  make  such  discoveries  as  they  may  bring  the  offenders  to 
light.  And  likewise,  that  whereas  upon  the  night  between  the  2d  and  3d  instant,  one 
of  the  young  trees  was  pulled  up  by  the  root  by  some  malicious  person,  they  promise  to 
give  one  guinea  over  and  above  the  ^^5  53  that  the  Magistrates  hath  offered,  for  the 
discovery  for  pulling  up  the  said  tree." 


5  8  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Skinners'  Green.  The  ground  on  the  east  side  of  the  street, 
although  authorised  to  be  sold,  still  forms,  and  is  intended  to 
remain,  a  part  of  the  Laigh  Green.  Before  the  stripe  of  ground 
in  the  Calton  Green  was  brought  into  the  market,  the  Magistrates, 
with  concurrence  of  the  trustees  on  the  Muirkirk  Road,  effected 
a  very  important  improvement  in  the  formation  of  Great  Hamilton 
Street,  by  widening  the  old  road  leading  to  Rutherglen  from  the 
stripe  of  ground  authorised  to  be  sold.-^ 

During  the  currency  of  the  last  twenty -five  years  the  High 
Green  has  been  increased  nearly  one-third.  In  1791  there  were 
houses  and  places  of  business  on  what  is  now  the  public  Green, 
and  walls  bounding  a  cart  road  leading  to  Provost  Haugh.  In 
1806  the  watercourse  connected  with  the  Washing- House  was 
often  so  stagnant  during  the  summer  months  as  to  become 
offensive  to  the  citizens.  The  banks  contiguous  to  Peat  Bog 
were  so  rugged  and  wasted  down  by  springs  that  they  were  not 
only  offensive  to  the  eye  but  completely  useless.  The  Laigh 
Green  lay  so  low,  and  was  so  irregular  in  its  surface,  that  a  slight 
swell  on  the  river  or  a  smart  shower  laid  it  under  water,  which 
had  to  be  carried  off  to  the  Camlachie  Burn  by  an  open  drain. 
The  entries  to  the  Laigh  Green  by  the  Saltmarket  Street,  Cow 
Lane,  and  the  Old  Bridge  were  so  narrow,  irregular,  and  dirty, 
from  their  vicinity  to  the  Slaughter-House,  that,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  the  first,  they  were  chiefly  used  by  cattle  and  fleshers' 
dogs. 

The  Molendinar  and  Camlachie  Burns  ran  through  the  streets 
in  an  uncovered  state,  crossing  the  Skinners'  Green  and  saw 
mill  in  an  oblique  direction.  The  Skinners'  Green  was  insulated 
by  the  burn  and  Slaughter- House,  and  the  bottom  of  the  Laigh 
Green  was  surrounded  by  offensive  pits,  used  by  skinners  and 
tanners.     The  Slaughter-House  spread  over  a  large  and  irregular 

1  This  stripe  of  ground  formed  part  of  the  public  walks  of  the  Green.  It  was  enclosed 
on  the  north  by  a  stone  wall,  and  there  was  a  double  row  of  fine  trees  upon  its  whole 
extent.  Its  gravel  walk  joined  the  serpentine  walks  at  the  Camlachie  Burn,  over  which 
there  was  a  bridge.     In  my  time  it  was  a  pubHc  parade  for  the  citizens. 

It  is  singular  that  Dr.  Cleland  makes  no  mention  of  the  large  portion  of  the  Calton 
Green  which  the  Magistrates  of  that  time  feued  off  to  form  Monteith  Row ;  but  it  must 
be  remembered  that  the  doctor  himself,  as  superintendent  of  public  works,  had  a  large 
share  in  the  act  of  thus  curtailing  our  public  park.      He  was  bailie  in  1806. 


GLASGOW  GREEN.  59 

surface  on  the  bank  of  the  river,  and  was  bounded  by  crooked 
lanes  on  the  north  and  north-east  parts,  than  which  there  was  no 
other  entry  to  the  Green  from  the  west. 

The  dung  of  the  Slaughter- House  and  the  intestines  of 
slaughtered  animals  were  collected  in  heaps,  and  allowed  to 
remain  for  months  together,  till  putrefaction  took  place,  to  the 
great  annoyance  of  the  neighbourhood.  A  gluework,  and  a 
work  in  which  tharm  was  manufactured  from  the  intestines  of 
animals  in  a  recent  state,  was  erected  at  the  bottom  of  the  Laigh 
Green  ;  and  to  complete  the  nuisance,  the  adjoining  houses  were 
occupied  for  cleaning  tripe  ;  and  rees  were  fitted  up  for  the  retail 
of  coal  and  coal-culm.  The  space  on  the  bank  of  the  river  at  the 
east  side  of  the  old  bridge,  which  had  been  enclosed  for  a  live 
cattle-market,  came  now  to  be  used  by  the  police  as  a  receptacle 
for  filth  from  the  streets.  The  improvements  on  the  Green  and 
the  adjoining  properties  were  so  far  completed  in  1814  that 
the  following  may  be  taken  as  a  description  of  them  since  that 
period. 

The  Green  as  it  now  stands  (1866)  contains  upwards  of  108 
acres.  The  circuit  of  the  gravel  walks  has  been  completed,  and 
the  houses  and  intermediate  walls  on  the  High  Green  removed  ; 
the  watercourse  connected  with  the  Washing- House  has  been 
rendered  unnecessary  by  a  plentiful  supply  of  water  from  the 
water  companies.  The  banks  adjoining  Peat  Bog  have  been 
drained  and  turfed,  so  as  to  render  them  at  once  useful  and 
ornamental.  The  Laigh  Green  is  in  progress  of  improvement ;  a 
street  in  connection  with  the  gravel  walks  has  been  formed  in 
front  of  the  range  of  the  intended  Calton  Green  buildings,  to  be 
bounded  on  the  side  next  the  Green  by  a  parapet  wall  and  rail. 
The  course  of  a  considerable  part  of  the  Molendinar  and  Cam- 
lachie  Burns  from  their  junction  has  been  completely  altered  and 
arched,  and  streets  formed  over  it.  A  breastwork  at  the  river 
supporting  an  iron  railing  has  been  built  from  the  timber  to  the 
old  bridge  ;  the  entries  to  the  Laigh  Green  by  the  Saltmarket 
and  East  Clyde  Street  are  rendered  spacious  by  the  removal  of 
houses  and  nuisances,  and  the  thoroughfare  has  been  greatly 
increased  by  the  Market  Lane.     The  lime  and  tan  pits,  saw  mill, 


6o  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS.  ; 

tharm  work,  tripe  houses  and  coal-rees,  at  the  Skinners'  Green, 
have  been  removed,  and  the  public  offices  and  Gaol  erected  on  or 
near  their  site;  the  spacious  street,  I20  feet,  in  front  of  the 
portico  of  the  public  offices,  has  been  raised  so  as  to  protect  it 
from  the  highest  flood  ;  the  side  next  the  Green  is  to  be  bounded 
by  a  low  parapet  wall  and  railing.  The  Slaughter- Houses  have 
been  removed  from  the  bank  of  the  river,  and  East  Clyde  Street, 
eighty  feet  wide,  formed  on  part  of  their  site.  These  buildings 
which,  under  existing  circumstances,^  could  not  possibly  be 
removed  to  a  greater  distance  from  the  river  than  where  they 
are  now  placed,  are  perhaps  the  largest  in  the  island  for  the 
purpose  of  slaughtering  animals.  These  operations  have  cost 
Httle  short  of  i^5  0,000. 

In  1858  the  Magistrates  and  Council  of  Glasgow,  having 
expended  large  sums  in  the  purchase  of  the  West  End  Park,  the 
M'Lellan  property,  and  South  Side  Park,  found  themselves  short 
of  cash  ;  it  therefore  occurred  to  a  number  of  the  Council  that  by 
sinking  of  shafts,  and  by  working  of  coal  in  the  Green,  the  funds 
necessary  for  clearing  off  the  debt  in  question  could  easily  be 
obtained.  To  this  scheme  very  serious  objections  were  made, 
such  as,  that  it  would  destroy  the  walks  of  the  Green  as  a  parade, 
would  create  a  public  nuisance,  and  would  seriously  damage  the 
land  by  causing  a  subsidence  to  take  place  on  its  surface;  in  short, 
that  it  would  altogether  destroy  the  amenity  of  the  Green  as  a 
public  place  of  recreation. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Town  Council  on  the  ist  of  April  1858, 
Mr.  M'Dowall,  councillor,  made  the  following  motion  : — 

"  That  the  Magistrates  and  Council  should  remit  to  the  Committee  on 
Finance  to  make  the  necessary  arrangements  for  letting  the  coal  in  the  Green 
by  public  roup." 

To  this  scheme,  in  any  shape  whatever,  Councillor  Moir  most 
strenuously  objected.     He  said,  "I  have  not  spoken  to  one  working 

^  These  circumstances  were,  that  the  Incorporation  of  Fleshers  possessed  certain 
rights  and  privileges,  which  they  maintained  were  infringed  by  the  Magistrates  ;  in 
consequence  thereof  a  lawsuit  took  place  before  the  Court  of  Session  on  the  subject, 
when,  after  a  long  course  of  litigation,  the  Court  decided  against  the  I\Iagistrates,  thereby 
establishing  the  claims  of  the  Incorporation  of  Fleshers. 


GLASGOW  GREEN.  6i 

man  who  would  not  willingly  pay  a  tax  of  one  penny  per  pound 
on  his  rental  rather  than  have  the  Green  so  destroyed."  Mr. 
Moir  then  gave  the  following  excellent  epitome  of  the  history  of 
the  Green  : — 

"  I  have  looked  at  the  different  records  and  documents  on  the  subject,  and 
although  the  details  of  the  origin  of  the  park  are  not  very  distinct,  they 
certainly  show  that  the  Corporation  have  been  the  means  of  the  acquisition  of 
the  place.  It  is  supposed  from  all  that  I  can  gather  on  the  matter,  that  the 
first  portion  of  the  Green  was  a  grant  from  James  II.  to  William  Tumbull, 
Lord  of  Provan  and  Bishop  of  Glasgow.  The  portion  thus  granted  would 
seem  to  be  that  near  our  present  Court-House,  and  named  at  the  period  (1450) 
the  '  Laigh  Green,'  or  the  'Skinners'  Green.' 

'*  In  the  year  1664,  and  under  the  provostship  of  John  Bell,  another 
portion  of  land  called  the  '  High  Green,'  bounded  on  the  north  by  Camlachie 
Burn,  on  the  west  by  the  east  end  of  the  Laigh  Green,  on  the  south  by  the 
Clyde  and  Provost  Haugh,  and  on  the  east  by  the  boundary  of  the  Royalty, 
was  added  to  the  other. 

"  In  the  year  1686,  before  the  Revolution,  and  during  the  provostship  of 
John  Barnes,  the  Corporation  commenced  the  purchase  of  the  run-riggs  of 
Craignestock,  now  called  the  Calton  Green,  near  Monteith  Row.  In  1780, 
the  whole  Green  contained  59  acres  i  rood  and  7  falls  ;  and  at  that  period 
there  was  an  island  in  the  river  containing  an  acre  and  30  falls,  and  situated 
near  where  the  W^ashing- House  now  stands,  and  forming  one  of  the  principal 
salmon  shots.  During  the  provostship  of  Andrew  Cochran,  in  1744,  the 
Corporation  tried  to  sell  a  portion  of  the  Laigh  Green,  in  consequence  of  their 
being  laid  under  contribution  through  the  rebellion  of  171 5;  but  pubhc 
indignation  was  so  great,  and  so  strongly  expressed  against  their  doing  so,  that 
they  had  to  abandon  the  attempt. 

"The  first  walks  in  the  Green  were  made  in  1756  ;  and  in  the  year  1783, 
more  than  28  acres  were  purchased  from  Colin  Rae  of  Little  Govan,  and 
several  smaller  lots  of  the  lands  of  Kinclaith  were  also  bought  from  other 
parties.  In  1792,  the  Corporation  purchased  from  Patrick  Bell  of  Cowcaddens, 
the  portion  of  the  Green  called  Fleshers'  Haugh  and  Provost  Haugh;  and  this 
was  the  last  purchase  that  I  know  of  being  made  for  the  purpose  of  forming 
what  is  now  known  as  the  Green." 

Mr.  Moir  concludes  his  statement  by  saying : — 

"  I  think  some  deference  ought  to  be  shown  to  the  present  hostile  attitude 
of  the  working  classes,  especially  when  the  people  at  the  east  end  would  pay 
a  tax  of  a  penny  a  pound  to  avoid  the  Green  being  ruined." 

In  consequence  of  the  public  having  expressed  a  strong  feeling 
against  the  scheme  of  working  coal  on  the  Green,  the  Magistrates 
and  Council  have  allowed  the  matter  to  drop  in  the  meantime. 


62  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

The  community  are  much  indebted  indeed  to  Mr,  Moir  for 
the  very  great  attention  which  he  has  paid  to  improve  and 
ornament  the  Green  of  Glasgow,  and  to  render  it  not  only  useful 
to  the  public,  but  also  to  make  it  a  place  of  healthful  amusement 
and  recreation  to  all  classes  of  our  citizens  ;  this  he  has  done 
without  fee  or  reward. 

In  reference  to  certain  operations  which  were  made  to  meliorate 
various  portions  of  the  Green,  Mr.  Moir  on  a  subsequent  occasion 
thus  informs  us  : — 

''  In  the  year  1813,  the  Magistrates  and  Council  having  directed  a  design 
and  specification  for  improving  the  Green  to  be  drawn  up,  and  a  plan  thereof 
to  be  made,  the  same  was  accordingly  done  and  approved  of.  The  design 
comprehended  the  following  particulars  : — 

"  1st.  Raising  the  Laigh  Green  in  some  places  four,  and  in  others  five  feet. 

"  2d.  Embanking  the  Fleshers'  Haugh. 

"  3d.  Forming  a  tunnel  from  the  head  of  the  Green  to  the  Episcopal 
Chapel,  for  containing  the  Camlachie  Burn. 

"  4th.  Slope  levelling  the  Calton  Green,  so  as  to  make  it  assimilate  with 
the  High  Green. 

"  5th.  Levelling  the  other  parts  of  the  Green. 

"  6th.  Converting  the  road  from  St.  Mungo's  Lane  to  Craignestock  into  a 
street. 

"  7th.  Laying  out  the  Calton  Green  in  building  lots,  and  forming  a  street 
between  them  and  the  Green. 

"  8th.  Forming  a  street  from  the  bottom  of  the  Saltmarket  to  the  Calton 
Green,  in  front  of  the  English  Chapel,  in  a  line  with  the  south  front  of  the 
wing  of  the  southmost  house  in  Charlotte  Street. 

«'  9th.  Planting  trees  in  various  places  of  the  Green,  and  lastly,  the 
removal  of  the  Washing-House.  After  the  rise  of  the  surface  of  the  Laigh 
Green  above  alluded  to  had  been  effected,  it  was  still  common  for  the  Laigh 
Green  to  be  flooded  in  the  winter  season.  Subsequent  to  this,  but  previous 
to  my  connection  with  the  Corporation  in  1848,  it  was  again  raised  from 
three  to  four  feet  all  over,  since  which  period  I  think  it  has  never  been  again 
flooded.  During  the  time  that  I  have  been  connected  with  the  Corporation 
the  embankment  of  the  river  has  been  completed  from  the  Fleshers'  Haugh  to 
Hutchesons'  Bridge  ;  numerous  new  footpaths  have  been  made  ;  the  drainage 
of  the  Green  has  been  completed  ;  various  corners  have  been  planted  with 
trees,  ornamental  shrubs  and  flowers,  and  surrounded  with  a  neat  malleable- 
iron  railing,  as  has  also  a  belt  running  along  the  whole  length  of  Monteith 
Row,  also  enclosed  with  a  neat  malleable-iron  railing  ;  and  now,  though  every- 
thing has  not  been  done  that  may  yet  be  done,  I  look  upon  Glasgow  Green  to 
be  one  of  the  noblest  recreation  grounds  in  the  three  kingdoms." 

At  the   time  when   the  subject  of  working  the  coal  in  the 


COAL  UNDER  THE  GREEN.  63 

Green  was  under  discussion  at  our  Council  Board,  I  addressed 
the  following  letter  to  the  Glasgozv  Herald  of  2 2d  January 
1858:— 

"Subsidence  of  the  Green  of  Glasgow. — There  is  a  curious  instance 
of  the  subsidence  of  the  Green  of  Glasgow  that  took  place  in  the  year  1754, 
which  has  not  been  taken  notice  of  by  any  of  our  Glasgow  historians  ;  but  on 
the  subject- — that  danger  might  arise  from  a  similar  subsidence,  in  the  event 
of  the  working  of  the  coal  in  the  Green  being  proceeded  with,  perhaps  the 
following  notice  may  prove  interesting  to  our  citizens.  It  may,  however,  be 
as  well,  in  the  first  place,  to  recapitulate  the  observations  of  different  council- 
lors on  the  subject,  made  at  the  last  meeting  of  our  Council  Board,  as  I  have 
some  doubts  of  the  correctness  of  their  views  as  to  the  cause  of  sinkings  on 
the  Green  at  different  times." 

The  following  is  taken  from  the  Glasgozv  Herald : — 

"  Mr.  M'Adam  asked  what  kind  of  roof  was  over  this  coal-field  ? 

"  Mr.  Murray  said  it  was  that  usually  belonging  to  the  Glasgow  coal-field. 

"  Mr.  M'Adam  said  that  his  question  had  reference  to  the  keeping  up  of 
the  ground,  for  it  had  been  very  much  sunk  from  the  effects  of  similar  works. 

"  Mr.  Murray. — The  coal  in  the  Green  lies  very  deep,  and  there  is  little 
fear  of  the  level  of  ground  being  much  interfered  with.  Where  the  ground 
has  sunk  much  the  roof  has  been  partly  composed  of  sand. 

"  Mr.  Dreghorn  recommended,  as  this  was  a  very  important  matter,  that 
it  be  delayed,  and  that  meanwhile  the  report  be  circulated  amongst  the 
members. 

"  Mr.  M'Dowall  said  it  was  contemplated  by  Mr.  Johnstone  that  there 
would  be  subsidence  of  from  two  to  three  feet ;  but  he  said  that  this  might 
easily  be  filled  up  by  deposits  obtained  from  the  public,  and  long  before  the 
coal  was  worked  out  of  the  ground  might  be  made  as  good  as  ever  it  was. 

"  Mr.  Gray. — It  is  very  desirable  that  we  should  know  a  little  more  of  the 
subsidence  than  we  do  now.  The  subsidence  on  the  south  side,  in  similar 
cases,  is  even  more  than  four  or  five  feet. 

"  Mr.  Bain  said  the  question  of  subsidence  was  an  important  one.  On 
Rutherglen  Green,  for  instance,  the  subsidence  had  been  so  great  as  to  form 
a  loch,  upon  which  people  skated  in  winter  time.  At  Mr.  Wilson's  coal-fields 
in  the  north  it  was  also  very  great.  On  the  Rutherglen  Road  the  subsidence 
was  very  great — so  much  so  as  to  have  torn  some  of  the  houses  to  shivers. 
At  Mr.  Reid's  workings,  near  Rutherglen,  the  walls  were  so  much  opened  that 
any  one  might  put  his  hands  into  the  crevices. 

"  Mr.  Moir  stated  that  on  the  south  side  houses  were  held  together  by 
iron  rods  and  connecting  plates  fixed  on  the  walls. 

"Mr.  Binnie  said  the  subsidence  would  not  be  of  any  moment." 

From  the  above  extract  it  appears  that  all  the  said  councillors 


64  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

were  of  opinion  that  the  sinking  in  the  Green  had  been  caused  by 
certain  mining  operations  which  had  taken  place  in  the  adjacent 
lands.  But  I  cannot  reconcile  this  with  the  under -mentioned 
circumstance  of  the  Green  having  sunk  above  ten  feet  in  1754 — 
and  this  upon  the  highest  or  strongest  ground  of  the  Green, 
while  the  lowest  or  weakest  part  remained  unaffected,  and  while 
the  coal  in  the  Green  had  not  been  worked  at  all. 

Extract,  Scots  Magazine,  1754,  page  154.  —  "Letters  from  Glasgow,  of 
6th  March,  bear  that  people  were  greatly  surprised  with  the  sinking  of  the 
walk  along  the  river  side,  near  the  head  of  the  Green,  in  breadth  in  some 
parts  near  twenty,  and  in  length  about  eighty  yards.  The  sinking,  which 
appeared  at  first  to  be  about  five  feet,  continued  gradually  for  some  days,  and 
then  it  was  above  ten. 

"  It  is  remarkable  that  though  the  distance  from  the  walk  to  the  river  is 
about  fifty  or  sixty  yards,  with  a  considerable  descent,  yet  it  is  only  the 
highest  ground  that  has  sunk.  No  alteration  appears  near  the  water  edge, 
excepting  a  few  small  chinks  or  openings." 

"  Various  are  the  conjectures  about  the  cause.  Some  will  have  it  that 
there  are  springs  below  ground  which  communicate  with  the  river,  and  (as 
the  soil  is  sandy)  have  formed  a  cavity  by  washing  away  the  sand,  and  there 
being  nothing  to  support  the  weight  above,  the  earth  has  fallen  in.  Others 
suspect  that  the  river — which,  at  this  part,  forms  a  curve  or  crook,  and 
is  very  deep,  has,  by  degrees,  washed  away  the  foundation,  etc. — by  the 
openings  that  appear  at  the  greatest  distance  from  it,  and  the  way  they  point, 
they  apprehend  that  if  proper  care  is  not  speedily  taken  the  river  will  cut  out 
a  new  channel  for  itself." 

In  the  year  1754,  when  the  above-mentioned  subsidence  took 
place  on  the  Green  of  Glasgow,  the  whole  of  Europe,  and  like- 
wise America,  and  the  West  Indies,  suffered  from  a  succession 
of  earthquakes,  which  continued  till  1775,  when  Lisbon  was 
overwhelmed  by  one  of  them.  In  1754  we  learn  from  the  Scots 
Magazine  that  the  shocks  of  an  earthquake  were  felt  all  over 
Yorkshire.  That  in  Sicily  two  villages  were  swallowed  up,  and 
that  40,000  persons  perished  at  Grand  Cairo,  and  two-thirds  of 
that  city  laid  in  ruins  by  like  convulsions  of  the  earth.  Under 
these  circumstances,  I  think  it  is  probable  that  the  sinking  of  the 
walk  on  the  High  Green  of  Glasgow  in  March  1754  was  caused 
by  repeated  small  shocks  of  an  earthquake,  which  although  so 
slight  as  not  to  alarm  the  citizens,  were  quite  sufficient  to  effect 
the  subsidence  mentioned.      It  may  be  remarked,  however,  that 


EARTHQUAKE  AT  GLASGOW.  65 

the  walk  which  had  thus  sunk  ten  feet  lay  on  the  high  ground 
immediately  on  the  north  of  the  Arns  Well,  and  might  have  been 
soft  sandy  ground,  full  of  springs.  From  the  name  of  "  Peat 
Bog,"  which  the  place  still  bears,  we  may  presume  that  the  lands 
on  this  portion  of  the  Green  had  at  one  time  been  a  marsh  or 
peat  moss. 

It  appears  from  the  Scots  Magazine  of  1755  (page  594)  and 
of  1756  (page  40)  that  there  were  continued  shocks  of  earth- 
quakes felt  all  over  the  world  during  the  said  years,  and  that 
these  shocks  also  affected  Glasgow  and  the  lands  in  its  neigh- 
bourhood. 

"  1756,  6th  January.  On  Wednesday  last,  betwixt  one  and  two  o'clock  in 
the  morning,  a  small  shock  of  an  earthquake  was  felt  at  Greenock,  and 
several  places  in  that  neighbourhood,  as  well  as  at  Dumbarton,  Inchinnan, 
and  Glasgow.  A  writer  from  Kilmalcolm,  about  10  miles  from  Glasgow, 
says  : — '  Yesterday,  i  st  January,  I  felt  about  seven  or  eight  shocks  of  an 
earthquake  all  succeeding  one  another — the  whole  shocks  were  over  in  the  space 
of  half  a  minute.  The  second  shock  was  the  greatest,  and  so  violent,  that  it 
fairly  Hfted  me  off  the  bed,  jolted  me  to  the  head  of  it,  and  in  a  moment 
down  again  to  where  I  lay  before.  I  believe  three  or  four  such  shocks  would 
have  laid  this  house  in  ruins.'" — Edinburgh  Courant. 

Those  convulsions  of  the  earth,  though  slight,  nevertheless 
having  been  frequently  repeated,  may  have  tended  to  diminish 
the  size  of  the  Point  Isle,  then  situated  a  little  below  the  Arns 
Well,  and  near  the   place  where  the  subsidence  had  occurred. 

In  1760,  as  shown  in  the  annexed  Plan  of  the  Green,  the 
Point  Isle  was  quite  a  conspicuous  object,  as  forming  a  part  of 
our  public  park,  but  how  it  came  so  quickly  after  this  date  to 
have  been  swept  away  has  never  been  satisfactorily  accounted 
for. 

From  the  following  quotation  it  appears  that  the  Point  Isle  had 
become  of  much  smaller  extent  in  1776  than  formerly,  as  it  is 
there  called  merely  "a  sort  of  an  island,"  whereas  in  1730,  during 
the  provostship  of  Peter  Murdoch,  James  Moor,  land  surveyor, 
having  made  a  sketch  of  the  Green,  reported  that  the  island  in 
question  then  contained  one  acre  and  30  falls  of  ground,  and  that 
it  had  been  one  of  the  principal  salmon  shots  of  the  river: — 

Constitutional,  1776,  page  351. — "We  hear  from  Glasgow  that  during 
VOL.  III.  F 


66  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

the  late  swell  on  the  river  Clyde,  four  women,  who  were  attending  clothes  on 
the  Green,  were  several  times  in  the  most  imminent  danger,  from  the  rapidity 
of  the  flood,  and  at  last  two  of  them  lost  their  lives  ;  the  other  two  having 
saved  themselves  by  getting  on  a  sort  of  an  island,  till  the  water  subsided.  A 
woman  was  also  drowned  in  Clyde  a  little  below  the  Broomielaw." 

Although  this  accident  happened  in  my  day,  yet  I  was  then 
too  young  to  have  remembered  any  particulars  of  the  circum- 
stance, or  of  the  Point  Isle  ;  and  notwithstanding  of  having  been 
accustomed  very  early  in  life  to  resort  to  this  part  of  the  river 
for  the  purpose  of  bathing,  I  cannot  call  to  my  recollection 
having  observed  any  vestiges  of  the  Point  Isle  ;  it  therefore  must 
have  disappeared  very  soon  after  the  above  unfortunate  calamity 
had  occurred. 

Being  a  good  swimmer  for  a  boy,  I  wished  to  ascertain  what 
kind  of  bottom  the  river  had  at  Peat  Bog;  accordingly  at  the 
bend  of  the  river,  near  the  Arns  Well,  which  place  was  then  con- 
sidered the  deepest  part  of  the  stream,  I  dived  to  the  bottom 
of  the  river  and  brought  up  a  handful  of  fine  sand,  the  depth 
being  fully  eighteen  feet.  Having  then  swam  a  short  distance 
down  the  stream,  I  was  surprised  to  find  that  it  suddenly  became 
quite  shallow,  and  that  I  could  touch  the  bottom  of  the  river 
with  my  feet  without  having  been  out  of  my  depth.  This  ap- 
peared to  me  at  the  time  to  have  been  an  extraordinary  circum- 
stance ;  but  now  I  am  of  opinion  that  the  shallow  part  of  the 
river  in  question  had  formerly  been  the  bed  of  the  Point  Isle, 
and  that  in  fact  it  then  was  the  debris  of  the  said  isle,  I  further 
remember  that  at  this  period  there  was  a  range  of  old  decayed  stobs 
inserted  in  the  bank  of  the  river,  between  the  Arns  Well  and  the 
Old  Bridge,  which  no  doubt  had  been  so  placed  for  the  purpose 
of  preventing  any  part  of  the  Green  from  being  washed  away 
by  floods.  The  plan  of  thus  confining  the  flow  of  the  river, 
and  the  more  important  measures  of  building  jetties  to  narrow 
the  Clyde  for  navigation  purposes,  just  then  commenced  by  Mr. 
Golborne,  may  perhaps  sufficiently  account  for  the  sudden  dis- 
appearance of  the  Point  Isle  shortly  after  1776,  without  the 
supposed  intervention  of  earthquakes — at  any  rate,  there  is  no 
record,  so  far  as  I  have  seen,  of  the  Point  Isle  having  been  removed 


"DOWCOT  GREEN"  ISLAND.  67 

from  the  channel  of  the  upper  navigation  by  dredging,  or  by  any 
other  operation  of  manual  labour,  and  therefore  it  must  be 
presumed  to  have  been  wasted  away  by  natural  tidal  or  fluvial 
operations. 

There  also  existed  at  this  time  another  island  in  the  river, 
immediately  below  the  Old  Bridge,  which,  before  the  breast 
between  the  bridges  was  built  in  1772,  formed  a  sort  of  peninsula 
that  joined  the  Old  Green,  or  Dowcot  Green,  at  low  water,  but  at 
other  times  became  an  island  of  considerable  size. 

In  one  of  Slezer's  Views  of  Glasgow,  drawn  up  in  the  reign 
of  Charles  II.,  there  appears  to  be  three  haystacks  upon  this 
island,  so  that  it  must  have  been  considerably  elevated  above  the 
level  of  the  river  itself.  It  appears  from  the  Burgh  Accounts 
that  in  1578  there  was  a  pigeon-house  or  dowcot  on  the  Old  Green 
of  Glasgow,  and  hence  came  the  name  of  the  "  Dowcot  Green." 

"  Burgh  Records,  discharge :  Compt.  of  Patrick  Glen,  Theasurer  of  the 
Burgh,  3d  May,  1578." 

'*  Item  for  ye  dowcatt  on  ye  Grene vi.  s.  viij.  d." 

In  my  infantile  days.  Bailie  Craig  of  the  Water  Port,  Stock- 
well  Street,  used  to  discharge  his  cargoes  of  timber  upon  the 
Dowcot  Green  island.  The  channel  of  the  river  for  sailing  vessels 
was  then  upon  the  south  side  of  the  river,  and  was  navigable  up 
to  Rutherglen.  My  mother,  who  was  born  in  1734  and  died  in 
1 8 16,  informed  me  that  in  her  young  days  the  Dowcot  Green 
isle  was  generally  resorted  to  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  western 
district  for  the  purpose  of  washing  and  bleaching  their  clothes, 
while  the  inhabitants  of  the  eastern  parts  of  the  city  usually  went 
to  the  Low  Green  of  Glasgow  for  like  purposes. 

This  isle,  like  the  Point  Isle,  has  also  gradually  passed  away, 
without  any  efforts  having  been  made  by  our  Magistrates  to  re- 
move it  by  manual  labour  ;  but  its  disappearance  can  be  readily 
accounted  for  in  consequence  of  Golborne's  operations  to  deepen 
the  channel  of  the  river,  and  by  the  general  liberty  which  was 
either  given  to  the  public,  or  winked  at,  to  take  sand  from  the 
river  at  this  spot,  there  being  a  direct  road  from  what  is  now 
Great  Clyde  Street  to  the  river  for  the  purpose  of  watering  horses, 


68  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

and  otherwise  for   giving  a  free  and  easy  access  to   the  Clyde 
below  the  bridge. 

Although  the  city  authorities  do  not  seem  to  have  made  much 
objection  to  individuals  taking  sand  from  the  river  below  the 
bridge,  nevertheless  they  appear  to  have  been  careful  to  preserve 
the  integrity  of  the  Horse  Ford  (see  Plan)  immediately  above  the 
bridge,  as  the  following  quotation  shows : — 

Council  Records,  27th  July  1639. — "The  Council  granted  licence  to 
Sir  Robert  Douglas  to  gett  ane  hundredth  kairtis  of  the  tounes  guarvell  to 
help  to  build  out  the  dyk  of  his  zaird  nearest  Clyde  bezound  the  Bridge." 

(This  must  have  been  from  the  Horse  Ford.) 

I  have  often  waded  across  this  ford  without  undressing  more 
than  my  under  garments,  so  that  a  horse  and  cart  could  then 
readily  pass  at  that  point  from  one  side  of  the  river  to  the  other. 

I  remember  that  the  bottom  of  the  river  at  the  Horse  Ford 
consisted  of  moderate-sized  gravel,  which  rendered  the  passage  of 
cattle  and  carriages  over  this  part  of  the  river  to  have  been  then 
easy  and  free  from  danger. 

Dr.  Cleland,  in  the  first  chapter  of  his  Annals,  has  given  us  a 
romantic  account  of  a  battle  which  was  said  to  have  taken  place 
on  the  streets  of  Glasgow,  near  the  College,  between  Sir  William 
Wallace  and  the  English,  in  the  course  of  which  battle  Wallace 
(as  the  Doctor  says)  "rushed  forward  to  the  spot  where  Percy 
was,  and  with  one  stroke  of  his  broadsword  cleft  Percy's  head  in 
two."  ^ 

In  opposition  to  the  learned  Doctor,  however,  Mr.  Pagan,  ip 
his  Sketches  of  Glasgow  (at  page  6),  thus  writes  : — 

"  The  metrical  romance  of  Wallace,  written  in  the  i  5th  century,  by  Blind 
Hany,  gives  a  long  and  minute  account  of  a  conflict  which  that  hero  is  said 
to  have  fought  with  the  English,  on  the  streets  of  Glasgow,  about  the  year 
1 300.  The  silence  of  all  history  on  the  event  compels  us  to  reject  the  affair 
as  a  fable,  like  nine-tenths  of  the  same  minstrel's  works." 

Neither  the  English  historian  Holinshed,  who  wrote  the 
Chronicles  of  Scotland  in  1577,  nor  our  own  historians,  Buchanan, 
Lindsay,  or  Robertson,  have  said  a  word  on  the  subject  of  this 

1  Query. — Could  this  feat  have  been  done  by  Wallace  (then  on  horseback)  with 
the  famous  Dumbarton  two-handed  broadsword  ? 


BATTLE  OF  THE  BELL  OF  THE  BRAE.  69 

so-called  battle  of  the  Bell  of  the  Brae  ;  nevertheless,  as  Wallace 
at  this  time  was  actively  engaged  in  expelling  the  English  from 
all  their  strongholds  in  Scotland,  it  is  probable  that  a  skirmish  of 
some  kind  did  actually  take  place  in  Glasgow,  about  the  year 
1300,  between  Wallace  and  the  English  garrison,  then  occupying 
the  Bishop's  Castle/  Chapman's  account  of  this  battle  is  not 
improbable  ;  he  says  (at  page  6) : — 

"  Wallace,  leaving  Ayr  with  300  cavalry,  hastened  to  Glasgow,  which  was 
occupied  by  an  English  garrison,  consisting  of  about  1000  men,  under  Percy 
their  general.  He  arrived  about  9  o'clock  a.m.,  and  drew  up  his  men  on  the 
ground,  now  the  north  end  of  the  Old  Bridge  (Bridgegate).  In  a  spirited 
action  which  now  commenced,  the  superior  numbers  of  the  English,  for  some 
time,  seemed  to  promise  them  success,  when  the  column  under  Auchinleck, 
amounting  to  about  140  men,  marching  by  St.  Mungo's  Lane  and  the  Drygate, 
made  a  furious  assault  on  the  flank  of  the  enemy.  The  English  instantly 
broke,  and  were  pursued,  with  considerable  slaughter,  to  Bothwell  Castle, 
about  8  miles  distant  from  the  city.  In  the  action  and  pursuit  Percy  and 
several  hundreds  of  his  men  are  said  to  have  fallen." 

There  is  here  a  narrative  of  circumstantial  particulars  which 
cannot  be  altogether  overlooked,  as  they  clearly  show  that  the 
narrator  must  have  been  well  acquainted  with  the  localities  of 
Glasgow.  It  is  stated  by  several  historians  that  Wallace  drew 
up  his  men  on  the  lands  of  the  Bridgegate,  but  not  a  word  is  said 
of  his  having  crossed  the  river  by  the  bridge,  in  fact  the  bridge  at 
that  time  was  impassable  for  cavalry.  Mr.  Pagan,  in  his  Sketches 
(page  169),  thus  writes: — 

"Tradition  states  that  prior  to  1340  a  wooden  bridge  spanned  the  Clyde 
somewhere  west  of  Saltmarket  Street.  This,  however,  had  fallen  into  decay, 
and  in  consequence,  a  stone  bridge  was  built  over  the  Clyde,  about  1345,  by 
the  liberality  of  Bishop  Rae.  It  was  originally  only  12  feet  in  width,  and 
would,  of  course,  offer  a  roadway  where  '  two  wheel-barrows  tremble  when 
they  meet.' " 

It  is  therefore  evident  that  in  1300  the  usual  passage  across 
the  Clyde  to  Glasgow  for  cattle  and  carriages  was  by  the  Horse 
Ford,  and  that  Wallace  and  his  cavalry  must  have  entered  the 
Bridgegate    lands    at    the    north    termination    of   the  ford,   near 

1  Buchanan,  writing  regarding  this  period  (at  page  254),  merely  says  : — "  Scot! 
omnes  Eduardi  praefectos,  ex  omnibus  urbibus  et  arcibus  exigunt,  hie  status  rerum  prope 
biennium  durasset,  &c." 


70  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

our  present  Slaughter-House  (see  small  Plan),  the  wooden  bridge 
being  then  only  used  by  foot-passengers. 

We  have  reason  to  believe,  from  authentic  history,  that 
Edward  I.  had  an  English  garrison  at  this  time  in  Glasgow,  but 
it  most  probably  consisted  only  of  about  200  men,  which,  in 
number,  were  quite  sufficient  to  have  kept  the  peaceable  citizens 
of  Glasgow  in  due  subjection  to  the  tyrant,  and  more  than  the 
Bishop's  Castle  could  have  accommodated.  That  the  garrison 
then  amounted  to  1000  men  at  arms  appears  a  gross  exaggeration, 
for  the  very  next  year,  1301,  Edward  I.  peaceably  resided  three 
days  in  Glasgow,  and  went  regularly  to  mass,  unaccompanied  by 
body-guards  or  military  escorts  ;  no  mention  is  made  of  there 
having  been  a  garrison  in  the  Bishop's  Castle  when  Edward 
resided  in  Glasgow. 

Mr.  Pagan  (at  page  6),  in  his  Sketches,  thus  writes  : — 

"It  is  certain  that  in  the  autumn  of  the  year  1301,  King  Edward  I.  of 
England,  spent  three  days  within  the  city,  taking  up  his  abode  in  the  spacious 
monastery  of  the  Friars  Preachers.  From  the  account  of  his  expenses,  which 
are  still  preserved,  we  learn  that  he  was  constant  in  his  attendance  at  mass, 
in  the  Cathedral,  and  that  he  made  offerings  both  at  the  High  Altar  and  at 
the  Shrine  of  St.  Mungo." 

There  was  no  occasion  for  Edward  keeping  so  large  a  garrison 
in  Glasgow  as  1000  men-at-arms  in  order  to  check  any  outbreak 
of  its  citizens,  or  of  those  in  its  immediate  vicinity,  for  the  city 
was  not  a  fortified  place.      (Robertson,  i.  p.  274.) 

At  this  time,  according  to  Cleland,  Glasgow  did  not  contain 
even  1500  inhabitants,  and  the  Bell  of  the  Brae  was  then  the 
south  boundary  of  the  city,  few  houses  being  erected  beyond  the 
bounds  of  the  burgh.  On  the  occasion  of  the  battle  in  question 
the  English  appear  to  have  taken  their  stand  upon  the  high 
grounds  of  the  Bell  of  the  Brae,  and  to  have  successfully  resisted 
the  first  attack  of  Wallace,  but  to  have  been  broken  by  the  flank 
movement  of  Auchinleck,  and  to  have  fled  through  open  lands 
to  Bothwell,  where  there  was  an  English  garrison.  Taking  a 
view  of  the  whole  incidents,  and  the  circumstantial  manner  in 
which  various  points  are  related  by  different  authors,  it  appears 
probable  that  a  skirmish  between  Wallace  and  the  English  did 


BATTLE  OF  THE  BELL  OF  THE  BRAE.  71 

really  take  place  at  the  Bell  of  the  Brae  about  the  year  1300, 
and  that  Wallace  succeeded  in  expelling  the  English  garrison 
from  Glasgow. 

It  must  be  here  remarked  that  the  Green  of  Glasgow,  and 
the  whole  lands  in  its  environs,  including  all  the  low  parts  of 
Glasgow,  were  at  that  time  vacant  grounds  or  brushwood  forests 
belonging  to  the  Crown,  which  in  1450  were  bestowed  by  James  IL 
on  Bishop  Turnbull,  and  afterwards  called  the  Bishop's  Forest  ;  so 
that  the  battle  of  the  Bell  of  the  Brae  and  the  pursuit  to  Bothwell 
must  have  taken  place  in  the  open  country  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  city,  and  the  battle  itself  to  have  been  fought  not  in  the 
heart  or  streets  of  Glasgow,  as  stated  by  Cleland,  but  beyond  the 
south  boundary  of  old  St.  Mungo,  in  the  fields. 


CHAPTER   V. 

Regent  Murray's  Approach  to  Glasgow  and  Hamilton,  after  Langside,  1568,  by  the 
Horse  Ford— Erection  of  the  Stone  Dyke  across  the  Clyde — Rutherglen  Quay  and 
Traffic— Stoppage  of  the  Fords  by  Act  of  Parliament,  1768 — Golborne  and  Clyde 
deepening  in  1773 — The  Broomielaw  in  1760 — ^The  Old  Bottlework — The  Bottle- 
work  Company — Gorbals  Church — Hutchesontown  in  1794. 

By  the  following  extract  from  Buchanan,  page  6'j^,  it  appears 
that  in  1568,  immediately  before  the  battle  of  Langside,  the 
Regent  Murray  occupied  nearly  the  same  position  as  Wallace 
did  in  1300  viz.,  in  the  open  fields  (campis  patentibus)  at  the 
north  end  of  the  Old  Bridge,  and  that  his  cavalry  crossed  the 
river  by  the  Horse  Ford,  and  his  infantry  by  the  bridge.  From 
the  words,  "  sestu  maris  tum  libera,"  we  learn  that  the  tide  flowed 
above  the  bridge,  and  that  the  Horse  Ford  was  probably  not 
fordable  at  high  water  and  spring  tides.  Buchanan,  page  6^6, 
says : — 

"  Ille  (Pro-rex)  vero,  ut  qui  ultro  hostes  provocare  ad  certamen  statuerat, 
cum  primum  suos  educere  potuit,  ante  oppidum  in  campis  patentibus,  qua 
hostes  venturos  existimabat,  acie  instructa,  aliquot  horas  stetit.  Sed  cum 
agmen  eorum  ulteriore  fluminis  ripa  agi  videret,  eorum  consilio  statim  intel- 
lecto,  et  ipse  suos  pedites  per  pontem,  equites  per  vada,  oestu  maris  tum  libera 
transmissos,  Lansidium  petere  jussit." 

As  the  Regent  crossed  the  ford  in  the  summer  season  (viz. 
on  the  13th  of  May  1568),  it  is  probable  that  the  passage  was 
easily  made,  the  waters  of  the  river  having  then  most  likely  been 
low. 

From  Slezer's  View  of  Glasgow,  drawn  up  in  the  reign  of 
Charles  II.,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  banks  of  the  Clyde  immedi- 


REGENT  MURRAY.  73 

ately  above  the  Old  Bridge  were  then  lying  in  a  state  of  nature, 
with  a  gradual  slope  on  each  side  towards  the  river,  and  that  the 
Horse  Ford  on  the  north  terminated  directly  opposite  the  Bridge- 
gate  steeple,  there  being  an  elevated  ridge  or  mount  from  thence 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Molendinar  Burn,  where  the  Gaol  and  public 
offices  afterwards  came  to  be  erected. 

Cattle  and  carriages  crossing  the  ford  entered  the  Bridgegate 
by  the  lane  now  on  the  east  side  of  the  Merchants'  House,  and  as 
being  the  nearest  route  into  the  heart  of  the  city,  they  proceeded 
into  the  Trongate  by  the  Old  Wynd,  the  entry  by  the  Stockwell 
being  shut  at  the  bridge  (see  small  Plan),  and  King  Street  not 
having  been  opened  till  1724.  It  thus  appears  that  in  former 
times  the  Horse  Ford  was  the  common  high-road  into  Glasgow 
from  the  south,  and  in  fact  that  it  afforded  an  easier  access 
to  the  city  for  cattle  and  carriages  than  the  narrow  Old  Bridge 
itself. 

According  to  Robertson  (i.  p.  276)  and  Keith  (477),  the  Regent 
Murray,  after  the  battle  of  Langside,  "  marched  back  to  Glasgow, 
and  returned  public  thanks  to  God,  for  his  great,  and,  on  his 
side,  almost  bloodless  victory."  Holinshed,  the  English  historian, 
thus  writes  : — 

"  The  morrow  after  the  battle,  being  the  xiiij  of  May,  the  Regent  sent  to 
somon  Hamilton  Castle,  but  the  answear  was  respited  till  the  next  day,  and 
then  he  that  had  the  charge  came  to  Glasquho  and  offered  the  keyes  to  the 
Regent." 

In  opposition  to  w^hat  is  said  on  this  subject  by  the  above 
historian,  Buchanan,  page  67^,  says: — 

"  Prorex  reliqunm  diei  quo  pugnatum  est  in  recensendis  captivis  consumpsit. 
Postridie  quingenties  equitibus  tantum  comitatus,  in  vallem  glottianam  pro- 
fectus,  omnia  plena  fugae  vestigiis  et  vastitatis  invenit." 

We  are,  therefore,  left  in  uncertainty  whether  the  Regent 
recrossed  the  Clyde  with  his  army,  and  came  to  Glasgow,  or 
marched  to  the  east  by  way  of  the  vale  of  Clydesdale  direct  from 
Langside,  the  recent  scene  of  the  battle.  Buchanan's  account 
appears  to  be  the  most  probable  one,  as  the  500  cavalry  mentioned 
most  likely  were  sent  to   Hamilton  to  demand  the  surrender  of 


74  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

the  castle  there.  Supposing  that  the  Regent  with  his  army 
re -crossed  the  Horse  Ford  and  came  to  Glasgow,  there  would 
have  been  no  difficulty  as  to  their  again  crossing  the  Clyde  in 
their  march  to  Edinburgh,  if  they  took  advantage  of  the  Dalmar- 
nock  Ford  to  pass  the  river.  This  ford  led  directly  into  the 
lands  belonging  to  the  Hamiltons,  a  family  supporting  the  cause 
of  Queen  Mary,  and,  of  course,  hostile  to  the  views  of  the  Regent. 
The  point  in  question  is  one  of  historical  doubt.  The  following 
extract  was  written  by  me,  and  published  in  the  Glasgozv  Herald 
of  26th  July  1858  : — 

"  Your  correspondent  D.  says  that  the  Clyde  was  fordable  for  children  at 
the  Kinning  House  burn,  in  the  year  before  the  Broomielaw  Bridge  was  built ; 
but  even  after  that  time  I  myself,  when  a  boy,  have  waded,  only  breast  high, 
across  the  Clyde  at  the  deepest  part  of  the  Harbour." 

"  I  cannot  recollect  the  exact  year,  but  I  remember  that  on  the  occasion  of 
there  being  a  spate  in  the  river,  an  alarm  arose  that  the  New  Bridge  was  in 
danger  of  falling.  This  was  upon  a  Sunday,  and  on  that  day  I  saw  a  number 
of  carters,  employed  by  the  magistrates,  throwing  stones  by  cart-loads  over  the 
bridge,  into  the  river,  in  order  to  strengthen  the  foundations  of  the  piers. 
Subsequently,  a  stone  dyke  was  erected  quite  across  the  river,  and  at  low 
water  a  person  could  scramble  on  this  dyke  from  one  side  of  the  river  to  the 
other,  merely  wading  through  a  ripple.'  This  dyke  destroyed  the  ancient 
navigation  to  Rutherglen.  At  this  time  the  community  of  Rutherglen  was 
torn  into  local  factions,  by  disputes  between  the  magistrates,  crafts,  and 
inhabitants,  as  to  certain  rights  of  voting,  in  consequence  of  which  the 
operations  of  the  Glasgow  magistrates  at  the  Jamaica  Street  Bridge  were 
neglected,  and  so  the  upper  navigation  came  to  be  closed." 

"  The  Rutherglen  folks  (unlike  the  Dumbarton  folks)  never  appeared  in 
the  Court  of  Session,  or  in  Parliament,  to  dispute  the  schemes  of  the  Clyde 
Trustees." 

"  Your  correspondent  D.  is  wrong  in  stating  that  coals  passing  through 
Gorbals  to  Glasgow,  or  the  neighbourhood,  were,  at  the  time  in  question, 
generally  carried  on  horseback.  Old  Mr.  Dixon  had  a  wooden  tram-road 
running  from  his  Govan  Coal  Works  through  the  present  lands  of  Kingston 
to  the  Coal  Quay,  then  situated  at  the  west  end  of  Windmillcroft,  where  the 
river  was  deeper  than  at  the  Broomielaw.  I  have  walked  along  this  tram- 
road,  and  have  seen  old  Dixon's  waggons  passing  along  it." 

I  crossed  the  Old  Bridge  of  Gorbals  in  the  year  1778,  when 
it  was  receiving  an  addition  of  ten  feet  to  its  former  width  of 
twelve  feet,  and  this  improvement  shows  that  the  cartage  across 

1  See  this  dyke  represented  in  Stuart's  Vieivs  of  Glasgmv,  page  109. 


RUTHERGLEN  SHIPPING. 


75 


it  was  considerable  at  that  time,  and  the  bridge  too  narrow  for 
the  traffic  passing  over  it. 

Before  the  Broomielaw  Bridge  was  built  herring  boats  and 
small  gabberts  plied  regularly  to  Rutherglen,  and  sometimes  there 
were  more  vessels  lying  at  Rutherglen  Quay  than  at  the  Broomie- 
law Harbour.  I  remember  on  one  occasion  that  there  was  but 
one  large  vessel  (a  gabbert)  lying  at  the  Broomielaw.  The  late 
Mr.  Alexander  Norris,  who  was  born  in  1/5  i,  informed  me  that 
in  his  younger  days  there  was  a  regular  traffic  by  sailing  vessels 
up  to  Rutherglen  Quay  from  Greenock  and  the  Highlands  ;  and 
that  this  traffic  was  of  old  date  may  be  presumed  when  we  see 
the  arms  of  the  burgh  of  Rutherglen  to  be  a  boat  under  sail  with 
two  men  navigating  her. 

The  following  advertisement  will  show  that  the  upper  naviga- 
tion was  open  in  the  year  1781  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  29th  November  1781. — "That  there  is  a  Ferry-boat, 
or  Lighter,  lying  in  a  park  adjacent  to  the  Green  of  Glasgow  (Fleshers'  Haugh,) 
possessed  at  present  by  John  King,  late  Deacon  of  the  Fleshers,  supposed  to 
have  been  cast  in  by  a  flood  more  than  twelve  months  bygone,  and  as  no 
person  has  made  inquiry  anent  her,  this  is  to  give  notice  to  any  person  who 
can  claim  the  same  between  and  the  12th  of  January  next,  may  call  for  Thomas 
Ronald,  overseer  of  the  said  park,  at  the  foot  of  the  Old  Wynd  of  Glasgow, 
who  will  show  the  boat,  and  upon  making  their  property  good,  shall  be 
returned  upon  defraying  charges." 

It  certainly  must  appear  very  wonderful  in  the  eyes  of  the 
present  generation,  when  parliamentary  contests  are  so  frequent, 
to  see  the  apathy  of  the  burgh  of  Rutherglen  at  this  time  (1768), 
and  to  behold  its  denizens  standing  still  with  folded  arms  and 
calmly  allowing  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  to  shut  up  the  old 
"  use  and  wont "  access  by  the  River  Clyde  to  Rutherglen,  the 
most  ancient  royal  burgh  of  the  two. 

Again,  it  is  curious  to  observe  how  modestly  the  Magistrates 
of  Glasgow  took  parliamentary  powers  to  prohibit  all  carriage  and 
cattle  traffic  on  the  Old  Bridge  at  their  pleasure  and  good-will, 
notwithstanding  of  the  Rutherglen  lieges  having  possessed  a  pre- 
scriptive right  by  use  and  wont  to  cross  the  Clyde  with  carriages 
and  cattle  from  the  days  of  Bishop  Rae  in  1345. 


76  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

In  fact  it  was  of  the  greatest  importance  to  the  burgh  of 
Rutherglen  to  see  that  the  communication  between  the  two  burghs, 
by  the  Old  Bridge  should  then  have  been  kept  open  for  the 
passage  of  carriages  and  cattle,  as  it  was  the  direct  highway  from 
Rutherglen  to  Glasgow  and  the  north,  the  present  Rutherglen 
Bridge  not  having  been  built  till  1776.  The  Magistrates  of 
Glasgow,  however,  have  never  exercised  their  power  of  shutting 
up  the  Old  Bridge  from  general  carriage  and  cattle  traffic,  but, 
on  the  contrary,  have  erected  a  new  and  more  splendid  structure 
with  full  liberty  of  passage  of  all  kinds,  and  are  now  zealously 
endeavouring  by  prudent  management  to  render  it  a  free  bridge 
in  all  time  coming. 

"1768. 
"Act,  Anno  Octavo  Geo.  III.,  Regis. 

Sec.  XXII.  "Be  it  therefore  enacted  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  that  the 
said  magistrates  and  council  of  Glasgow  shall  have  full  power  and  authority, 
and  are  hereby  empowered  and  authorised,  as  soon  as  the  said  New  Bridge 
shall  be  made  passable,  to  cause  all  fords  through  the  said  river  Clyde,  and 
from  thence  to  that  part  of  the  river  opposite  to  the  House  of  Stobcross  (the 
distance  between  these  two  places  measuring  one  mile,  and  a  quarter  of  a  mile), 
to  be  stopt  up,  and  the  channel  of  the  said  river  to  be  dug  and  made  deeper  ; 
and  the  banks  of  the  said  river  to  be  cut,  and  posts,  and  rails,  or  other  fences 
to  be  erected  thereon,  to  prevent  any  person  evading  the  payment  of  the  tolls 
and  pontages  given  and  granted  by  the  said  Act." 

Sec.  XXIII.  "And  be  it  enacted,  that  in  case  the  magistrates  and  city 
council,  and  their  successors  in  office,  shall  think  fit  to  keep  up  the  Old  Bridge, 
after  the  new  intended  bridge  shall  be  built,  they  shall  have  full  power  and 
authority,  and  they  are  hereby  empowered  and  authorised,  as  soon  as  the  said 
intended  New  Bridge  shall  be  made  passable,  to  prohibit,  and  stop  the  passage 
of  all  wheel  carriages,  sledges,  or  other  carriages,  or  of  any  horses,  cattle, 
sheep,  swine,  or  any  sort  of  cattle  or  beasts,  over  the  said  Old  Bridge,  but  to 
keep  the  same  entirely  as  a  free  bridge,  for  the  use  of  foot  passengers  only ; 
any  law  or  custom  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding." 

Nothing  is  said  in  this  Act  about  giving  the  proprietors  of  the 
lands  fronting  the  Clyde  any  compensation  for  damages  which 
might  be  sustained  by  them  in  consequence  of  their  respective 
properties  on  the  banks  of  the  river  becoming  injured  and  "  cut, 
and  posts  and  rails  or  other  fences  erected  thereon "  at  the 
pleasure  of  the  Magistrates  ;  neither  is  there  a  word  said  in  the 
Act  about  granting  the  said  river-side  proprietors  adequate  re- 


BANKS  OF  CLYDE  RECLAIMED.  77 

compense  for  the  loss  of  the  salmon  fishery  ;  but,  in  truth,  the 
proprietors  in  question  were  too  wise  to  make  any  objections 
on  the  subject,  as  the  Act  had  omitted  to  say  that  the  ground 
acquired  by  the  operations  of  the  Magistrates  from  the  old 
channel  of  the  river,  should  nevertheless  still  remain  as  part 
and  portion  of  the  said  river  channel,  in  case  of  need.  By  this 
omission  in  the  Act,  the  river-side  proprietors  have  gained  much 
river-side  ground,  which  the  River  Trustees  lately  have  been  (in 
the  course  of  their  operations)  obliged  to  buy  back  at  high  prices 
from  the  said  proprietors. 

Within  my  remembrance,  Mr.  David  Todd  of  Springfield  and 
Mr.  Francis  Reid  of  Greenlaw  gained,  each  of  them,  about  an 
acre  of  water-side  ground,  in  consequence  of  the  channel  of  the 
Clyde  having  become  greatly  narrowed  by  the  erection  of  jetties 
on  both  sides  of  the  river  immediately  after  the  New  Bridge  had 
become  passable.^ 

In  1829  the  Trades'  House  received  ;^io,ooo  from  the  Clyde 
Trustees  for  the  ground  which  lay  between  Clyde  Street  and  the 
river.  A  great  part  of  this  ground  formed  part  of  the  channel  of 
the  river,  as  may  be  seen  in  Stuart's  Vieivs  (page  109),  where  it  will 
be  seen  that  the  two  southmost  arches  of  the  bridge  stood  on  dry 
land,  but  formed  part  of  the  bed  of  the  river  at  floods  and  spring 
tides.  The  ox  eyes  in  the  bridge  were  intended  to  carry  off  in 
part  the  extra  flow  of  water  in  the  event  of  great  floods.  I  have 
often  amused  myself  when  a  boy  in  climbing  up  the  piers  of  the 
bridge  into  these  ox  eyes,  and  walking  along  the  dyke  which  then 

^  It  will  be  seen  from  the  following  advertisement  that  those  jetties  protruded  con- 
siderably into  the  channel  of  the  river,  and  had  perches  affixed  to  their  extremities  there, 
in  order  to  prevent  vessels  striking  against  them  at  high  water  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  17th  June  1779. — "By  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  : — These  arc 
prohibiting  and  discharging  all  boatmen,  ferrymen,  and  others,  from  fixing  and  landing 
their  boats,  at  or  upon  any  of  the  jetties,  dykes,  or  other  works  for  improving  the 
navigation  of  the  river  Clyde,  betwixt  the  lower  end  of  Dumbuck  ford  and  the  Bridge 
of  Glasgow,  and  from  landing  any  passengers  or  goods  upon  the  same  jetties,  and  from 
removing  or  carrying  away  the  perches  fixed  on  the  ends  thereof;  certifying  all  who  shall 
transgress,  that  they  will  be  prosecuted  for  the  penalties  inflicted  by  tlie  Act  of  Parlia- 
ment for  improving  the  navigation  of  the  said  river,  upon  all  those  who  shall  hurt  or 
destroy  the  works  made  for  deepening  thereof."  N.B. — The  space  between  the  jetties 
gradually  came  to  be  filled  up  with  rubbish  and  the  wreck  of  floods,  to  the  great  gain  of 
the  proprietors  of  the  banks. 


78  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

crossed  the  river  from  side  to  side,  immediately  below  the  arches 
of  the  bridge.      (See  Stuart's  Vieivs,  page  1 09.) 

In  1768  Mr.  Golborne,  civil  engineer,  having  made  a  survey 
of  the  river,  reported  to  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  that  the  Clyde 
was  then  lying  in  a  state  of  nature,  and  that  as  far  down  from 
Glasgow  as  Kilpatrick  the  river  was  navigable  only  for  vessels 
drawing  less  than  two  feet  of  water  ;  that  at  low  water,  upon 
one  of  the  hirsts  the  depth  was  merely  i  5  inches,  and  upon  the 
other  five  hirsts  1 8  inches  ;  that  at  high  water  the  depth  on  the 
first  hirst  was  only  39  inches,  and  on  the  others,  upon  an  average, 
ranging  rather  above  4  feet  at  full  tide. 

Glasgow  Weekly  Magazine,  20th  March  1773. — "  It  is  with  pleasure  that 
we  acquaint  our  readers  that  Mr.  Golborne  is  still  successfully  carrying  on 
his  operations  in  deepening  the  river  Clyde  ;  and  that  three  coasting  vessels 
arrived  at  the  Broomielaw,  directly  from  Ireland,  with  oatmeal,  without  stop- 
ping at  Greenock,  as  formerly,  to  unload  their  cargoes." 

Scots  Magazine,  December  1775,  P^g^  693. — "From  a  sounding  of  the 
river  Clyde,  from  the  lower  end  of  Dumbuck  Ford  to  the  Broomielaw  of 
Glasgow,  taken  on  the  8th  of  December  by  Colin  Dunlop,  Esq.,  of  Carmyle, 
Messrs.  Hugh  Wylie  and  John  Douglas,  merchants  in  Glasgow,  in  consequence 
of  a  warrant  directed  to  them  by  the  Sheriff-Depute,  of  the  County  of  Lanark, 
it  appears  that  the  said  river,  within  the  bounds  above  mentioned,  is  more  than 
seven  feet  water  at  an  ordinary  neap  tide,  and  that  Mr.  Golborne,  engineer, 
has  fully  implemented  his  contract  with  the  city  of  Glasgow." 

The  breast-work  between  the  bridges  was  built  about  the  year 
1772,  immediately  after  the  New  Bridge  had  become  passable; 
and  this  part  of  Glasgow  then  became  the  fashionable  promenade 
of  our  citizens,  the  route  being  along  Great  Clyde  Street,  from  the 
east  to  the  New  Bridge,  and  from  thence  by  the  parapet  of  the 
bridge  to  the  breast-work  fronting  the  river,  and  thereafter  along 
the  said  breast- work  eastward  to  the  Old  Bridge — the  whole 
making  a  circuitous  pleasure-walk  of  limited  extent.  I  must  say, 
however,  that  the  stroll  was  not  very  inviting  when  the  tide  was 
out.  This  walk  along  the  breast  was  not  without  danger  to  care- 
less persons,  as  there  were  three  or  four  gaps  in  it,  from  which 
stairs  descended  to  the  bed  of  the  river,  and  these  gaps  and  stairs 
were  totally  without  fences.  There  was  a  free  passage  or  entry 
across  the  breast,  sloping  from  Clyde  Street  to  the  river,  for  the 


CLYDE  BANKS,  AND  DEEPENING  OPERATIONS.         79 

purpose  of  enabling  horses  and  cattle  to  be  watered.  This  access 
path  stood  nearly  opposite  to  the  present  Roman  Catholic  Chapel, 
over  which  there  was  a  neat  wooden  bridge,  by  which  the  walk 
along  the  breast-work  was  not  interrupted.  It  was  fenced  on 
both  sides.  The  grass  plot  between  the  bridges  was  railed  in  on 
all  sides  by  a  palisade  of  Scots  fir  stobs  ;  but  no  attention  was 
paid  to  having  the  grass  cropped  or  weeds  eradicated,  nature 
being  allowed  its  full  scope.  I  have  seen  sheep  feeding  in  this 
enclosure,  but  no  other  beasts  of  pasture. 

It  appears  that  in  the  year  1775,  Mr.  Golborne's  operations 
having  deepened  the  river  so  as  to  admit  of  vessels  drawing  seven 
feet  of  water  to  come  up  to  the  Broomielaw,  these  operations 
had  undermined  the  foundations  of  the  breast-work  between  the 
bridges,  as  the  following  notice  shows  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  21st  August  1777. — "Notice,  that  the  magistrates  of 
Glasgow  being  resolved  to  re-build  that  part  of  the  breast,  a  httle  below  the 
Old  Bridge  of  Glasgow,  which  lately  fell  down.  Any  person  willing  to  re-build 
the  same  are  desired  to  give  in  their  proposals  to  the  town-clerks  of  Glasgow." 

Mr.  Golborne's  deepening  operations  may  further  have  tended 
towards  the  annihilation  of  the  Dowcot  Green  ^  and  Pointhouse 
Isles  before  mentioned. 

The  danger  of  having  had  open  and  unfenced  stairs  from  the 
breast  to  the  River  Clyde  is  seen  by  the  subjoined  notice  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  28th  July  1763. — "On  Sunday  last  (24th)  a  young  boy, 
wading  along  the  edge  of  the  quay,  overflowed  by  the  great  rains  which  had 
fallen  the  day  before,  coming  to  one  of  the  stairs  that  go  down  from  the  quay 
to  the  river,  unfortunately  fell  in  ;  his  sister,  somewhat  older  than  himself, 
endeavouring  to  catch  hold  of  him,  fell  in  likewise.  The  body  was  carried 
down  by  the  stream,  and  his  corpse  found  on  Tuesday,  about  twelve  miles 
below.  The  girl  was,  by  some  people  in  boats  lying  alongside,  taken  out  alive, 
but  died  soon  after,  to  the  inexpressible  grief  of  the  poor  parents." 

There  is  a  plate  of  the  Broomielaw,  executed  in  1760,  to  be 
seen  in  Stuart's  Views  of  Glasgow,  at  page  34,  which  must  be 
regarded  as  a  very  curious  and  interesting  antiquarian  document. 

Mr.  Stuart,  at  page  41,  thus  writes  regarding  it : — 

^  In  1770  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  (as  appears  from  the  City  Records)  hesitated 
about  laying  out  ^100  to  remove  the  shoal,  or  remains  of  the  Dowcot  Green  Isle,  and 
hinted  to  the  Merchants'  House  that  they  should  assist  them  in  this  great  work. 


8o  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

"The  View  appears  to  have  been  executed  about  the  year  1760  (date  of 
the  annexed  Plan),  and  afifords  a  curious  picture  of  the  aspect  of  our  harbour 
in  that  early  stage  of  its  existence,  when,  as  yet,  it  was  only  visited  by  the 
fisherman's  wherry,  or  by  the  humble  trading  vessels,  which  now  and  then 
made  their  appearance,  freighted  with  domestic  produce  from  the  coast  of 
Ireland  or  the  Western  Isles.  The  original  drawing  has  been  taken  from 
a  point  not  very  distant  from  where  the  Glasgow  Bridge  now  opens  into 
Eglinton  Street,  the  ground  in  that  locality  being,  till  within  the  last  forty  or 
fifty  years,  a  rough  uncultivated  waste — broken,  where  it  approached  the  river, 
into  numerous  hollows  and  indentations,  which  had  been  formed  by  the  winter 
currents  along  the  soft  and  crumbling  banks.  To  the  right  of  the  Plate  may 
be  seen  the  remains  of  an  ancient  tower,  said  to  have  been  part  of  a  windmill 
erected  by  Sir  George  Elphinston  about  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury, for  the  accommodation  of  his  tenantry  upon  the  neighbouring  lands,  and 
from  which  the  adjoining  common  received  the  name  of  the  Windmill  Croft. — 
On  the  left,  appear  a  few  detached  houses,  some  of  which  were  removed  to 
allow  of  the  formation  of  Jamaica  Street ;  and  prominent  above  all,  rises  the  old 
Bottle  Work  cone,  a  building  erected  in  1730,  and  the  predecessor  of  that 
which  was  removed  from  the  spot  about  fifteen  years  ago. 

"  The  formation  of  the  original  Quay  in  1662,  with  its  *  weighhouse,  foun- 
tain, and  cran,'  was  probably  the  first  innovation  which  materially  changed  the 
old  rustic  appearance  of  the  Broomielaw.  The  subsequent  erection  of  the 
Bottle  Work  made,  no  doubt,  another  alteration  of  some  consequence  ;  but  the 
greatest  change  of  all  took  place  between  the  years  1767  and  1773,  when  the 
first  Jamaica  Street  Bridge  was  carried  across  the  stream." 

Having  passed  my  early  boyhood  at  Greenlaw  House,  upwards 
of  fourscore  years  ago,  and  having  then  had  frequent  occasion  to 
ramble  from  the  now  General  Terminus  into  Glasgow  by  the  river- 
side footpath,  the  state  of  the  grounds  in  that  quarter  has  been  so 
fully  impressed  on  my  memory  as  still  to  appear  quite  fresh,  and 
almost  present  to  my  mind's  eye.  Mr.  Stuart  correctly  describes 
this  road  as  having  been  "  a  rough  uncultivated  waste,  broken, 
where  it  approached  the  river,  into  numerous  hollows  and  indent- 
ations " — in  fact,  down  to  my  time  it  was  lying  in  a  complete 
state  of  nature,  except  at  the  Windmill  and  at  the  Coal  Quay, 
where  the  hand  of  man  appeared  to  have  made  some  change. 
Tradeston,  Kingston,  and  Vl^indmillcroft  were  fields  in  cultivation, 
having  quick-set  hedges  separating  them  from  the  adjacent  public 
roads  and  footpaths.  Below  the  Coal  Quay,  the  Kinning-House 
Burn  was  crossed  by  a  single  plank  of  rough  timber,  without 
fences  ;    and  the  lands  of  Tradeston,  Windmillcroft,  Springfield, 


BROOMIELAW  HARBOUR  AND  BOTTLEWORK.    8i 

Parkhouse,  Greenlaw,  and  Mavisbank,  were  enclosed  within  thorn 
hedges  from  the  river  footpath.  There  was  a  small  wood  at  West 
Street.  The  footpath  may  be  said  to  have  included  the  whole 
banks  of  the  river,  from  the  bridge  to  Govan,  it  then  being  com- 
pletely open  and  free  to  the  public,  who  made  roads  through  the 
same  at  their  pleasure.  The  narrow  lane  from  the  Paisley  Road 
to  the  Coal  Quay  at  Springfield  was  then  principally  used  by 
the  Dumbarton  Glasswork  Company  and  by  old  Dixon,  for 
shipping  coals  at  the  Coal  Quay,  there  having  been  a  wooden 
tram-road,  from  Mr.  Dixon's  works  at  Little  Govan  through  the 
lands  of  Kingston  and  along  the  said  lane  itself,  direct  to  the 
Coal  Quay.  The  toll-bar  on  the  Paisley  Road  was  then  placed 
nearly  opposite  to  Clarence  Street,  off  Kingston.  Although  the 
river  was  deeper  at  the  Coal  Quay  than  at  the  Broomielaw,  it 
was  not  in  general  use  as  a  place  of  export  and  import. 

In  Stuart's  View  it  will  be  seen  that  the  Broomielaw  Harbour 
then  reached  eastward  as  far  as  the  mouth  of  St.  Enoch's  Burn, 
(a  little  beyond  the  site  of  our  present  Custom-House),  and  that 
there  was  a  breast-work  along  its  whole  extent ;  but  the  grounds 
from  St.  Enoch's  Burn  to  the  Old  Bridge  formed  the  Dowcot 
Green  and  the  Dowcot  Isle,  on  which  space  there  was  no  breast- 
work. In  Stuart's  said  View  (at  page  34)  there  appears  on  the 
extreme  left  a  small  house  of  one  storey  ;  this  house  seems  to 
have  been  taken  down  in  1768,  in  order  to  open  up  Jamaica 
Street  to  the  New  Bridge.  I  remember  the  other  houses  next 
the  Bottlework,  which  remained  entire  after  the  bridge  was  built, 
and  formed  the  south-east  corner  of  Jamaica  Street  for  many  years. 

In  Stuart's  View  the  cone  of  the  Bottlework  appears  a  con- 
spicuous object,  and  as  Stuart  says : — "  Prominent  above  all  rises 
the  old  Bottlework  cone,  which  was  erected  in  1730,  and  the 
predecessor  of  that  which  was  removed  from  the  same  spot,  about 
fifteen  years  ago."  Bailey,  in  describing  a  cone,  says  that  it 
"  may  be  conceived  to  be  formed  by  a  revolution  of  a  right-angled 
triangle  round  the  perpendicular  leg."  Now  none  of  Bailey's 
angles  and  triangles  were  to  be  found  in  the  geometrical  construc- 
tion of  the  old  Bottlework  cone,  for  it  had  a  most  respectable 
protuberant  belly,  like  a  pear,  or,  as  the  joke  goes,  like  a  London 
VOL.  III.  G 


82  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

alderman's  well-fed  paunch.  This  cone,  after  having  stood  the 
winter  blasts  of  more  than  half  a  century,  at  last,  from  the  ravages 
of  time,  tumbled  down  by  the  bursting  of  its  belly,  the  top-weight 
having  overcome  the  adhesion  of  its  lower  members. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  14th  February  1792,  page  54.  —  "The  cone  of  the 
first  glass-work  erected  at  the  Broomielaw  upwards  of  fifty  years  ago,  and 
which  had  given  indication  of  its  decayed  state,  occasioned  the  company  to 
give  up  working  in  it  for  some  months  past,  and  prepare  for  its  downfall :  that 
event  took  place  on  Tuesday,  the  7th  instant,  about  nine  in  the  morning. 
And  from  the  precautions  taken,  we  are  happy  to  observe  that  no  accident 
befell  any  of  the  workmen,  which  was  to  be  apprehended  from  the  falling  of 
so  stupendous  a  building,  and  such  a  mass  of  rubbish." 

Immediately  after  this  disaster  had  occurred  a  new  cone  came 
to  be  erected  on  the  site  of  the  old  one,  of  strict  geometrical  pro- 
portions, which,  as  Stuart  says,  was  taken  down  about  thirty 
years  ago.  I  think  the  ground  was  feued  for  two  guineas  per 
square  yard,  and  on  it  now  stands  our  Custom-House.  There 
was  a  small  parapet  wall  with  an  iron  railing  above  it  placed 
immediately  in  front  of  the  old  Bottlework  (see  Stuart's  Plate), 
and  as  the  windows  of  the  work  fronting  the  street  were  kept 
open  for  the  admission  of  fresh  air,  any  person  standing  on  the 
public  street  could  readily  see  the  whole  process  of  bottle-making, 
as  the  same  was  going  on  in  the  bosom  of  the  cone.  The  taking 
of  the  melted  metal  out  of  the  glowing  furnace  was  the  first 
process  to  be  seen  ;  then  came  the  act  of  blowing  the  said  metal 
into  a  bottle-mould  through  the  exertions  of  the  operative's  lungs, 
by  means  of  a  long  iron  pipe.  It  was  a  beautiful  sight  to  see  the 
red-hot  bottle  blown  up  with  as  much  ease  as  a  child  blows  up 
its  soap-bells.  The  outward  form  of  the  bottle  was  finished  by 
affixing  a  little  protuberance  of  metal  to  the  neck  of  it,  and  then 
depositing  it  in  a  situation  of  the  furnace  of  gentle  heat,  so  as  to 
allow  of  its  gradually  cooling.  The  men  at  work  were  generally 
dressed  in  their  shirts,  and  seemed  to  have  been  much  oppressed 
by  the  extreme  heat  of  the  place.  I  have  often  stood  in  Clyde 
Street  in  admiration  of  the  whole  process  of  bottle-blowing. 

From  the  following  advertisement  it  will  be  seen  that  the  ori- 
ginal Bottlework  Company  did  not  prove  a  very  lucrative  concern. 


THE  BOTTLEWORK  COMPANY.  83 

Glasgow  Journal,  27th  December  1756. — "As  the  contract  of  co-partner- 
ship betwixt  Richard  Alexander  Oswald  and  Company,  of  the  Glass-work  at 
Glasgow,  dissolved  November  last,  it  is  expected  their  customers  will  make  im- 
mediate payment  of  the  debts  due  by  them  to  Andrew  Scott,  the  Company's 
clerk,  or  settle  the  same  by  bills,  otherwise  they  will  be  obliged  to  take  the  dis- 
agreeable method  of  constituting  them  by  decreet.  Gentlemen  wanting  bottles 
may,  by  applying  to  George  Buchanan,  senior,  merchant  in  Glasgow,  or  to 
the  said  Andrew  Scott,  at  the  Glass-house,  be  supplied  with  common  quart 
bottles  at  25s  per  groce,  champagne  quarts  at  27s  for  ready  money  only." 

The  successors  of  Richard  Alexander  Oswald  and  Company 
in  the  Bottlework  appear  to  have  also  found  bottle-blowing 
unprofitable. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  21st  January  1779. — "Glasgow  Bottle  Work. — The 
Glasgow  Bottle  Work  Company,  carried  on  under  the  firm  of  Robert  Scott, 
jun.,  &  Co.,  being  now  dissolved,  their  whole  heritable  subject  at  the  foot  of 
Jamaica  Street,  with  all  their  utensils,  materials,  and  stock  on  hand,  are  to  be 
exposed  to  public  sale  in  the  Exchange  Tavern  here  on  Wednesday,  the  24th 
of  February  next.  Part  of  the  property  fronting  Jamaica  Street,  and  measuring 
from  north  to  south  193  feet,  might  be  set  ofif  for  building,  and  leave  sufficient 
room  for  carrying  on  the  manufacturing  business." 

My  father,  who  at  this  time  was  engaged  in  building  the  large 
tenement  in  Jamaica  Street,  the  third  on  the  north-west  side  of 
the  street,  urged  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  very  strongly  to 
purchase  the  Bottlework,  seeing  how  much  its  removal  would 
benefit  the  city  property  in  Jamaica  Street,  and  besides,  being  in 
all  likelihood  a  profitable  purchase,  would  take  away  the  most 
intolerable  nuisance  of  its  volumes  of  smoke,  covering  with  its 
black  films  the  town's  feuing  property  in  St.  Enoch's  Square,  and 
deteriorating  all  the  heritage  in  its  neighbourhood.  The  Magis- 
trates, however,  after  having  taken  the  subject  into  their  consi- 
deration, did  not  think  it  prudent  to  make  the  purchase.  In 
consequence  of  the  Bottlework  having  been  purchased  by  a  new 
company,  and  the  works  continued  in  a  still  more  aggravated  form, 
Jamaica  Street  remained  for  about  half  a  century  quite  a  neglected 
street,  but  as  soon  as  the  said  works  were  abandoned,  and  the 
cone  taken  down,  Jamaica  Street  rapidly  improved,  and  is  now 
one  of  the  very  first  leading  streets  of  our  city. 

In  M'Vean's  M'Urc,  page  231,  there  is  a  plate  of  the  Broomie- 
law  said  to  have  been  drawn  in  1768,  but  it  appears  to  me  to  be 


84  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

an  embellished  plan  of  the  locality,  and  in  the  minutiae  differs  in 
several  respects  from  that  of  Stuart,  at  page  34.  The  Bottlework 
cone  is  there  represented  in  an  improved  shape,  with  little  or  no 
belly  ;  and  there  are  rough  stobs  in  front  of  the  cone  in  place  of 
a  neat  parapet  stone  wall,  with  iron  railings  above  it.  The 
houses  on  each  side  of  the  cone  differ  from  those  represented  in 
Stuart's  Views,  and  the  Ropework  grounds  (or  Old  Green)  are 
shown  as  a  dense  forest,  while  in  Stuart's  Plate  there  is  only  a 
small  clump  of  trees  next  the  Bottlework  to  be  seen.  In  my 
early  days  these  grounds  were  quite  bare  of  planting,  and  I  have 
frequently  crossed  them  in  going  from  the  city  to  the  Broomielaw, 
although  this  was  trespassing  upon  the  Ropework  lands,  which 
liberty,  however,  was  seldom  objected  to  by  the  rope  spinners. 
In  M'Vean's  Broomielaw  the  breast-work  is  represented  as  a  fence 
of  wooden  stobs,  but  in  Stuart's  View  it  is  drawn  as  a  stone  erec- 
tion, with  a  stair  in  it,  descending  to  the  river,  such  as  was  noticed 
by  me  when  quoting  the  case  of  a  boy  being  drowned  by  falling 
into  the  river  over  the  stair. 

As  far  as  my  recollection  goes,  I  think  that  Stuart's  View,  at 
page  34,  is  an  accurate  representation  of  the  Broomielaw  locality 
in  1760,  little  alteration  having  taken  place  in  it  for  many  years 
after  the  New  Bridge  was  opened  in  1772. 

In  M'Vean's  View  the  lands  where  Carlton  Place  buildings 
are  erected  appear  as  waste  ground,  but  the  first  or  original 
Gorbals  Church  (of  Buchan  Street)  is  seen  in  it,  standing 
amidst  a  few  huts  or  houses  of  little  value.  As  the  present 
Gorbals  Church  has  been  the  source  of  much  public  interest,  and 
of  long  and  irritating  litigation  between  numerous  parties,  both 
civil  and  ecclesiastical,  the  following  notices  regarding  its  site 
fourscore  years  ago  may  prove  interesting  to  many  of  our 
citizens. 

In  June  1855  I  addressed  a  letter  as  under  to  the  editor  of 
the  Glasgozv  Herald : — 

"  Sir,  as  your  readers,  no  doubt,  feel  interested  in  the  question  at  issue, 
regarding  the  Gorbals  Church,  I  beg  leave  to  annex  an  old  advertisement 
announcing  the  sale  of  the  site  of  the  present  church  in  Clyde  Terrace.  The 
property  was  afterwards  let  for  a  dyework,  and  there  being  then  a  cart  entry 


CARLTON  PLACE  AND  GORBALS  CHURCH.  85 

to  the  river,  opposite  the  dyework,  the  goods  and  yarns  which  were  dyed  were 
subsequently  washed  in  the  stream.  There  was  a  similar  cart  entry  to  the 
river  on  the  north  side,  and  carts  passed  to  and  fro  across  the  Clyde,  a  little 
below  the  present  Victoria  Bridge.  Towards  the  west  of  the  dyework,  in  the 
line  of  Carlton  Place,  there  was  a  ropewalk  which  I  remember.  I  further 
annex  an  old  advertisement,  having  reference  to  the  site  of  the  first  or  old 
Gorbals  Church.  This  Church  was  sold  by  the  Gorbals  feuars,  but  in  what 
manner  the  titles  were  made  up,  or  what  became  of  the  money,  I  cannot 
say." 

Glasgow  Mercury,  17th  April  1781. — "To  be  sold,  by  public  roup,  on 
Friday,  the  28th  curt.,  within  the  Exchange  Coffee  House,  Glasgow,  between 
the  hours  of  eleven  and  twelve  o'clock,  that  pottery  adjoining  the  Gorbals 
Church,  which  belonged  to  the  deceased  Mr.  John  Holden,  and  presently 
possessed  by  Mr.  Andrew  Boag.  If  any  person  incline  to  make  a  private 
bargain  they  will  please  apply  to  Mrs.  Holden,  at  Burrel  Hall,  any  time  before 
the  roup." 

19th  April  1 78 1. — "To  be  sold,  by  public  roup,  within  the  house  of 
James  Pollok,  vintner  in  Gorbals,  upon  Friday  the  nth  of  May  next,  between 
the  hours  of  twelve,  mid-day,  and  three  o'clock  afternoon,  the  two  just  and 
equal  third  part  of  that  Kill,  barn,  and  yard,  or  piece  of  waste  ground  at  the 
back  thereof,  lying  in  the  village  of  Gorbals,  on  the  south  side  of  the  river 
Clyde,  between  the  old  and  new  bridges.  As  the  same  are  presently  in  the 
possession  of  Arthur  Watson,  maltman  in  Gorbals,  the  proprietor.  The 
articles  of  roup  and  progress  of  writs  are  in  the  hands  of  John  Sheels,  ^vriter 
in  Glasgow,  to  whom,  at  the  sheriff  clerk's  office,  or  to  the  said  James  Pollok, 
or  Arthur  Watson,  any  person  inclining  to  purchase  privately  may  apply 
betwixt  and  the  day  of  sale." 

Glasgow  Mercury,  3d  July  1792. — "To  be  sold,  by  public  roup,  on 
Thursday,  the  5th  of  July  instant.  The  whole  buildings  and  vacant  ground  of 
Joseph  Rogers  and  Sons,  cotton  spinners  in  Gorbals,  on  the  west  side  of  the 
road  leading  from  the  river  Clyde  to  the  Church  of  Gorbals.  The  houses  are 
built  in  the  form  of  a  square,  and  inclosed ;  and,  besides  the  cotton  work, 
there  is  a  good  dwelling  house  and  warehouse  on  the  premises. — Apply  to 
Wilson  and  M'^Farlane,  writers." 

Glasgow  Mercury,  20th  November  1783. — "To  be  sold,  by  public  roup, 
on  the  nth  of  December  next,  That  piece  of  ground  on  the  side  of  the  river 
Clyde,  and  south  side  thereof,  next  adjacent  to  the  village  of  Gorbals,  and 
on  the  west  side  of  the  highway  or  street  leading  from  the  town  of  Glasgow's 
Bridge  on  the  south  end  thereof,  with  the  whole  houses  built  thereon. — Apply 
to  John  M'Ewen,  writer." 

Glasgow  Journal,  21st  November  1782. — "To  be  set,  for  one  or  more 
years,  as  can  be  agreed  on,  That  piece  of  ground  lying  at  the  east  side  of 
the  Gorbals,  and  extending  from  the  river,  upwards,  to  near  Rutherglen  Loan 
consisting  of  about  two  acres."     (Muirhead  Street  was  formed  on  this  ground.) 

At   the  south-east  end  of  the  Old   Bridge  there  was  a  re- 


86  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

taining  wall  which  stretched  up  the  Main  Street  of  Gorbals  by  a 
gradual  slope,  but  the  surface  of  this  wall  was  upon  the  level 
with  the  street.  Immediately  to  the  east  of  this  wall  there  was 
a  narrow  lane  descending  from  the  south  extremity  of  the  re- 
taining wall  to  the  river,  which  was  used  as  a  passage  to  the 
Horse  Ford  in  former  times  ;  but  in  my  day  was  principally 
taken  advantage  of  for  the  purpose  of  watering  horses  and  cattle 
at  the  said  ford. 

From  the  above-mentioned  lane,  eastward  to  the  Blind  Burn, 
the  banks  of  our  river,  within  my  remembrance,  were  lying  in 
a  state  of  nature.  The  Blind  Burn  of  old  formed  the  eastern 
boundary  of  the  Gorbals  lands,  which  lands,  according  to  M'Ure, 
page  62,  at  one  time  belonged  to  Lady  Marjory  Stewart,  Lady 
Lochow,  granddaughter  of  Robert  IL  It  was  this  lady  who 
named  those  lands  "  St.  Ninian's  Croft." 

At  the  division  of  the  lands  of  Gorbals  in  1790  the  level 
track  of  ground  on  the  east  of  the  village  named  St.  Ninian's 
Croft  became  the  property  of  Hutcheson's  Hospital,  and  was 
feued  out  by  the  directors  of  that  Institution,  and  called  Hutche- 
sontown.      The  village  was  begun  in  1794. 

On  the  24th  of  June  1794  the  foundation  stone  of  the  first 
Hutcheson's  Bridge  over  the  Clyde  was  laid  by  Gilbert  Hamilton, 
Esq.,  Lord  Provost,  attended  by  the  Magistrates  and  a  number  of 
respectable  gentlemen.  This  bridge  had  five  arches,  was  410 
feet  long,  and  26  feet  broad  within  the  parapets.  On  the  i8th 
of  November  1795,  during  a  great  flood  of  the  river,  it  unfor- 
tunately was  swept  away ;  but  it  has  been  replaced  by  the 
present  more  elegant  structure. 

The  substance  of  the  following  article  was  published  in  the 
Glasgow  Herald  of  loth  September  1859,  and  is  now  repeated 
with  some  alterations  and  amendments  : — 

"  The  Old  Bridge  of  Glasgow — Water  Port — Bridgegate — 
Anecdotes,  &c. 

"  Editor  of  the  Herald — .     Most  of  your  readers  are  familiar  with 

the  principal   events  which   have   occurred  of  old    in  the    north  quarter  of 
Glasgow,  embracing  the  bypast  history  of  our  noble  Cathedral,  of  the  Archi- 


THE  "AULD  PEDAGOGUE."  87 

episcopal  Palace,  of  the  Prebendal  Manses,  of  the  storming  of  the  Bishop's 
Castle  by  Wallace,  of  the  house  in  which  Queen  Mary  visited  Darnley,  of  the 
plundering  of  Archbishop  Beaton's  Palace,  of  its  household  plenishing  by 
John  Mure,  of  Caldwell,  and  of  the  rise  and  progress  of  our  preceptorial 
College — first  as  the  '  Auld  Pedagogue  '  in  the  '  Ratten  Raw,'  ^  and  then  as 
the  erudite  University  of  the  City  of  Glasgow,  with  its  spacious  courts  and 
garden,  to  say  nothing  of  the  more  ignoble  doings  of  the  Howgate  head  and 
Castle  yard  hangings.  There  are  few  of  your  readers,  however,  who  are 
equally  well  acquainted  with  the  former  state  of  the  south  quarter  of  our  city, 
when  it  formed  the  fashionable  place  of  residence  of  a  great  part  of  our 
aristocratic  citizens,  and  the  seat  of  modish  elegance  for  holding  our  dancing 
assemblies  and  great  public  meetings."  ^ 

1  '«  De  terris  tenementi  et  loci  muncupati  '  Auld  Pedagog '  jacentibus  in  via  Ratonum, 
ex  Australi  inter  tenementum  Magistri  Johannis  Reid  ex  parte  occidentale,  et  terris 
Roberti  Reid  orientale." — Book  of  Our  Lady  College. 

2  "  I  believe  that  I  was  at  the  last  dancing  assembly  which  was  held  in  the  large 
hall  of  the  Merchants'  House,  shortly  before  the  Assembly  Rooms  at  the  Tontine  were 
erected  in  1782.  I  was  carried  there  through  the  Bridgegate,  in  a  neatly  cushioned 
sedan  chair,  by  two  chairmen,  the  fare  of  which  was  sixpence,  certainly  as  comfortable 
a  conveyance  as  either  our  modern  cabs  or  omnibuses." 


CHAPTER  VI. 

Residenters  in  the  Briggate — Bailie  Craig's  House  in  1736 — The  Old  Custom-House — 
The  Water  Port— The  Plague  in  1574 — The  Old  Bridge  and  a  walk  over  it  in 
1778 — Attempt  by  the  Magistrates  to  shut  it  up — Provost  George  Murdoch. 

Among  the  higher  class  of  our  citizens  who  of  old  had  their 
domiciles  in  the  Bridgegate,  Goosedubs,  and  upon  the  banks  of 
the  Molendinar  Burn,  we  find  the  names  of  the  Campbells  of 
Blythswood,  of  Douglas  of  Mains,  including  Her  Grace  the  Duchess 
of  Douglas  (who  died  in  1774),  of  the  Campbells  of  Silvercraigs 
(in  whose  house  Oliver  Cromwell  lodged),  of  Crawford  of  Craw- 
fordsburn,  of  Provost  Sir  John  Bell  of  Hamilton  Farm,  of  Camp- 
bell of  Woodside,  of  the  Honourable  John  Aird  (who  was  ten 
times  Lord  Provost  of  Glasgow,  and  who  in  1720  projected  the 
opening  of  the  Candleriggs,  and  of  King  Street  to  the  Bridgegate), 
of  Bailies  Robert  and  George  Bogle,  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Woodrow,  of 
the  Rev.  Dr.  John  Gillies,  of  Provost  Cochran  and  of  Provost 
Christie,  of  Bailies  Dickie,  Gilmore,  Craig,  Dreghorn,  Clark,  and 
Robertson  ;  of  Conveners  Findlay  and  Crawfurd,  of  Dean  of  Guild 
Bogle,  and  also  of  Sir  Robert  Pollok  of  Pollok.  In  this  quarter 
were  likewise  situated  the  original  Ship  Bank  and  the  Glasgow 
Arms  Bank.  M'Ure  mentions  two  of  my  great-great-grandfathers 
having  their  places  of  residence  in  the  Bridgegate — the  one 
situated  next  to  Campbell  of  Blythswood's  house,  and  the  other 
the  second  house  east  of  the  bridge  ;  so  that  perhaps  I  may  be 
excused  for  feeling  some  interest  in  this  old  locality.  John  Craig, 
who  was  Bailie  of  Glasgow  in  1734,  and  Robert  Dreghorn,  who 
died   in    1760 — the   grandfather   of  the   well-known   "Bob" — 


THE  DREGHORNS.  89 

resided,  early  in  life,  in  the  Bridgegate,  a  little  to  the  east  of 
Blythswood's  house ;  but  Bailie  Craig,  like  other  great  folks  of 
our  own  day,  took  a  start  to  the  west,  and  built  a  large  house  in 
Clyde  Street,  which  was  lately  taken  down.  M'Ure  (page  322) 
thus  describes  it : — 

"Bailie  John  Craig  has  built,  and  is  yet  building  (1736),  a  stately  house, 
of  curious  workmanship,  beautifully  inclosed  with  several  workhouses,  shades, 
and  storehouses,  \yith  a  garden  and  summer  parlour,  of  hewen  stone,  so  that 
no  carpenter  or  joyner  in  the  kingdom  has  its  parallell." 

Mr.  Robert  Dreghorn's  son,  Allan  Dreghorn,  bailie  in  1741 
(the  uncle  of  "  Bob  "),  soon  after  followed  the  example  of  Bailie 
Craig,  and  built  the  large  house  in  Clyde  Street  (still  to  the  fore) 
which  is  now  the  furniture  warehouse  of  Mr.  Thomas  Smith, 
cabinetmaker  and  upholsterer. 

Glasgow  Journal,  25th  October  1764. — "On  Friday  last  (19th),  died  at 
his  seat  in  the  country,  Allan  Dreghorn,  Esq.,  an  eminent  merchant  of  this 
city." 

Mr.  Dreghorn's  seat  in  the  country  was  Ruchill,  purchased  by 
the  late  James  Davidson,  Esq. 

In  the  Glasgow  Mercury  of  20th  October  1785  there  is  the 
following  notification  : — 

"  On  Thursday  the  1 3th  instant,  was  married  in  this  city,  by  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Taylor  of  St.  Enoch's,  James  Dennistoun,  younger,  of  Colgrain,  Esq.,  to  Miss 
Margaret  Dreghorn  (Bob's  sister),  daughter  of  the  late  Robert  Dreghorn  of 
Blochairn,  Esq." 

In  consequence  of  this  marriage  the  Dennistoun  family  suc- 
ceeded to  the  large  property  of  Robert  Dreghorn  of  Ruchill,  best 
known  in  Glasgow  by  the  name  of  "  Bob  Dragon." 

There  was  a  curious  old  tenement  which  stood  at  the  south- 
west corner  of  Stockwell  Street,  at  the  west  extremity  of  the  old 
Water  Port  wall,  or  dyke,  as  it  was  called.  This  property  was 
purchased  some  years  ago  by  the  late  James  M'Hardy,  Esq.,  upon 
speculation,  and  was  taken  down  to  form  the  present  Victoria 
Buildings.  This  old  building  has  been  the  source  of  various 
mistakes,  and  of  much  controversy  among  some  of  our  Glasgow 
savans    and  antiquaries,  who  have   generally   concluded    that   in 


90  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

ancient  times  it  was  the  Custom-House  of  Glasgow,  rented  by  the 
Crown,  where  all  Clyde  entries  by  the  skippers  of  our  Broomielaw 
small  craft  were  wont  to  be  made,  and  where  the  Crown  dues 
of  customs  were  paid.  In  an  article  published  in  the  Glasgow 
Herald  I  expressed  my  doubts  of  the  Crown  ever  having  had 
a  Custom-House  at  the  foot  of  the  Stockwell  ;  but  from  the 
following  information,  received  from  Mr.  Ross  of  the  Customs 
through  Andrew  Scott,  Esq.,  our  distinguished  Custom-House 
historian,  I  see  that  I  was  so  far  mistaken  on  this  subject,  in 
doubting  of  the  Crown  EVER  having  had  a  Custom-House  at  this 
spot,  as  it  appears  pretty  evident  that  in  1757  the  Crown  Custom- 
House  had  been  removed  from  some  other  part  of  the  city,  and 
located  at  the  foot  of  Stockwell  Street. 

From  Andrew  Scott,  Esq. 

"Glasgow,  27//^  May  1862. 
"  Dear  Sir — Mr.  Ross  has  sent  me  to-day  a  copy  of  the  letter  alluded  to 
in  my  last ;  it  is  from  the  collector  and  comptroller  at  Port-Glasgow,  dated 
17th  November  1757,  to  the  Board  of  Customs  then  at  Edinburgh,  defining 
the  situation  of  the  premises  proposed  for,  and  which  were  subsequently  rented 
as  the  Custom  House,  which  I  am  sure  you  will  join  with  me  in  the  conclusion 
that  it  is  that  referred  to  in  StuarVs  Ancie7it  Glasgow,  as  being  situated  at  the 
foot  of  the  Stockwell  Street.  I  annex  copy  of  a  letter  Mr.  Ross  has  sent  me. 
I  am  led  to  the  belief  that  the  Custom-House  referred  to  in  the  chronological 
chapter  in  Cleland's  publication  in  1832,  of  the  Statistics,  &c.,  connected  with 
the  city,  was  not  in  that  building,  but  probably  formed  a  small  hut,  or  other 
erection,  at  the  north-west  side  of  the  Stockwell  Bridge,  and  I  am  now  the 
more  inchned  on  this  view,  from  the  recollection  of  reading  in  Dr.  Smith's 
Memorabilia  of  the  city  a  minute  of  the  town  council  anent  slating  and  other 
repairs  thereon,  the  expense  of  which  was  very  trifling  ;  and  if  my  memory 
serves  me  correctly,  I  think  that  the  plan  of  the  north  side  of  the  bridge,  which 
you  gave  us  in  the  Herald,  exhibits  the  spot  where  this  hut,  or  Custom-House, 
as  it  might  be  called,  stood,  for  the  collection  of  the  toll-dues,  and  other  local 
customs,  as  the  ladle-dues,  &c.,  were  called  ;  and  I  also  think  that  said  council 
minutes  imposed  on  the  toll  collector  the  duty  of  preventing  lepers  from  coming 
into  town." 

Copy  from  Mr.  Ross  to  Andrew  Scott,  Esq. 

"Custom-House, 
"Port-Glasgow,  x'jth  Nmembcr  ijsy. 

"  Hon.  Sirs —  .  .  .  We  beg  also  leave  to  acquaint  your  Honours,  that 
there  is  a  house  now  to  be  lett,  and  to  be  entered  into  at  the  above-mentioned 
term  of  Whitsunday  next,  which  is  every  way  convenient,  and  well  situated 


THE  OLD  CUSTOM-HOUSE.  91 

for  answering  the  purpose  of  a  Custom- House,  with  a  sufficient  warehouse 
belonging  to  it.  That  this  house  is  situated  nigh  to  the  Broomielaw,  being 
where  the  two  streets  meet  at  the  end  of  the  bridge,  and  faces  to  each  of  them. 
That  upon  inquiry,  we  find  it  to  be  the  only  one  in  that  corner  of  the  town 
proper  for  a  Custom-House,  and  that  the  yearly  rent  of  it  is  ^12. 

(Signed) — <'Josiah  Coutherie,  A.  Kinloch." 

In  1757  the  Broomielaw  Harbour  extended  eastward  to  St. 
Enoch's  Burn,  as  may  be  seen  in  Stuart's  View,  at  page  34,  drawn 
in  1760;  consequently  the  house  mentioned  in  Mr.  Ross's  letter 
was  situated  nigh  to  the  Broomielaw.  But  in  the  year  1736 
M'Ure,  at  page  285,  thus  writes  on  the  subject : — 

"  Bremmy-Law. — The  next  great  building  is  the  Bremmylaw  harbour  and 
cran,  with  the  lodge  for  his  Majesty's  weights,  beams,  and  triangles,  with  a 
fine  fountain,  which  furnishes  all  boats,  barges,  and  lighters'  crews  that  arrive 
at  this  harbour,  from  Port-Glasgow,  with  water,  and  all  other  vessels  which 
come  from  the  Highlands  and  far  off  isles  of  Scotland,  besides  other  places. 
There  is  not  such  a  fresh  water  harbour  to  be  seen  in  any  place  in  Britain ;  it 
is  strangely  fenced  with  beams  of  oak,  fastened  with  iron  batts  within  the  wall 
thereof,  that  the  great  boards  of  ice,  in  time  of  thaw,  may  not  offend  it ;  and 
it  is  so  large  that  a  regiment  of  horse  may  be  exercised  thereupon." 

From  the  above  it  appears  to  me  that  the  Custom-House  was 
then  situated  at  the  Broomielaw,  and  was  removed  from  it  in 
1757  and  located  at  the  foot  of  the  Stockwell,  as  stated  in  Mr. 
Ross's  letter.  I  think  that  Mr.  Scott  is  correct  in  his  opinion, 
that  the  Custom-House  in  question  was  not  situated  in  the  old 
building  itself,  but  most  probably  in  its  wing  or  office,  on  the 
west  side  of  it.  This  wing  is  shown  in  Stuart's  View,  and  is  two 
storeys  in  height,  being  sufficient  for  a  warehouse,  which,  from  Mr. 
Ross's  letter,  was  required  ;  and  the  back  court  could  give  ample 
accommodation  for  his  Majesty's  "  weights,  beams,  and  triangles." 
£\2  appears  a  fair  rent  for  such  premises  a  century  ago. 

The  old  building  itself  consisted  of  three  storeys  and  attics 
(there  being  two  windows  in  the  roof),  with  fifteen  windows 
fronting  Stockwell  Street ;  such  a  building,  therefore,  was  of  much 
greater  value  than  one  of  merely  £12  of  rent.  Further,  the 
Custom-House  could  not  have  been  the  small  hut  at  the  end  of 
the  bridge  (marked  X  in  the  Plan),  for  it  had  no  warehouse-room, 
nor  space  for  weights  and  triangles,  etc.  ;  neither  could   it  have 


92  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

obtained  a  rent  of  £\2,  seeing  that  in  1 574  the  dues  of  the  bridge 
were  let  by  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  for  the  sum  of  80  merks, 
or  ;^4:8:  lof  sterling.  This  likewise  shows  that  it  could  not 
then  have  been  a  Crown  Custom- House,  as  such  a  trifling  revenue 
could  not  have  paid  even  the  salary  of  a  Government  collector. 

The  small  hut  at  the  bridge  (marked  in  the  Plan  X)  was 
evidently  used  merely  for  collecting  the  city  dues  exigible  upon 
goods  entering  Glasgow,  either  landward  or  by  the  river  ;  and  I 
think  that  there  never  was  a  Government  Custom- House  at  the 
foot  of  the  Stockwell  before  the  year  1757. 

Coimcil  Records,  ist  June  i  574. — "  Gift  of  the  Brig.  Tlie  quhilk  daye  ya 
new  gift  gevin  to  ye  brig  and  small  casualties  grantit  yrto  ar  sett  to  Nicol 
Snodgers,  for  ye  somm  of  four  scour  mks.,  money  to  be  payit  at  the  terms  and 
the  sit  and  wont,  viz.,  at  Michaelmas,  Candilmes,  and  Beltane." 

The  following  advertisement  will  show  what  these  customs 
were  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  24th  April  1783.  —  "Notice — That  the  ladle  dues, 
multures,  dues  of  the  tron,  and  weigh-house,  flesh-market,  wash-house,  fish 
and  potato  market,  and  other  common  good  belonging  to  the  City  of  Glasgow, 
as  also  the  pontage  tolls  and  duties  leviable  on  the  Old  and  New  Bridges  at 
Glasgow,  are  to  be  set  by  public  roup,  within  the  Court  Hall  of  the  said  City, 
upon  Wednesday,  the  14th  day  of  May  next,  betwixt  the  hours  of  twelve  and 
two  of  that  day,  for  the  space  of  one  year.  The  articles  of  roup  are  to  be 
seen  in  the  hands  of  the  town-clerk  of  Glasgow." 

Mr.  Stuart,  in  his  Views  (page  55),  has  given  us  a  pretty 
accurate  drawing  of  the  tenement  in  question,  which  he  calls  the 
"  Old  Custom-House,"  and  he  further  says  : — 

"  This  is  an  edifice  of  no  trifling  pretensions,  and  seems  to  have  been 
reared  with  more  than  ordinary  care  and  expense,  as  the  appearance  of  its 
walls,  both  towards  the  street,  and  at  the  back,  sufficiently  testify :  we  have 
heard  that  this  was  anciently  known  as  the  Custom  House,  and  it  may  not 
improbably  be  that  which  is  mentioned  in  the  Burgh  Records  as  standing 
near  the  bridge  in  1643." 

Mr.  Stuart  also  in  a  note  says  : — 

"  The  site  of  the  old  Custom-House  seems  to  have  been  occupied  in  1487 
by  a  building,  the  property  of  Roberti  Stewarde,  prepositi,  Glasguensis,  and 
which  we  are  informed  stood  adjoining  to  the  Barres  Yeth,  (south  port)  on 


THE  BARRES  YETH.  93 

the  west  side  of  the  street  (vide  '  Registratum  Episcopatus  Glasguensis.' 
Maitland  Club,  page  453).  We  are  not  confident,  however,  (adds  Mr. 
Stuart)  as  to  the  site  of  the  Barres  Yeth." 

At  one  time,  like  Mr.  Stuart,  I  thought  the  Barres  Yeth  was 
situated  at  the  Old  Bridge,  but  from  the  following  quotation  it 
will  be  seen  that  it  stood  at  the  foot  of  Saltmarket,  and  appears 
to  have  been  the  principal  entry  to  the  Green  : — 

Burgh  Records,  5th  October  1574.  —  "It  is  statute  and  ordanit  yat  yir 
persones  underwritten  euery  ane  w.'.  in  ye  gayts  quhair  yai  duell  pass  oukhe 
thro.',  ye  samyn  and  taist  ye  aill  browin  w.'.  in  ye  boundis  limatit  to  yaim  to 
se  gif  ye  saymin  be  sufficient,  accordyng  to  ye  price  taxt  yairupon,  and  quha 
brewis  yat  are  unfre,  and  to  report  ye  saymin  oukhe  to  ye  Bailhes — 

"  For  ye  Rattonraw  and  Drygate  : 

Johne  Dalrumpill — Johne  Spreull. 
Frae  ye  Wyndheid  to  ye  Blackfrers  : 

Cuthbert  Herbertson — Williame  Rowat. 
Frae  ye  Blackfriers  to  ye  Croce  : 

Archibald  Mure — Johne  Taylof.. 
Frae  ye  Gallogate  and  Troyngate  : 

Johne  Woddrop — Johne  Bell. 
Frae  ye  Cross  to  ye  Nether  Baraszett : 

Matthew  Wilsoun — James  Craig. 
Frae  ye  Baraszett  to  ye  Brig  and  Stockwell  : 

Johne  Arbuckle — Johne  Gilmo."!. 

"Item: — It  is  statute  yat  all  owtintownes  burgessis  no.',  dwelland  w.'.  in 
ye  towne,  sail  pay  custumes  usit  and  wont  of  auld  in  ye  towne  except  in  tyme 
of  fayris." 

The  house  of  Provost  Stewart  mentioned  in  Stuart's  Views 
must  have  been  situated  in  the  Saltmarket  and  not  in  Stockwell 
Street,  seeing  that  it  stood  adjoining  to  the  Barres  Yeth.  I 
remember  a  summer-house  standing  in  a  garden  at  the  south- 
west corner  of  Saltmarket  Street,  which  may  have  been  on  the 
site  of  Provost  Stewart's  house  and  garden.  The  Molendinar 
Burn,  then  a  limpid  stream,  most  probably  formed  the  south 
boundary  of  the  property. 

Our  Glasgow  historians  have  given  us  little  information  when 
the  Water  Dyke  was  built  in  addition  to  the  gate  at  the  bridge, 
nor  have  they  stated  the  date  when  the  name  of  "  Water  Port " 
first   came   to   be    applied  generally  to  the  port  leading  to  the 


94  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Broomielaw.  The  gate  at  the  bridge  is  not  called  the  Water 
Port  in  the  early  history  of  Glasgow  ;  its  site,  in  fact,  was  origi- 
nally a  part  of  the  old  Green  or  Great  Western  Common,  and 
the  site  of  the  house  alluded  to  by  Mr.  Stuart  as  standing  at  the 
foot  of  the  Stockwell  in  1528  was  probably  occupied  at  that  time 
by  three  small  cottages  with  their  kailyards  situated  beyond 
the  bounds  of  the  city.  At  page  5  5  Mr.  Stuart  informs  us  as 
follows  : — 

*'  The  earliest  information  we  have  been  able  to  meet  with  in  connection 
with  this  old  house  is  contained  in  a  legal  document  drawn  up  in  i  599,  from 
which  it  appears  that  the  spot  it  occupies  formed  at  that  period  a  portion  of 
the  site  of  three  small  tenements,  with  adjacent  inclosures,  commonly  known 
by  the  name  of  '  yeards.'  These  tenements  having  previously  become  ruinous, 
were,  in  the  year  1668,  disposed  of  to  a  Mr.  John  Caldwell,  who  had  them 
demolished,  and  their  places  supplied  by  two  edifices  of  better  appearance  and 
more  respectable  pretensions,  which  stood  in  juxtaposition,  upon  the  line  of 
the  street.  The  one  to  the  south  was  many  years  ago  removed  to  make  way 
for  a  modern  erection  :  the  other  still  braves  the  adverse  assauUs  of  time,  and 
is  the  house  which  forms  the  subject  of  this  View." 

Mr.  Stuart,  in  his  Views  of  Glasgoiv  (page  3),  says  that  in 
1639  the  Covenanters  who  opposed  King  Charles  directed, 
amongst  other  matters,  that  "a  wall  should  be  built  between 
the  '  Light- House  I  and  the  *  Custom -House,'  and  that  a  Port 
should  be  erected  BETWIXT  the  Bridge  and  John  Holme's 
house."  Now  it  appears  to  me  that  Mr.  Stuart  has  made  some 
mistakes  in  this  passage,  and  has  drawn  erroneous  conclusions 
from  the  words  of  the  original  document,  which  are  as  follows  : — 

Council  Records,  nth  October  1639. — "  Ordanit  that  ane  dyke  be  built 
at  Stockwall-heid,  and  ane  Pont  put  therein,  and  to  build  ane  dyke  from  the 
LiT-HouSE  to  the  CUSTOME-HOUSE,  in  ane  cumlie  and  decent  forme,  and  with 
convenient  diligence." 

Mr.  Stuart  has  concluded  that  the  words  "  ANE  PoNT  "  meant 
"  A  Port,"  but  I  think  that  these  words  meant  a  bridge  with  an 
arch  in  it  (derived  from  the  French  "  un  Pont").^  Again,  Mr. 
Stuart  construes  the  words  "LIT -HOUSE"  to  mean  a  "LIGHT- 
HOUSE," whereas  I  am  of  opinion  that  they  are  intended  to 
signify  a  "  Dye- House."      Jamieson,  in  his  Scottish  Dictionary, 

1  Neither  Jfvmieson,  Johnson,  nor  Bailey  have  the  word  "  pont "  in  their  Dictionaries. 


THE  "LIT-HCUSE"  AND  THE  CUSTOM-HOUSE.         95 

defines  the  word  "  LIT  "  as  meaning  "  A  Dye  OR  COLOUR,"  and 
in  the  Scotch  Act  of  Parliament,  James  II.  6th  March  1457, 
we  find  as  follows, "  That  na  '  litster  '  by  claith  to  sell."  Item — 
"  It  is  seen  speedful  that  '  LIT '  be  cryed  and  vsed,  as  it  was 
wont  to  be,  and  that  na  LITSTER  be  draper,  nor  bye  claith  to 
sell  againe,  nor  zit  thoiled  thereto  vnder  the  paine  of  escheit." 

In  the  Burgh  Records,  22d  January  1573,  David  Howe, 
"  litster"  is  stated  to  have  become  cautioner  for  John  Campbell. 
From  the  above  quotations  I  conjecture  that  the  "LiT- HOUSE" 
mentioned  in  the  Council  Records  of  1639  was  a  dyework, 
occupied  as  such  by  John  Holmes  in  1599,  and  sold  to  John 
Caldwell  in  1668.  The  three  small  houses,  with  their  kailyards, 
most  likely  being  the  dwelling  and  dyeworks  of  the  above-men- 
tioned John  Holmes;  these  premises  standing  conveniently  situated 
adjacent  to  the  river  and  to  the  Dowcot  Green,  commonly  used 
by  the  public  as  a  washing  and  bleaching  place. 

There  is  no  evidence  of  there  ever  having  been  a  Lighthouse 
at  the  bridge  in  former  times.  If  such  a  building  had  really 
existed,  we  would  have  found  some  notice  taken  of  it  in  our  old 
City  Records.  It  may  be  further  observed  that  the  instructions 
in  the  Burgh  Records  of  1639  are  "to  build  ane  dyke  at  Stock- 
wall-heid,  from  the  Lit-House  to  the  Custome-House,"  consequently 
it  is  evident  that  the  "Lit-House"  and  the  Custom -House  were 
two  separate  buildings,  and  that  the  Lit-House  mentioned  by  Mr. 
Stuart  could  not  have  been  the  Custom-House  of  old,  I  do  not 
think  that  a  Crown  Custom-House  was  ever  situated  near  the 
Old  Bridge  before  the  year  1757,  when  one  appears  to  have  been 
rented  there  as  stated  by  Mr.  Ross.  The  error  in  supposing  that 
a  Crown  Custom-House  had  anciently  occupied  this  spot  seems 
to  have  arisen  from  the  circumstance  of  the  city  dues  for  goods 
coming  into  Glasgow  by  way  of  the  bridge  and  by  water  having 
generally  passed  under  the  name  of  Customs,  as  the  following 
notice  shows  : — 

Burgh  Records,  21st  August  1574. — "Item — Ye  Prouest,  Baillies,  and 
Counsale,  at  my  Lord  of  Glasgow's  (Bishop's)  requist  hes  supsedit  ye  small 
custom  of  ye  brig,  and  dischargit  ye  saymn  to  be  taen  frae  ye  barronie  men 
of  Glasgw  beyond  ye  quhile  yai  be  feryer  advysit." 


96  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

It  will  be  seen  in  the  small  Plan  of  the  bridge  that  there  was 
a  hut  marked  by  a  cross  (X)  placed  at  the  north-west  corner  of  the 
bridge,  for  receiving  payment  of  these  customs.  This  small  house 
seems  to  have  formed  part  of  the  west  parapet  wall  of  the  bridge 
itself,  and  is  joined  to  the  Water  Port  wall,  which,  along  with  the 
wall  across  the  bridge,  and  at  the  corner  of  the  Bridgegate,  closed 
the  street  from  east  to  west  except  through  the  ports. 

I  cannot  reconcile  the  instructions  of  1639,  "to  build  ane 
dyke  at  Stockwall-heid  from  the  Lit-House  to  the  Custome-House," 
except  by  supposing  that  the  Custom-House  here  alluded  to  was 
the  small  house  at  the  bridge,  where  the  city  customs  or  common 
good  were  collected.      (See  Plan.) 

It  appears  from  the  following  quotation  that  the  Water  Port 
did  not  exist  in  1574,  and  it  is  probable  that  the  three  small 
tenements  and  their  kailyards  mentioned  by  Stuart  as  having 
been  sold  to  Caldwell  in  1668  formerly  formed  a  barrier  to  any 
entrance  to  the  city,  by  way  of  the  Broomielaw,  except  the 
passage  was  made  through  the  port  at  the  bridge. 

In  the  year  1574  the  plague,  or  pest,  as  it  was  called, 
raged  in  the  eastern  parts  of  Scotland,  and  on  the  29th  of 
October  of  that  year  there  is  the  following  entry  in  the  Burgh 
Records  : — 

"  In  ye  first,  it  is  statute  and  expressly  inhibit  and  forbidden,  yat  na 
maner  of  persons,  indvellars  or  yat  comes  furth  of  Leyt,  Kircaldy,  Dysart, 
Bruoonteland,  quilkis  ar  ellis  infectit  and  suspect  of  ye  said  pest,  nor  zit  of 
ony  wyer  townes  or  places  yat  heireftir  sal  be  suspect  or  fylit,  presume  to 
resont  and  travell  to  yis  towne,  or  use  trafficque  with  ye  inhabitantes  yeirof : 
And  yat  nane  of  ye  inhabitantes  of  yis  towne  travell  towart  ony  of  ye  saidis 
placis,  or  use  ony  kynd  trafficque  witht  yame  under  ye  pain  of  deid. 

"  Item.  It  is  statute  and  ordanit  yat  na  maner  of  persones  induellaris  in 
this  towne  ressait  in  their  houss  ony  maner  stranger  reparand  yairto,  except 
yat  yai  cum  first  to  ye  prouest  and  baillies,  or  yair  deputtis,  and  put  yair 
testimoniales,  yat  it  may  be  knawin  quhairfra  yai  cum.  And  that  nane  w!in 
yis  towne  ressaue  ony  person  yat  cumis  about  ye  towne,  or  at  yair  backzardis ; 
and  yat  na  induellar  of  yis  towne  enter  bot  at  ye  port  and  foirgate  under  ye 
paine  of  X"*"  ilk  fait,  and  yat  ilk  p'sone  cloiss  his  awne  zardend,  as  he  will 
ans'  on  his  lyf ;  and  gif  ony  beis  apprehendit  cumand  about  ye  towne  ye 
saymin  to  be  tane  and  presonit  and  handlit  as  suspect  persones." 

It  is  well  known  that  Glasgow  was  never  a  fortified  town,  or 


THE  WATER  PORT.  97 

surrounded  by  defensive  walls ;  but  we  see  from  the  latter  part  of 
the  above  quotation  that  its  inhabitants  were  required,  at  the 
peril  of  their  lives,  to  keep  their  backyards  constantly  closed  with 
some  sufficient  barrier  or  fence,  so  as  to  prevent  ingress  to  the 
city,  except  through  one  of  its  ports.  It  therefore  appears  to 
me  that  previous  to  the  year  1639,  when  the  Covenanting  parties 
in  Glasgow  ordered  a  wall  or  dyke  to  be  built  across  the  foot  of 
the  Stockwell,  in  order  to  defend  the  city  from  the  Royalists, 
that  John  Holme's  backyards  (or  lit-house  grounds  before  men- 
tioned) being  barricaded  at  their  south  extremity,  there  was  then 
no  access  to  the  city  from  the  present  Clyde  Street,  except  by 
way  of  the  port  at  the  bridge  ;  but  when  this  dyke  came  to  be 
built  there  were  placed  in  it  two  ports  or  archways,  one  for 
carriages,  and  one  for  foot-passengers,  by  which  travellers  could 
pass  and  repass  without  going  through  the  port  at  the  bridge. 
As  this  entry  led  directly  from  the  city  to  the  river,  and  to  the 
Broomielaw  at  St  Enoch's  Burn,  it  came  to  be  known  as  the 
"  Water  Port." 

No  mention  is  made  in  our  city  annals  of  there  having  been 
any  port  at  the  foot  of  Stockwell  Street  called  "  The  Water  Port" 
before  the  year  1639,  when  the  said  dyke  was  built.  The  small 
Plan  of  the  bridge  shows  the  dyke  above  referred  to  closing  the 
street  from  east  to  west.  Although  of  old  all  access  to  the  city 
was  closed  except  by  the  ports,  nevertheless  the  passage  along 
the  banks  of  the  river  from  the  Broomielaw  to  the  Green  of 
Glasgow  was  perfectly  open  to  the  public,  there  being  an  arch  of 
the  bridge  founded  on  dry  land  (commonly  called  a  dry  arch) 
through  which  carriages  and  cattle  crossing  the  river  by  the 
Horse  Ford  could  freely  pass  along  the  present  East  Clyde 
Street  to  the  Broomielaw. 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  Plan  that  the  Old  Bridge  was  not 
built  in  a  line  with  Stockwell  Street,  but  at  an  angle,  and  evidently 
was  originally  constructed  to  suit  the  traffic  passing  by  way  of 
the  Bridgegate,  and  not  for  the  accommodation  of  that  by  the  line 
of  Stockwell  Street. 

Bishop  William  Rae,  who  built  the  Old  Bridge  in  1345,  came 
into  the  see  in  1335,  and  died  in  1367.  There  was  a  timber 
VOL.  III.  H 


98  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

bridge  over  the  Clyde,  nearly  on  the  same  spot,  in  1340,  which 
appears  to  have  gone  into  decay. 

Mr.  Pagan,  in  Glasgow,  Past  and  Present,  vol.  i.,  page 
188,  has  given  us  an  extremely  interesting  account  of  the  Old 
Bridge  of  Glasgow,  on  the  occasion  of  its  being  demolished  in 
1850,  and  has  stated  some  curious  details  of  its  early  aspect  and 
revolutions  (to  which  work  I  refer  the  readers)  ;  but  notwith- 
standing that  gentleman's  general  accuracy,  he  appears  to  have 
hastily  taken  for  granted  that  the  old  house  at  the  corner  of  the 
Stockwell  was  the  Crown  Custom-House  of  ancient  times,  where 
government  dues  used  to  be  collected.  At  page  193  he  says  : 
"  The  '  Port,'  or  Custom-House,  is  universally  represented  as 
having  been  on  the  north  side,  and  the  queer  old  house  standing 
at  the  bottom  of  Stockwell  Street  is  said  to  have  been  the 
identical  fabric  used  for  that  purpose."  Mr.  Pagan,  in  his 
Sketches]  of  Glasgow,  at  page  193,  has  given  us  a  plate  of  the 
Old  Bridge,  including  a  representation  of  the  queer  old  house  in 
question,  with  its  garden  to  the  west.  This  plate  also  shows  the 
horse  road  descending  by  a  gradual  slope  from  the  said  queer  old 
house  to  the  river  ;  and  here  I  have  frequently  seen  carters  with 
their  carts  and  horses,  and  grooms  with  their  hunters,  standing 
knee-deep  in  the  water,  giving  the  poor  animals  their  fill  of  the 
then  limpid  stream  of  the  Clyde,  and  cooling  their  weary  limbs 
in  the  purling  waters  of  the  place.  This  watering-path  was 
subsequently  removed  a  little  to  the  west,  nearly  opposite  to  the 
old  town's  hospital,  and  a  timber  bridge  was  erected  over  it  across 
the  wall  of  the  breast,  so  as  that  there  might  be  no  interruption 
to  passengers  going  along  the  said  breast  in  their  way  to  and 
from  the  Broomielaw. 

Mr.  Pagan,  at  page  192  of  Glasgow,  Past  and  Present, 
informs  us  that — 

"At  this  period  (1776)  the  original  arches  [of  the  Old  Bridge]  were  all 
entire  [see  Plan],  with  the  exception  of  the  eighth,  or  the  arch  next  the  Gorbals, 
which  fell  on  the  7th  July  1671,  one  of  the  days  of  Glasgow  Fair.  .  .  .  The 
two  north  arches,  and  the  pier  on  the  Glasgow  side,  were  altogether  removed, 
and  the  ground  filled  up.  .  .  .  They  seem  to  have  been  what  is  termed  '  dry 
arches,'  and  in  all  likelihood  were  only  scoured  by  the  Clyde  when  floods 
invaded  the  Bridgegate. 


THE  OLD  BRIDGE. 


99 


"  The  third  arch  of  the  old  structure,  or  the  first  arch  as  known  to  the 
present  generation,  was  taken  away  and  lowered  four  feet  at  the  centre ;  the 
second,  third,  and  fourth  arches  remained  untouched.  .  .  .  The  fifth  arch  was 
taken  down  and  lowered  three  feet  six  inches,  and  the  sixth  and  last  arch 
(that  which  had  been  previously  rebuih)  was  also  taken  down  and  lowered  five 
feet  in  the  centre.  At  the  same  time  this  arch  was  taken  in  or  lessened  in  the 
span  to  the  extent  of  eleven  feet.  ...  By  all  these  operations  the  roadway  of 
the  Old  Bridge  was  greatly  lowered  and  vastly  improved.  The  then  summit 
level  of  the  bridge-causeway,  above  the  old  low-water  mark,  was  forty  feet  six 
inches.  The  bridge  went  up  by  a  rapid  slope  from  north  to  south,  and  at  the 
Gorbals  end  the  rise  or  gradient  to  be  surmounted  on  coming  upon  the  bridge 
was  at  the  rate  of  i  in  6|.  That  this  terrible  ascent  existed  there  is  not 
matter  of  doubt." 

We  have  no  dates  given  here  when  these  operations  were 
executed,  and  not  a  word  is  said  regarding  the  demolition  of  the 
ancient  port  at  the  bridge,  nor  of  the  small  hut  where  of  old  the 
city  dues  were  collected  ;  neither  is  there  any  notice  taken  of  the 
removal  of  the  wall  or  dyke  which  formed  the  Water  Port.  These 
structures,  however,  are  objects  almost  as  interesting  as  the  Old 
Bridge  itself.  I  think,  however,  that  these  last  operations  were 
principally  made  about  the  year  1778,  as  the  following  extract 
seems  to  indicate  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  4th  June  1778. — "Yesterday  the  workmen  began  to 
remove  the  centres  from  below  the  additional  part  of  the  last  arch  of  the  Old 
Bridge.  They  proceeded  in  rather  too  precipitate  a  manner,  by  loosing  the 
wedges  on  one  side,  so  that  the  weight  of  those  centres  not  slackened  pre- 
ponderating, tumbled  the  whole  over.  A  mason  got  one  of  his  legs  sorely 
crushed,  but  happily  no  other  accident  happened." 

It  was  during  the  time  that  these  operations  were  proceeding, 
and  while  the  bridge  was  receiving  an  addition  of  ten  feet  to  its 
breadth  on  the  east,  that  I  crossed  it  from  the  Gorbals  side  in 
the  spring  of  the  year  1778.  The  east  side  of  the  bridge  was 
then  encumbered  with  stones  and  scaffolding;  but  the  west  side 
of  it  was  kept  open  and  free  for  foot-passengers,  so  that  I  walked 
along  it  with  great  ease  and  pleasure ;  my  little  hand  being  then 
held  by  Miss  Grizel  Anderson,  daughter  of  the  Rev.  William 
Anderson,  the  first  minister  of  Gorbals,  and  the  father  of  the  late 
eminent  Dr.  William  Anderson,  physician  in  Glasgow. 

I  distinctly  remember  the  then  state  of  the  bridge  itself,  but 


100  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

I  have  no  recollection  of  seeing  any  operations  going  on  at  the 
place  where  the  port  at  the  bridge  and  Water  Port  stood,  the 
street  appearing  to  me  to  be  then  free  of  buildings  ;  I  therefore 
conclude  that  the  above-mentioned  ancient  ports  of  the  city  had 
been  demolished  before  the  spring  of  1778.  Further,  I  do  not 
remember  of  then  seeing  the  small  hut  or  house  at  the  north- 
west corner  of  the  bridge,  where  the  city  customs  or  dues  were 
wont  to  be  paid  in  former  times.  I  think  that  it  must  have  been 
demolished  between  the  years  1776  and  1778,  at  the  time  when 
the  two  north  arches  of  the  bridge  were  removed,  and  when  the 
street  leading  to  the  bridge  came  to  be  cleared  of  the  port  at  the 
bridge  and  the  Water  Port  dyke,  and  properly  levelled  to  suit  the 
altered  gradients  of  the  bridge.  By  referring  to  the  small  Plan 
of  the  bridge  it  will  be  seen  that  one  of  the  above-mentioned 
arches  was  a  blind  arch,  and  the  other  partly  so. 

I  think  it  is  probable  that  the  different  alterations  and  improve- 
ments which  are  stated  to  have  been  made  upon  the  bridge 
shortly  after  the  year  1776  were  in  the  course  of  execution  during 
the  year  1777,  being  the  year  before  I  crossed  the  Old  Bridge  of 
Bishop  Rae.  The  demolition  of  the  ports,  and  the  removal  of 
the  Water  Port  dyke,  along  with  the  levelling  of  the  lower  part 
of  Stockwell  Street,  must  have  made  a  total  change  to  the 
appearance  of  this  part  of  Glasgow,  more  especially  to  the  south 
part  of  Stockwell  Street,  and  to  the  corner  of  the  Bridgegate,  by 
the  said  alterations  giving  an  improved  access  to  the  bridge  and 
to  the  river. 

The  Old  Bridge  seems  originally  to  have  been  built  with  due 
regard  to  the  lives  of  passengers,  for  it  will  be  seen  from  the  sketch 
annexed  to  the  present  sheet  that  there  were  two  recesses  in  it, 
on  the  east  side,  where  in  case  of  need,  a  passenger  could  take 
shelter  from  the  caperings  of  skittish  horses,  or  from  the  crush  of 
two  carts  or  carriages  hastily  crossing  each  other  while  going  along 
the  bridge.  It  must  be  remembered  that  the  bridge  was  then 
only  twelve  feet  wide,  and  had  no  trottoirs  or  side  footpaths,  such 
as  grace  the  noble  fabrics  that  now  span  our  river.  The  sketch 
above  mentioned  was  taken  in  the  year  1765,  and  it  would  appear 
from  the  following  quotation   that  the  bridge  at  that  time  must 


THE  OLD  BRIDGE.  loi 

have  been  in  a  state  of  great  disrepair,  otherwise  the  passage  of 
carriages  along  it  would  not  have  been  so  strictly  limited  and 
discouraged  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  4th  April  1765. — "By  order  of  the  magistrates  of  the 
City  of  Glasgow : — The  magistrates  hereby  intimate  that  for  further  preventing 
carts  loaden  or  unloaden  to  pass  the  Bridge  of  Glasgow,  they  have  caused  put 
up  a  folding  pole  upon  the  said  bridge,  at  the  north  end  thereof:  but  in  order 
to  accommodate  gentlemen  and  others  passing  along  the  said  bridge  in  coaches 
and  chaises,  they  have  engaged  a  servant  who  is  to  lodge  in  the  little  house 
on  the  east  side  of,  and  immediately  without  the  bridge,  and  on  the  north  end 
thereof,  and  to  be  ready  at  all  times,  from  five  o'clock  in  the  morning  till 
eleven  o'clock  at  night,  to  open  the  said  folding  pole.  It  is  therefore  expected 
that  all  gentlemen  and  others,  having  occasion  to  pass  along  the  said  bridge 
in  coaches  or  chaises,  will  endeavour  to  make  their  time  of  passing  the  same 
betwixt  the  said  hours  of  five  o'clock  of  the  morning  and  eleven  at  night ;  but 
if  necessity  requires  them  to  pass  betwixt  eleven  at  night,  and  five  in  the 
morning,  they  will  order  their  servants  to  call  at  the  said  little  house,  on  the 
east  side  of,  and  immediately  without  the  bridge,  and  on  the  north  end  thereof, 
where  they  will  find  the  said  servant,  who  will  open  the  pole  to  them." 

One  is  rather  curious  to  know  the  names  of  the  Magistrates 
who  were  so  careful  to  exclude  common  carters  and  country 
farmers  with  their  vehicles  from  passing  the  bridge,  but  neverthe- 
less were  so  condescending  as  to  keep  a  servant  for  the  express 
purpose  of  opening  the  pole  at  all  times,  and  at  all  hours,  to 
gentlemen  and  the  other  great  folks  travelling  in  their  coaches 
and  chaises.  Here,  then,  are  their  names  : — John  Bowman,  Lord 
Provost  ;  John  Alston,  Robert  Donald,  and  George  Buchanan, 
bailies  ;  Francis  Crawfurd,  convener  (of  whom  more  afterwards), 
Arthur  Connell,  dean  of  guild  ;  Robert  Finlay,  master  of  works  ; 
Archibald  M'Gilchrist  and  John  Wilson,  town-clerks. 

The  shutting  up  of  the  Old  Bridge  in  the  above-mentioned 
manner  gave  great  offence  to  the  Rutherglen  folks,  as  it  prevented 
all  access  to  Glasgow  with  common  carts  from  their  ancient 
burgh  by  the  common  highway,  except  the  said  carts  took  the 
route  of  crossing  the  river  by  the  Dalmarnock  Ford,  or  by  the 
Horse  Ford  at  the  bridge. 

It  must  be  remarked  here  that  Rutherglen  Bridge  was  not 
built  till  the  year  1776.  Thus,  while  Rutherglen  was  excluded 
from  making  use  of  the  Bridge  Port  to  enter  Glasgow,  the  neigh- 


102  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

bouring  burghs  of  Dumbarton  and  Renfrew  and  the  town  of 
Paisley  had  free  access  to  the  city  both  by  the  Water  Port  and 
by  the  West  Port  in  Argyll  Street.  In  this  state  of  matters  the 
Magistrates  of  Rutherglen  commenced  an  action  of  damages 
against  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  for  having  shut  up  the  bridge 
in  the  manner  above  stated,  and  in  this  action  they  were  joined 
by  several  parties  connected  with  the  lands  on  the  south  and  west 
of  the  river  ;  but  it  does  not  appear  that  either  the  folks  of  Port- 
Glasgow  or  Greenock  became  parties  to  the  suit.  Perhaps  the 
influence  of  the  Glasgow  Magistrates  was  then  paramount  in  those 
towns.  The  Lord  Ordinary  in  1766  gave  judgment  in  favour  of 
the  Magistrates  of  Rutherglen,  by  which  the  passage  to  Glasgow 
by  the  bridge  was  again  laid  open  to  the  public  ;  but  the  Magis- 
trates of  Glasgow  reclaimed  against  this  sentence  of  the  Ordinary, 
and  were  about  to  bring  the  case  before  the  Inner  House,  when, 
seeing  the  opposition  so  strong  against  them,  they  thought  it  best 
to  acquiesce  in  the  sentence  of  the  Lord  Ordinary,  and  to  make 
the  passage  along  the  bridge  free  to  all  description  of  carriages, 
as  it  previously  had  been. 

It  was  probably  this  unsuccessful  contest  with  the  Magistrates 
of  Rutherglen,  and  the  general  dissatisfaction  of  the  public  at  the 
transaction,  that  induced  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  elected  for 
the  ensuing  term  of  1766-7  to  set  about  building  the  New  Bridge 
at  the  foot  of  Jamaica  Street.  (The  foundation  of  that  bridge 
was  laid  on  the  29th  of  September  1768,  by  Provost  George 
Murdoch,^  Bailies  James  Buchanan,  Peter  Murdoch  and  James 
Clarke,  but  the  bridge  was  not  passable  for  carriages  till  1772.) 
It  is  curious  to  see  what  a  complete  overturn  had  taken  place 
with  regard  to  our  city  officials  by  the  new  election  at  the  above- 
mentioned  term.  The  whole  of  the  old  authorities  seem  to  have 
been  set  aside,  and  quite  a  new  and  liberal  ministry  formed  to  carry 
on  our  civic  affiairs.  It  was  during  the  time  that  the  above  gentle- 
men held  office  that  the  north-west  burying-ground  was  formed. 

^  Provost  George  Murdoch  while  in  office  was  presented  to  King  George  III.  in 
London.  His  Majesty  remarked  that  the  Provost  of  Glasgow  was  the  handsomest 
Scotchman  he  had  ever  seen.  Among  the  preferments  of  the  Scots  Magazhie  of  October 
1 77 1  we  find  as  follows: — "George  Murdoch,  Esq.  and  late  provost  of  Glasgow, 
comptroller  of  the  Customs  at  Port-Glasgow  and  Greenock." 


CHAPTER  VII. 

Water  Port  Dyke  and  extension  of  the  Bridge — Ben  Barton's  House— The  First  Printer 
in  Glasgow  temp.  1638 — Removal  of  spikes  for  exhibition  of  heads  of  traitors — 
General  Assembly  in  Glasgow  in  1638 — The  Crawfurds — The  Mansion  of  the 
Campbells  of  Blythswood — Dillon's  lawsuit  with  John  Campbell  of  Blythswood — 
James  Campbell  and  his  creditors — ^James  Rankin,  Tobacconist — Speculation  in 
tobacco  in  1776 — Curious  story  of  James  Maxwell,  Esq. — Flood  in  Briggate  in 
1782 — Laughable  story  of  David  Dale's  dinner-party  in  1795. 

In  the  View  of  Glasgow  drawn  by  Captain  John  Slezer  of  the 
Artillery  Company  during  the  reign  of  Charles  II.,  there  is  no 
appearance  of  the  dyke  or  port  ordered  to  be  built  by  the  Cove- 
nanters in  1639.  Slezer's  Views  were  published  at  the  latter  end 
of  the  seventeenth  century,  but  we  do  not  know  the  date  when 
they  were  sketched  by  him.  We  see,  however,  by  the  View  in 
question  that  the  port  of  the  bridge  extended  quite  across  the 
public  street,  and  must  have  been  about  twenty-five  feet  in  height, 
as  it  reaches  above  the  second  storeys  of  the  conterminous  houses, 
and  if  the  Water  Port  dyke  had  been  only  half  of  that  height 
(which  was  quite  sufficient  for  the  purpose)  it  would  have  been 
concealed  in  the  view  by  the  intervening  high  wall  of  the  Bridge 
Port.  Judging  by  Slezer's  View,  and  by  the  Sketch  attached  to 
the  present  sheets,  I  would  be  inclined  to  think  that  the  Bridge 
Port,  or  carriage  entry,  by  way  of  the  Bridgegate,  was  then  about 
six  feet  in  width,  or  about  one  half  of  that  of  the  bridge,  which 
was  quite  adequate  to  the  passage  of  ordinary  carriages.  As  to 
the  height  of  the  said  carriage  entry,  judging  again  from  Slezer's 
View,  I  would  conclude  that  it  must  have  been  at  least  fifteen  feet 
from  the  causeway  to  the  crown  of  the  arch.     There  still  remains 


I04  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

one  house  in  East  Clyde  Street,  depicted  by  Slezer,  with  its  Dutch 
front  and  corby  steps. 

After  the  alterations  made  upon  the  bridge  in  1778  had  been 
finished,  it  appears  that  the  tenement  immediately  joining  the 
bridge  on  the  north-east  was  converted  into  an  inn  for  the 
accommodation  of  travellers,  as  the  following  notice,  taken  from  a 
Glasgow  newspaper,  shows  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  19th  August  1784. — "  Peremptorily  to  be  sold,  upon 
Friday  the  20th  of  August  current.  All  and  Haill,  that  tenement  of  land  lying 
on  the  south  side  of  the  Bridgegate,  and  immediately  to  the  east  of  the  bridge, 
with  the  stables,  cellars,  and  other  offices,  belonging  to  the  deceast  William 
Lorimer,  stabler  in  Glasgow.     Articles  of  roup,  &c.,  to  be  seen." 

The  sketch  of  the  bridge  herewith  given,  unfortunately,  does 
not  reach  the  termination  of  the  roadway  at  the  Main  Street  of 
Gorbals,  but  I  have  a  distinct  recollection  of  its  appearance  in 
1778,  also  subsequently  to  that  time.  The  alterations  then 
made  upon  the  roadway  were  not  very  extensive,  as  may  be  seen 
from  the  map  of  Glasgow,  of  1783,  in  Mr.  Stuart's  Views.  The 
bridge  extended  about  seventy  feet  southward  along  the  Main 
Street  of  Gorbals,  but  it  was  merely  a  dead  wall  without  arches. 
On  the  west  side  of  it  there  was  a  pretty  large  tenement  which 
fronted  the  river  on  the  north,  joined  the  bridge  on  the  east,  and 
on  the  south  it  faced  a  public  footpath,  leading  toward  the  New 
Bridge,  so  that  it  excluded  all  direct  passage  from  the  bridge 
along  the  margin  of  the  river.  This  tenement  is  very  clearly 
laid  down  on  the  map  of  1783,  in  Stuart's  Views,  and  is  there 
exhibited  with  a  court  in  the  centre.  It  seems  to  have  been  let 
as  an  inn  at  the  time  when  the  alterations  on  the  bridge  were  in 
progress,  as  the  following  notice  shows  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  14th  May  1778. — "To  be  let,  and  to  be  entered  at  the 
term  of  Whitsunday,  that  large  inn,  stable,  and  others  in  the  suburbs  of  Glasgow, 
fronting  the  river  Clyde,  at  the  end  of  the  Old  Bridge,  as  presently  possessed 
by  George  Paton  at  the  Spread  Eagle. — Apply  to  Ben.  Barton,  writer  in 
Glasgow. " 

It  appears  that  this  building,  if  it  had  again  been  let  as  a 
place  of  entertainment  for  travellers,  had  not  met  as  such  with 
much  success,  for  wc  find  that  soon  afterwards  it  had  been  turned 


THE  OLD  BRIDGE. 


105 


into  a  shop  or  shops,  and  even  then  the  same  want  of  success 
seems  to  have  attended  its  course,  as  the  following  advertisement 
shows  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  17th  July  1783. — "Notice,  that  the  well  frequented 
shop,  lying  at  the  end  of  the  Old  Bridge,  Gorbals  of  Glasgow,  lately  pos- 
sessed by  Mr.  James  Stevenson,  is  to  be  let.  Entrance  may  be  had  im- 
mediately thereto.  And  about  £,']o  of  hardware  and  grocery  goods,  laid  in 
from  the  best  markets,  are  to  be  disposed  of  The  shop  is  well  finished,  and 
will  be  very  suitable  for  a  young  man  beginning  business.  Any  person  inclining 
to  make  a  purchase  of  the  goods,  as  an  inducement  thereto,  upon  finding 
security,  a  reasonable  credit  will  be  given. — For  further  particulars  inquire  at 
the  publishers." 

The  property  m  question  appears  at  this  time  to  have  passed 
from  the  hands  of  our  old  commissary-clerk,  Ben.  Barton,  and  its 
site  ultimately  to  have  been  occupied  by  the  toll  house. 

In  1 82 1  there  was  a  second  addition  made  to  the  width  of 
the  bridge  by  the  erection  of  ornamental  iron  footpaths,  one  on 
each  side  of  the  bridge ;  while  the  whole  extent  of  twelve  feet,  as 
formerly,  was  appropriated  for  carriages  in  the  centre  of  the 
roadway. 

In  Glasgoiv,  Past  and  Present,  vol.  i.  p.  188,  there  will  be 
found  an  interesting  account  of  the  demolition  of  the  Old  Bridge 
of  Glasgow  in  1850,  and  of  the  appearances  of  its  original 
foundations  in  the  river,  which  truly  verify  the  sagacious  and 
recondite  remark  of  Dr.  Cleland,  when  commencing  to  elucidate 
the  history  of  our  bridges,  in  his  Rise  and  Progress  of  Glasgoiv, 
p.  53.     The  learned  Doctor  thus  begins: — 

<'  Bridges  are  a  sort  of  edifices  very  difficult  to  execute,  on  account  of  the 
inconvenience  of  laying  foundations  and  walling  under  water." 

Mr.  Pagan,  however,  informs  us,  at  p.  189,  that — 

"  The  foundations  of  the  old  structure  have  been  laid  in  a  very  simple 
manner.  Instead  of  driving  down  piles,  as  would  be  done  in  ihe  present  day, 
the  ancient  masons,  from  the  remains  still  visible,  seem  to  have  thrust  in  a 
quantity  of  green  paling  stobs,  to  give  cohesion  to  the  sand,  and  afford  a  re- 
gular bed." 

With  regard  to  the  remains  of  Ben.  Barton's  house,  before 
alluded  to,  it  is  stated  that — 


to6  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

"  Mr.  York  has  just  excavated  the  wall  of  an  old  house  which  stands  within 
three  or  four  feet  to  the  westward  of  the  bridge  on  the  Gorbals  side.  There 
is  a  little  window  2  ft.  2  in.  in  width  by  2  ft.  10  in.  in  height,  by  which  those  in 
the  interior  could  scan  the  passengers  who  descended  from  the  bridge.  There 
are  still  remaining  the  jambs  of  the  large  fireplace,  constructed,  as  in  old  times, 
with  four  courses  of  stone  on  the  one  side  and  three  on  the  other,  instead  of 
being  done  up  on  each  side  with  one  large  slab,  as  is  the  custom  at  the 
present  day.  The  wall  is  2  ft.  4  in.  in  thickness,  and  24  ft.  in  length,  showing 
that  the  house  of  which  it  formed  a  part  must  have  been  of  considerable 
dimensions.  The  rubble  has  been  partly  removed  from  the  outer  side  of  the 
wall,  but  in  the  inner  part  of  the  house  the  plaster  still  firmly  adheres.  What 
manner  of  dwelling  this  was,  no  man  can  tell." 

There,  however,  seems  to  be  a  mistake  in  this  last  remark 
regarding  the  said  structure,  as  our  old  commissary-clerk,  Ben. 
Barton,  has  left  us  an  advertisement,  as  before  quoted,  which 
shows  the  purposes  for  which  it  had  been  erected,  viz.  The  Spread 
Eagle  Inn. 

My  authority  thus  continues  : — 

"  This  Gorbals  concern  we  take  therefore  to  have  been  a  public  or  a 
change  house.  It  was  well  situated  for  the  purpose,  being  among  the  first 
that  country  people  from  the  south  would  reach  on  approaching  the  city,  and 
the  last  at  which  they  could  be  entertained,  or  treat  their  friends,  on  leaving  it. 
These  old  walls  doubtless  have  seen  many  a  merry  scene  of  jollity,  love- 
making,  bargaining,  polemics,  and  perhaps  strife." 

At  the  south-east  or  opposite  corner  of  the  bridge  there  was 
a  retaining  wall  upon  the  level  of  the  street,  which  by  a  gradual 
slope  from  the  main  street  descended  to  the  river,  and  formed 
the  west  boundary  of  a  lane  leading  to  the  Horse  Ford,  which 
ford  is  represented  in  the  sketch  of  the  bridge.  This  retaining 
wall  was  merely  a  breast,  and  had  no  parapet ;  consequently  it 
was  very  dangerous  at  night  to  passengers.  In  my  juvenile  days 
I  have  frequently  jumped  from  it  to  the  lane  below,  as  a  short 
cut  to  the  Blind  Burn,  then  a  favourite  place  for  bathing.  On 
the  east  side  of  the  said  lane  were  situated  the  dwelling-house 
and  workshop  of  Mr.  Mann,  a  celebrated  gunsmith  of  Glasgow  ; 
but  there  were  no  buildings  between  Mr.  Mann's  house  and  the 
Blind  Burn,  the  whole  of  Hutchesontown  being  then  arable  lands. 
The  Blind  Burn  formed  the  east  boundary  of  the  Gorbals  grounds. 

Mr.  Stuart,  in  his  Vi{:ws  of  Glasgow,  p.  3,  does  not  seem  to 


THE  FIRST  GLASGOW  PRINTER.  107 

have  been  aware  that  the  port  at  the  bridge  and  the  Water  Port 
were  two  separate  and  distinct  ports  ;  and  appears  to  have  thought 
that  the  wall  or  dyke  ordered  to  be  built  at  the  "  Stockwell  heid  " 
by  the  adherents  to  the  second  "  Covenant,"  in  order  to  strengthen 
themselves  against  the  soldiers  of  King  Charles  I.,  was  the  sole 
south  port  to  the  city  in  1639  ;  whereas  it  was  only  an  addition 
to  the  ancient  port  at  the  bridge,  as  before  mentioned. 

Dr.  Cleland,  in  his  Annals  of  Glasgow,  has  given  us  no  account 
when  the  Water  Port  was  constructed  ;  and  he,  as  well  as  our 
other  Glasgow  historians,  appears  to  have  considered  the  port  at 
the  bridge  and  the  Water  Port  to  have  been  one  and  the  same 
port ;  but  by  looking  at  the  sketch  of  the  bridge  hereto  annexed 
it  will  be  seen  that  there  were  two  distinct  ports  at  the  foot  of 
Stockwell  Street  in  1760,  being  before  the  Water  Port  with  its 
two  entries  was  taken  down.  This  dyke  and  port,  as  already 
mentioned,  having  been  erected  by  the  Covenanting  party  of  the 
General  Assembly  in  1638,  the  state  of  parties  at  that  time  ran 
so  high  that  little  notice  has  been  handed  down  to  us  of  matters 
regarding  our  city  affairs  of  that  date  except  what  had  reference 
to  Covenanting  doings. 

From  a  history  of  the  art  of  printing  in  Glasgow  we  learn 
that  previous  to  the  year  1638  there  had  been  no  printer  in 
Glasgow  ;  but  in  that  year  a  person  of  the  name  of  George 
Anderson  was  induced  to  commence  printing  in  Glasgow,  in 
consequence,  it  was  said,  of  receiving  a  salary  from  the  Magistrates. 
His  publications,  however,  appear  to  have  been  confined  to 
pamphlets  relating  to  the  troubles  before  the  commencement  of 
the  Civil  War,  and  to  Covenanting  meetings,  and  not  to  matters 
especially  connected  with  Glasgow  statistics.  The  following  is 
believed  to  have  been  the  first  work  published  in  Glasgow : — 

"  The  Protestation  of  the  Generall  AssembHe  of  the  Church  of  Scotland, 
and  of  the  Noblemen,  barons,  gentlemen,  borrowes,  ministers  and  commons  : 
subscribers  of  the  covenant,  lately  renewed,  made  in  the  high  kirk,  and  at  the 
mercate  crosse  of  Glasgow,  the  28.  and  29.  of  November  1638." 

"  Printed  at  Glasgow  by  George  Anderson  in  the  year  of  grace  1638." 

George  Anderson  appears  to  have  died  in  the  year  1648,  and 
for  ten  years  after  his  death  there  does  not  seem  to  have  been 


io8  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

any  printer  in  Glasgow.  In  1655  Principal  Baillie,  wishing  to 
get  one  of  George  Anderson's  pamphlets  republished,  found  it 
necessary  to  resort  to  London  for  a  printer ;  but  in  1658  Andrew 
Anderson,  the  son  of  the  said  George  Anderson,  began  printing 
in  Glasgow,  but  he  left  Glasgow  in  1661,  and  became  printer  in 
Edinburgh. 

It  is  curious  here  to  observe  to  what  lengths  religious  bigotry 
will  sometimes  carry  even  well-disposed  persons,  and  cause  them 
to  sanction  as  a  duty  many  things  which  appear  quite  barbarous 
and  shocking  to  the  feelings  of  the  generality  of  mankind.  It 
will  be  seen  by  the  following  extract  that  the  Covenanters  then 
ruling  our  city,  as  alluded  to  by  Mr.  Stuart,  had  directed  a  wall 
at  the  cross  to  be  taken  down,  and  translated  to  the  Stockwell, 
and  a  "  heid  "  thereon  to  be  put  on  the  "  said  new  wall  on  Stock- 
well  gait": — 

Council  Records,  nth  August  1638. — "The  Council  ordains  50  pounds 
to  be  paid  to  John  Boyd,  for  translating  of  the  Stockwall  of  the  Hie  Street 
[Trongate]  and  setting  the  sawyer  down  in  ane  uther  plaice,  and  for  taking 
down  ane  wall  at  the  Croce,  covering  the  same  in,  and  for  translaiting  the 
'  heid  '  that  was  thereon,  and  setting  it  on  the  said  new  wall  on  the  Stockwall 
gait." 

I  remember  very  well  of  the  iron  spikes  which  were  inserted 
in  the  present  Cross  steeple,  for  the  purpose  of  exhibiting  the 
ghastly  heads  of  unfortunate  traitors  and  Papists.  These  spikes 
were  placed  on  the  north  wall  of  the  steeple,  so  that  the  said 
heads  might  be  seen  to  the  greatest  advantage  from  the  High 
Street,  then  the  leading  thoroughfare  of  the  city. 

The  head  which  was  translated  to  the  Stockwell  from  the 
Cross  in  1638  was  probably  that  of  some  unhappy  Papist  or 
Jesuit,  whom  the  Covenanters  regarded  with  the  utmost  horror 
as  imps  of  Satan.  In  revenge  for  this  and  for  the  like  barbarities 
perpetrated  by  the  Covenanters,  the  Royalists,  when  they  became 
masters,  ordered  the  head  of  the  godly  and  reverend  James  Guthrie 
to  be  put  on  the  Netherbow  Port  of  Edinburgh  in  1 66 1  ;  and  the 
head  of  Lord  Warriston,  another  Covenanting  leader,  to  be  placed 
on  the  wall  of  the  same  port.      (See  Woodrow,  ist,  57,  1741.) 

It  was  probably  by  orders  of  the  celebrated  General  Assembly 


THE  GENERAL  ASSEMBLY  IN  GLASGOW.  109 

of  Scotland,  which  met  in  Glasgow  on  the  21st  of  November 
1638,  that  the  Water  Port  dyke  was  ordered  to  be  constructed. 
This  Assembly  consisted  of  a  vast  concourse  of  influential  people, 
almost  all  the  nobility  and  gentry  of  Scotland  being  present  either 
as  elders  or  assessors.  They  declared  the  whole  Acts  of  the 
Assembly  passed  since  the  accession  of  James  to  the  throne  of 
England  to  be  null  and  void,  all  the  bishops  were  deposed  and 
excommunicated,  Episcopacy  and  the  Liturgy  abolished,  and  every 
person  ordered  to  subscribe  the  Covenant  under  the  pain  of 
excommunication.  These  resolutions  were  confirmed  when  the 
Parliament  met  in  1639,  and  war  was  then  declared  by  the 
Covenanters  against  the  adherents  of  Charles.  There  seems  to  be 
little  doubt,  therefore,  but  the  Water  Port  dyke  was  built  in  that 
year,  as  a  defence  to  the  city  in  case  of  an  attack  being  made  on 
it  by  the  Royal  forces. 

Although  it  appears  by  the  letter  of  Mr.  Ross  (before  quoted) 
that  the  Crown  rented  part  of  the  queer  old  tenement  at  the  foot 
of  Stockwell  Street  as  a  Custom-House  in  1757,  nevertheless  it 
seems  to  have  been  situated  in  the  wing  of  the  said  old  house,  and 
not  in  the  ancient  building  itself,  as  at  this  date  the  premises  in 
question  formed  the  mansion-house  and  property  of  Francis  Craw- 
furd,  Esq.,  an  extensive  timber  merchant  in  Glasgow,  whose  offices 
and  garden  extended  westward  to  the  property  cf  Bailie  Craig  of 
the  Water  Port,  as  may  be  seen  in  the  first  plate  of  Denholm's 
History  of  Glasgow.  Shortly  before  this  building  was  taken  down 
to  make  room  for  the  Victoria  erections,  the  west  part  of  it  was 
occupied  by  Mr.  William  M'Cue,  as  a  poultry  and  provision  store. 
It  was  in  this  ancient  fabric  that  Mr.  Francis  Crawfurd's  son,  the 
late  George  Crawfurd,  Esq.,  writer,  was  born  in  the  year  1756, 
being  the  year  before  the  Crown  rented  any  part  of  the  said 
premises.  Mr.  Francis  Crawfurd  was  Convener  of  the  Trades  in 
1765,  and  died  in  that  year  while  in  office,  as  the  following  notice 
shows  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  5th  December  1765. — "On  Saturday,  Mr.  Francis 
Crawfurd,  Convener  of  the  Trades  of  Glasgow,  was  interred  in  the  High 
Church  yard.  On  this  occasion  all  the  different  corporations  walked  in 
procession,  each  trade  by  itself,  attended  by  their  officers." 


no  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

There  is  a  singular  circumstance  attending  Convener  Craw- 
furd's  family.  Mr.  Crawfurd  had  no  less  than  twenty-two  children, 
of  whom,  I  believe,  the  late  George  Crawfurd,  Esq.,  writer,  was  the 
youngest.  Of  all  that  numerous  progeny,  not  one  of  them  is 
knov/n  to  be  now  alive,  and  none  of  them  have  left  any  descendants, 
except  the  said  late  George  Crawfurd,  Esq.,  writer,  whose  only  son, 
the  present  George  Crawfurd,  Esq.,  Justice  of  Peace  Clerk,  now 
represents  this  old  Glasgow  family.  Mr.  Robert  M'Lintock,  the 
maternal  grandfather  of  the  present  George  Crawfurd,  was  the 
founder  of  the  Merchant  Bank  of  Glasgow,  and  signed  the  notes 
of  that  bank  when  first  issued. 

The  next  house  to  Convener  Crawfurd's  was  that  of  Bailie 
John  Craig,  whose  son.  Bailie  William  Craig  of  the  Water  Port 
(who  died  in  1804),  was  well  known  to  most  of  our  Glasgow 
octogenarians.  Bailie  William  Craig  served  his  apprenticeship 
with  Mr.  Francis  Crawfurd,  and  afterwards  became  his  partner,  the 
firm  being  Crawfurd  and  Craig.  Their  timber-yard  was  situated 
in  the  Bridgegate,  being  the  large  yard  attached  to  the  Merchants' 
House.  It  is  thus  described  in  an  old  paper,  which  I  have  seen, 
dated  1766  : — 

"  The  yard  in  the  Bridgegate,  belonging  to  the  Merchants'  House,  was  set 
by  tack  to  Francis  Crawfurd  and  WiUiam  Craig,  for  ten  years,  after  Whitsunday 
1 76 1,  at  the  yearly  rent  of  £6  6s.  sterling.  The  said  yard  has  two  entries,  the 
one  next  the  Clyde  being  a  cart  entry,  and  the  other  next  to  the  Bridgegate  a 
narrow  passage,  and  not  fit  for  a  cart.  The  said  yard  is  well  enclosed  with  a 
stone  dyke,  and  contains  i6oo§  yards,  superficial  measure."    (See  the  Sketch.) 

In  1817  the  Merchants'  House  sold  this  yard  and  their  other 
property  in  this  part  of  the  Bridgegate  to  William  and  James 
Carswell  for  £y$oo,  who  erected  thereon  the  present  buildings 
called  Guildry  Court.  The  steeple,  however,  was  reserved.  After 
the  expiry  of  the  lease  of  1761,  Bailie  William  Craig  removed  his 
timber-yard  and  joiner  workshops  to  Great  Clyde  Street,  behind 
his  dwelling-house  ;  and  in  1 790  he  again  changed  the  site  of  his 
yard  and  works  to  Jackson  Street,  which  street  had  shortly  before 
been  opened  by  Mr.  Jackson  of  the  Theatre  Royal. 

The  most  remarkable  old  tenement  (which  still  remains)  in  the 
Bridgegate  is  the  mansion-house  of  the  Campbells  of  Blythswood, 


THE  BLYTHSWOOD  MANSION.  iii 

with  what  was  once  its  large  garden  extending  southward  toward 
the  river,  as  is  shown  in  the  annexed  sketch. 

This  ancient  building  was  probably  erected  about  two  centuries 
ago,  and  originally  consisted  of  two  houses,  which  afterwards  came 
to  be  united  so  as  to  form  a  single  dwelling-house.  On  the  13th 
of  December  1739,  Colin  Campbell,  Esq.,  of  Blythswood,  executed 
a  strict  entail  of  all  his  heritable  properties,  including  the  said 
Bridgegate  mansion-house  and  garden. 

The  last  of  the  Blythswood  Campbells  who  resided  in  the 
Bridgegate  was  James  Campbell,  Esq.,  the  father  of  our  late 
member  of  Parliament,  Major  Archibald  Campbell.  Mr,  James 
Campbell,  being  rather  short  of  cash,  let  his  large  garden  to  David 
Lillie,  Wright,  as  a  timber-yard,  at  the  yearly  rent  of  £^  ;  but 
thinking  that  he  could  get  a  little  more  of  the  needful  by  dividing 
the  garden  into  lots,  he  in  1770  parcelled  it  out  into  three  parts, 
granting  leases  of  nineteen  years,  with  breaks  at  seven  years  :  first, 
to  Mr.  John  Robertson,  a  cooper ;  second,  to  Mr.  William  Martin, 
a  Wright ;  and  third,  to  Mr.  Linn  Dillon,  a  plasterer.  In  the 
leases  granted  to  these  tenants  (whose  descendants,  I  believe,  are 
still  in  Glasgow)  he  designed  himself  heritable  proprietor  of  the  yard 
after  mentioned ;  and  the  stipulated  rent  in  all  was  ;^20.  None 
of  the  above  tenants  were  aware  that  Mr.  James  Campbell  was 
only  a  liferenter  of  the  subjects  ;  but  believing  him  to  have  had  an 
absolute  right  therein  as  heritable  proprietor,  they  proceeded  to 
make  erections  on  their  respective  lots,  under  the  faith  of  the 
following  clauses  in  their  leases : — 

*'  And  with  liberty  to  erect  shades  or  other  buildings  thereupon,  and  the 
landlord,  at  the  end  of  this  tack,  to  pay  the  value  of  the  said  shades  and 
buildings,  as  the  same  shall  be  ascertained  by  two  persons,  to  be  mutually 
chosen  by  the  parties." 

Mr.  Robertson  erected  a  dwelling-house,  with  offices  and 
workshops,  on  his  lot,  in  value  about  ;^300  ;  and  Mr.  Dillon  did 
the  same  on  his  lot  also,  of  like  value  ;  but  Mr.  Martin  in  his 
lease  having  taken  part  of  Mr.  Campbell's  house,  had  no  occasion 
to  erect  expensive  buildings  on  his  lot,  but  only  shades  and  work- 
shops. All  these  erections  were  executed  with  the  consent  and 
under  the  eye  of  Mr.  Campbell  himself 


112  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

James  Campbell  of  Blythswood,  after  a  lingering  illness  of 
nine  months,  died  on  the  8th  January  1773,  leaving  little  or  no 
real  or  personal  estate  after  sick-bed  and  funeral  expenses  were 
defrayed.  His  eldest  son,  John,  afterwards  Colonel  Campbell, 
succeeded  to  the  Blythswood  entailed  estates,  to  whom  the  above- 
mentioned  tenants  regularly  paid  the  rents  of  the  subjects,  in 
conformity  with  the  terms  of  their  respective  leases.  In  1776  Mr. 
Dillon,  having  entered  into  another  line  of  business,  gave  regular 
intimation  to  Colonel  Campbell  that  he  was  going  to  quit  the 
subjects  and  give  up  the  tack  at  the  break  of  seven  years,  and 
again  did  the  same,  in  proper  legal  form,  at  Whitsunday  1777, 
when  the  first  seven  years  of  the  tack  had  expired,  at  the  same 
time  requesting  a  proper  person  to  be  named  in  order  to  ascertain 
the  value  of  the  buildings,  so  that  the  amount  thereof  might  be 
paid  to  him  as  especially  provided  by  the  terms  of  the  tack. 

Colonel  Campbell  having  returned  no  answer  to  Mr.  Dillon, 
the  latter  raised  an  action  in  the  Court  of  Session  upon  the  tack, 
concluding  against  Colonel  Campbell  for  ;^300,  as  the  value  of 
the  buildings  erected  on  Blythswood  grounds  under  the  faith  of 
the  said  tack.  The  result  of  this  action  was  unfortunate  to  poor 
Dillon,  the  Court,  after  long  litigation,  having  found  that  Colonel 
John  Campbell,  being  merely  heir  of  entail  in  the  said  estate, 
*'does  not  represent  the  late  Blythswood  in  any  other  manner." 
Dillon's  case,  of  course,  decided  the  two  others,  and  thus  Colonel 
John  Campbell  got  all  the  back  erections  on  his  Bridgegate 
garden  for  nothing,  contrary  to  the  boasted  legal  apophthegm, 
"  Nemo  debet  locuplateri  aliena  jactura."  (For  the  particulars 
of  Dillon's  case,  see  Glasgoiv,  Past  and  Present,  vol.  i.  p.  324.) 
Colonel  John  Campbell  was  a  remarkably  handsome  man.  I 
remember  him  very  well  walking  the  Trongate  of  Glasgow  with 
a  fine  military  step  ;  but  he  was  careless  about  his  dress,  for  his 
white  silk  stockings  used  to  be  dangling  loose  about  his  ankles 
in  all  weathers.  He  was  killed  in  Martinico  in  1794,  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  brother  Archibald,  our  late  M-.P.,  then  Captain 
Campbell,  and  a  prisoner  at  Toulon,  where  the  news  reached 
him  of  his  having  succeeded  to  the  large  entailed  estates  of 
Blythswood. 


JAMES  CAMPBELL  OF  BLYTHSWOOD.  113 

About  sixty  years  ago  Archibald  Campbell,  M.P.,  obtained 
powers  to  purchase  the  annexation  lands  of  Blythswood  Holm, 
now  in  the  heart  of  Glasgow,  and  also  the  Bridgegate  family 
mansion  and  garden  at  a  valued  price  under  trustees,  who  were 
taken  bound  to  lay  out  the  said  price  in  other  lands  to  be  substi- 
tuted for  the  annexation  lands  and  family  burgage  property,  to 
be  entailed  in  strict  conformity  with  the  terms  of  the  original 
deed  of  1739.  In  the  year  1802  Archibald  Campbell,  M.P. 
(then  Major  Campbell),  sold  the  Bridgegate  mansion-house  with 
all  the  back  buildings  before  mentioned,  which  had  been  erected 
in  the  garden  or  yard  by  Robertson,  Martin,  and  Dillon,  under 
the  terms  of  their  leases. 

James  Campbell  of  Blythswood,  the  father  of  Colonel  John 
and  Major  Archibald  Campbell,  was  married  to  Henrietta,  daughter 
of  James  Dunlop  of  Garnkirk  (she  died  in  1788),  by  whom  he 
had  three  sons  and  five  daughters,  viz. —  ist,  Colonel  John;  2d, 
Major  Archibald,  our  late  M.P. ;  3d,  James,  who  died  a  lieutenant 
in  the  55th  regiment,  while  in  Antigua;  4th,  Henrietta;  5th, 
Agnes ;  6th,  Grace ;  7th,  Janet ;  and  8th,  Mary.  With  the 
exception  of  John,  who  succeeded  to  the  entailed  estates  of 
Blythswood,  this  large  family  were  left  totally  unprovided  for, 
James  Campbell  the  father  having  died  involved  in  debt  and 
quite  msolvent,  as  the  following  advertisements  show  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  1 6th  November  1775. — "Notice — To  the  creditors  of 
the  deceased  James  Campbell  of  Blythswood,  Esq.  Such  creditors  of  Mr. 
Campbell  as  have  lately  obtained  a  Decree  of  Constitution  of  their  debts 
before  the  Commissary  of  Hamilton  and  Campsie  are  requested  to  meet  by 
themselves,  or  agents  properly  authorised,  within  the  house  of  William 
Thompson,  vintner,  at  the  Cross  of  Glasgow,  on  Wednesday  the  29th  Nov- 
ember inst.,  between  the  hours  of  one  and  two  o'clock,  mid-day,  in  order 
to  concert  measures  for  recovering  payment  of  their  several  debts,  certifying 
such  creditors  who  shall  not  then  attend,  or  pay  the  charge  necessary  for 
prosecuting  these  measures,  that  they  will  not  be  entitled  to  any  benefit  that 
may  arise  from  prosecution." 

Glasgow  Mercury,  ist  January  1784. — "Notice — To  the  creditors  of  the 
deceased  James  Campbell  of  Blythswood,  Esq.  That  in  process  of  Rank- 
ing and  Sale  depending  before  the  Lords  of  Council  and  Session,  at  the 
instance  of  James  Hepburn  of  Humbie,  and  James  Somerville,  apparent  heirs 
of  line  of  the  said  James  Campbell,  a  commission  has  been  granted  to 
John  Wilson,  junior,  writer  in  Glasgow,  for  the  creditors,  deponing  to  the 
VOL.  IIT.  I 


114  OLD  GLx\SGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

verity  of  their  debts.  This  intimation,  therefore,  is  given  to  such  of  the  said 
creditors,  and  to  the  representatives  of  such  of  them  as  are  deceased,  who 
obtained  a  decree  of  constitution  of  their  debts  before  the  Commissary  of  Hamil- 
ton and  Campsie  in  the  month  of  August,  1774,  to  appear  before  the  said 
John  Wilson,  with  whom  the  above  decree  lyes,  and  to  depone  to  the  verity 
of  their  debts  as  soon  as  possible." 

Glasgow  Mercury,  28th  September  1790. — "Notice — To  the  creditors 
of  the  late  James  Campbell  of  Blythswood,  Esq.  John  Jafifrey,  late  watch- 
maker in  Glasgow,  now  in  Stirling,  to  whom  certain  creditors  of  the  said  James 
Campbell  indorsed  for  behoof  of  their  claims,  having  now  recovered  a  dividend 
from  the  price  of  the  unentailed  lands  of  the  said  James  Campbell,  those 
creditors  or  their  representatives  will  call  on  John  Wilson,  one  of  the  Town 
Clerks  of  Glasgow,  to  receive  their  dividends  and  sign  a  discharge.  The  divi- 
dends will  be  paid  at  Mr.  Wilson's  Writing  Office,  foot  of  Saltmarket,  on 
Fridays  and  Wednesdays,  from  eleven  o'clock  forenoon  till  one  o'clock  after- 
noon, from  Friday  the  first  of  October  next.  And  as  several  of  Mr.  Jaffrey's  con- 
stituents were  cut  off  by  the  Court  of  Session  from  a  dividend,  by  reason  of 
their  having  neglected  to  depone  to  the  verity  of  their  debts,  in  order  to  save 
unnecessary  trouble,  and  to  give  notice  to  those  who  are  entitled  to  receive 
dividends,  there  is  hereunto  annexed  a  list  of  the  creditors,  his  constituents, 
now  entitled  to  receive  dividends,  viz. — Alexander  Bannatyne,  seedsman, 
Glasgow ;  William  Purdon,  tenant  Woodside ;  Robert  M'Lintock,  senior, 
merchant,  Glasgow  f  Will.  Swan,  smith  and  ferrier,  Renfrew  ;  James  Park, 
shoemaker,  there ;  Robert  Brand,  vintner,  there ;  George  Paterson,  smith, 
there  ;  Thomas  Brown,  mason,  there  ;  Matthew  Burn,  at  Blackball ;  John 
Ritchie,  wright,  Renfrew  ;  William  Balcanquhal,  corkcutter,  Glasgow  ;  Edward 
Collins  &  Co.,  bleachers,  Dalmuir ;  Andrew  Ramsay,  merchant,  Glasgow ; 
Casper  Clawson,  South  Sugar  House,  there ;  A.  and  H.  Blackburns,  mer- 
chants, there ;  William  Boreland,  weaver.  Paisley  ;  William  Tassie,  glover  in 
Glasgow ;  James  Watson,  staymaker,  there  ;  Archibald  Campbell  of  Succoth, 
Esq. ;  John  Brown,  cooper,  Renfrew  ;  William  Campbell,  butcher.  Paisley ; 
Alexander  Nasmith,  wright,  there  ;  John  Christie,  merchant,  there  ;  Thomas 
Crichton,  there ;  Hamilton  and  M'Farlane,  merchants,  Glasgow ;  Shortridge 
and  Martin,  merchants,  there  ;  John  M'Aslan,  gardener,  there  ;  James  Clerk 
and  Arthur  Robertson,  merchants,  there ;  John  Mitchell,  nurseryman,  Renfrew; 
Patrick  Croo,  slater,  Paisley ;  Michael  Bogl  and  Scott,  merchants,  Glasgow ; 
James  Philips  &  Co.,  manufacturers.  Paisley;  Thomas  Manfod,  wright,  there; 
John  Robertson,  mason,  Renfrew  ;  Janet  Hume,  milliner,  Glasgow  ;  Buchanan 
and  Crawfords,  merchants,  there ;  Alexander  Spiers,  merchant,  there ;  John 
Brock,  mason,  Cowcaddens  ;  Hugh  Niven,  merchant,  Glasgow  ;  Robert  King, 
hosier.  Port  -  Glasgow  ;  Elizabeth  Graham,  residenter  in  Glasgow;  Carre, 
Ibetson  &  Co.,  merchants,  London  ;  John  Anderson  in  Blewarthill ;  Home 
and  Cleghorn,  coachmakers,  Edinburgh  ;  Walter  Macfarlane,  wine  merchant, 
there ;  John  Wilson,  late  town  clerk  of  Glasgow ;  and  Mrs.  Lionell  Walkin- 
shaw,  relict  of  William  Walkinshaw,  late  ship  master  in  Port-Glasgow. 
"  Not  to  be  repeated." 


JAMES  CAMPBELL'S  CREDITORS.  115 

From  the  foregoing  notices  it  appears  that  several  of  Mr. 
Campbell's  creditors  had  made  no  claims  against  his  estate. 
These  were  probably  creditors  who  had  supplied  the  family  with 
furnishings  either  for  the  person  or  for  the  table,  which  descrip- 
tion of  furnishings  being  generally  paid  in  full  by  the  persons 
succeeding  to  large  entailed  estates,  the  said  creditors  might  have 
expected  that  Colonel  John  Campbell,  having  succeeded  to  an 
entailed  estate  of  two  thousand  per  annum,  would  have  paid  such 
family  debts  in  full,  according  to  use  and  wont. 

Among  the  list  of  creditors  we  do  not  see  a  tailor.  This 
tradesman  probably  rendered  Colonel  John  and  his  two  brothers 
separate  accounts  for  their  respective  habiliments,  and  so  may 
have  got  paid  ;  but  we  find  an  unhappy  milliner  on  the  list, 
whose  account  against  so  many  ladies  must  have  been  pretty 
heavy.  There  also  shine  among  the  family  furnishing  creditors 
a  staymaker,  hosier,  shoemaker,  and  glover. 

With  regard  to  the  creditors  supplying  the  family  with  vivers, 
we  do  not  see  any  grocer  in  the  list ;  but  several  of  those  enume- 
rated in  it  called  "merchants  there"  were  in  fact,  tea  dealers, 
grocers,  and  general  merchants.  Sugar  seems  to  have  been 
supplied  by  Casper  Clawson  of  the  South  Sugar-house ;  and  we 
have  the  coachmaker,  also  wrights,  masons,  coopers,  smiths,  and 
ferriers  for  jobbings,  besides  a  poor  Paisley  weaver,  no  doubt  a 
creditor  for  weaving  some  house-made  shirtings  or  sheetings,  and 
Collins  of  Dalmuir  for  bleaching  the  same.  Mr.  James  Campbell 
appears  to  have  got  his  wines  from  Edinburgh  but  his  corks  in 
Glasgow  ;  perhaps  he  paid  ready  money  for  his  bottles.  There 
is  a  gardener  in  the  list  for  vegetables  and  garden  seeds,  viz.  Bailie 
John  M'Aslan  ;  and  as  for  milk,  butter,  and  cheese,  these  farm 
productions  were  most  likely  supplied  from  the  dairies  of  Mr, 
Purdon  of  Woodside,  and  of  Mr,  Burn  of  Blackball.  There  is 
also  in  the  list  that  very  necessary  furnisher  of  family  wants  "  a 
butcher;"  but  what  has  become  of  "the  baker,"  the  most  import- 
ant personage  of  them  all,  as  to  vivers  hot  rolls  to  breakfast, 
quartern  loaves  to  dinner,  cookies,  short-bread,  and  "Bell  Gordons"^ 

1  "  Bell  Gordon"  is  shortbread  with  large  sweeties  baked  upon  its  upper  surface.     The 
term  is  a  coiTuption  of  the  French  phrase  "Belle  Guerdonne" — "A  handsome  reward." 


ii6  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

to  tea,  to  say  nothing  of  piping  hot  penny  pies  to  supper,  for  such 
a  large  family  as  that  of  Mr.  Campbell  would  form  no  small  item 
of  household  expenditure.  The  late  James  Rankin,  Esq.,  tobac- 
conist, however,  explained  to  me  how  there  came  to  be  no  baker 
among  the  creditors  of  Mr.  Campbell  in  the  foregoing  published 
list  of  them.  Mr.  Rankin  said  that  he  was  appointed  executor 
upon  the  estate  of  a  deceased  baker,  in  whose  book  there  stood 
an  account  of  upwards  of  £ioo  against  the  Blythswood  family 
for  bread  furnished  to  them  during  the  lifetime  of  James  Camp- 
bell. The  said  baker  alleged  that  Colonel  John,  his  two  brothers, 
and  five  sisters,  having  all  intromitted  art  and  part  in  the  act  of 
consuming  his  bread,  he  therefore  considered  that  they  were  all 
and  each  of  them  liable  to  him  for  the  debt,  "  singuli  in  solidum," 
as  the  lawyers  say.  The  baker's  demand  on  the  family,  however, 
was  repudiated  by  them,  and  shortly  after  the  baker  died,  in 
consequence  of  which  the  matter  lay  over.  Mr.  Rankin  told  me 
that  he  several  times  attempted  to  get  payment  of  this  debt  from 
the  Blythswood  family,  but  without  success.  It  was  thought, 
however,  that  Major  Archibald  on  succeeding  to  the  Blythswood 
estates,  would  have  discharged  the  debt  if  he  had  been  applied  to 
in  a  gentle  and  courteous  manner,  but  that  he  considered  the 
demand  had  been  made  upon  him  in  a  bullying  and  threatening 
style,  which  he  was  resolved  to  resist. 

Mr.  James  Rankin's  dwelling-house,  shop,  and  tobacco  manu- 
factory were  situated  in  the  Bridgegate,  immediately  opposite  to 
the  Blythswood  mansion-house.  His  father,  John  Rankin,  is  taken 
notice  of  by  M'Ure  as  being  the  proprietor  of  these  premises  in 
1736,  and  then  carrying  on  the  business  of  a  tobacconist.  There 
was  a  large  garden  behind  the  tobacco  manufactory,  lying  between 
the  Old  and  the  New  Wynds,  at  the  north  end  of  which  there 
stood  a  neat  summer-house,  where  tea  entertainments  were  occa- 
sionally given  during  the  summer  season  by  the  Rankin  family, 
even  down  to  my  day. 

In  the  annexed  sketch  there  is  a  large  vacant  space  of  ground 
shown  between  the  two  wynds  ;  but  I  think  that  this  space  was 
not  wholly  Mr.  Rankin's  property,  but  that  it  included  Mr.  Urie's 
cooperage.     The  Irish  have  now  got  possession  of  this  once  rural 


LARGE  PROFIT  ON  TOBACCO.  117 

spot,  and  of  late  it  has  become  a  place  of  some  notoriety,  in  con- 
sequence of  Mr.  James  Fleming,  of  the  celebrated  M'Lachlan  case, 
having  been  accustomed  to  resort  there  every  week,  for  the  purpose 
of  collecting  the  rents  due  by  the  tenants  to  the  Rankin  family. 
This  duty  Mr.  Fleming  performed  in  a  manner  most  satisfactory 
to  Mr.  Rankin's  heirs.  Mr.  James  Rankin  mentioned  rather  a 
singular  circumstance  to  me  regarding  his  father's  family.  He 
said  that  if  his  eldest  brother  had  been  then  alive  he  would 
have  been  120  years  of  age,  there  being  upwards  of  sixty  years 
of  difference  between  the  ages  of  the  brothers.  Of  course  they 
were  by  different  mothers.  At  the  death  of  Mr.  Rankin's  father, 
his  widow  (Mr.  James  Rankin's  mother)  continued  to  carry  on  the 
tobacco  business  for  behoof  of  the  family,  which  she  did  to  their 
great  advantage.  When  the  American  War  of  Independence 
broke  out  about  1776,  tobacco,  from  3d.  per  pound,  suddenly  rose 
to  6d.  per  pound.  On  this  occasion  Mr.  William  Cuninghame 
(who  built  the  original  house  of  the  Royal  Exchange)  called  on 
Mrs.  Rankin,  as  a  friend  and  an  old  acquaintance  of  the  family, 
and  strongly  advised  her  to  lay  in  a  stock  of  tobacco  forthwith,  as 
he  was  sure  that  there  would  be  a  still  greater  rise  of  the  tobacco 
market.  Mrs.  Rankin,  however,  hesitated  to  speculate  upon  an 
article  which  had  already  risen  to  double  of  the  ordinary  price. 
Mr.  Cunningham,  notwithstanding  her  objections,  still  urged  her 
to  purchase  a  few  hogsheads,  when  she  at  last  rather  unwillingly 
agreed  to  buy  one  hogshead,  but  she  refused  to  venture  on  any 
greater  purchase,  considering  the  risk  to  be  too  great.  She  had 
scarcely  concluded  the  bargain  when  tobacco  rose  to  gd.  per 
pound,  then  to  is.  and  thus  continued  to  rise  step  by  step,  till  at 
length  it  reached  the  extraordinary  price  of  3s.  6d.  per  pound  ; 
so  that  ultimately,  by  manufacturing  this  single  hogshead  of 
tobacco,  Mrs.  Rankin  cleared  ;^i5oo.  Mrs.  Rankin's  eldest 
daughter,  Janet  (sister-german  of  Mr.  James  Rankin),  was  married 
to  Humphrey  Ewing,  Esq.,  the  brother  of  Walter  Ewing  Maclae, 
Esq.,  of  Cathkin,  and  uncle  to  James  Ewing,  Esq.,  of  Strathleven. 
Since  I  have  got  amongst  those  old  gossiping  stories  of  Bridge- 
gate  matters,  I  shall  mention  another  that  was  current  in  my 
younger  days,  the  truth  of  which,  however,  I  cannot  vouch  for,  as 


ii8  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

it  occurred  before  my  time;  I  can  only  say  that  it  was  commonly 
received  as  a  fact  by  the  folks  of  Glasgow  some  seventy  or  eighty 
years  ago.  I  have  already  stated  that  James  Campbell  of  Blyths- 
wood  had  let  his  garden  or  yard  in  the  Bridgegate  to  David 
Lillie,  a  wright,  who  was  deacon  of  the  craft  in  1772.  Mr.  Lillie 
was  also  an  extensive  builder.  About  this  time,  or  shortly  after, 
James  Maxwell,  Esq.,  the  grandfather  of  the  present  Sir  John 
Maxwell  of  Pollok,  being  then  a  young  man,  and  having  no 
expectation  of  succeeding  to  the  Pollok  estates,  resolved  to  go 
out  to  St.  Christopher,  and  settle  in  that  island  as  a  planter. 
Preparatory,  however,  to  going  there  he  thought  it  would  be  of 
great  service  to  him  to  get  lessons  as  a  joiner,  so  that  he  might 
be  able  to  show  the  slaves  upon  any  estate  that  he  might  acquire 
how  to  handle  the  saw  and  the  plane.  Accordingly,  he  applied 
to  David  Lillie  to  be  admitted  to  his  shop  as  one  of  his  operatives, 
and  there  he  sedulously  worked  at  the  bench  for  a  considerable 
time  among  Mr.  Lillie's  journeymen,  till  he  became  an  expert 
joiner,  and  was  familiarly  addressed  by  his  fellow-workmen  as 
"Jemmy  Maxwell." 

At  the  time  when  Mr.  Maxwell  was  thus  working  at  the  bench 
in  Mr.  Lillie's  shop  there  were  two  individuals  between  him  and 
the  Pollok  estates,  viz.  Sir  Walter  Maxwell  of  Pollok  and  his  son 
John,  so  that  Mr.  James  Maxwell  felt  that  he  must  depend  upon 
his  own  exertions  for  rising  in  the  world  ;  but  providence  inter- 
fered in  his  favour,  and  ordered  matters  otherwise.  Sir  Walter 
Pollok  died  in  1761,  and  in  nine  short  weeks  thereafter  Sir  John, 
his  only  son,  followed  his  father  to  that  place  from  whence  none 
return ;  and  so  Mr.  Maxwell,  as  next  heir,  succeeded  to  the  estates 
of  Pollok,  and  became  Sir  James  Maxwell  of  Nether  Pollok.  Sir 
James  Maxwell,  after  succeeding  to  the  Pollok  estates,  took  a 
great  interest  in  the  affairs  of  the  city  of  Glasgow,  and  was  a 
leading  man  in  all  public  measures  tending  to  benefit  its  citizens. 
In  1782  he  became  the  head  partner  of  the  Thistle  Bank,  the 
firm  being  "  James  Maxwell,  James  Ritchie,  and  Company." 
Such,  then,  was  the  gossiping  story  of  my  younger  days  regarding 
Sir  James  Maxwell  of  Pollok. 

In   an  article  published  in  the  Glasgow  Herald  some  years  ago 


FLOODS  IN  THE  BRIDGEGATE.  119 

I  stated  that  I  was  present  in  the  year  1782  when  the  great  flood 
of  the  Clyde  overflowed  the  whole  of  the  lower  parts  of  the  city, 
and  that  I  beheld  boats  navigating  the  Bridgegate,  and  ascending 
King  Street  above  the  markets,  to  the  great  wonder  and  terror  of 
the  inhabitants.^  On  the  i8th  of  November  1795,  a  similar 
flood  occurred  of  nearly  an  equal  magnitude,  and  quite  as  destruc- 
tive as  to  property.  The  Bridgegate  in  this  case  was  also  com- 
pletely inundated,  and  boats  plied  along  its  waters  to  supply  with 
food  the  inmates  of  houses  who  were  detained  prisoners  in  the 
upper  portions  of  their  dwellings.  All  the  arches  of  the  fine  new 
bridge  across  the  river,  opposite  the  Saltmarket,  which  had  been 
passable  on  foot,  fell  in,  one  after  another  ;  and  cows,  sheep,  and 
much  agricultural  produce  were  carried  away  by  the  rapidity  of 
the  torrent,  and  lost. 

Amidst  all  these  distressing  occurrences  there  happened  one 
so  comic  that  its  recital  by  the  tittle-tattlers  of  the  day  made 
people  almost  to  forget  the  general  calamity  caused  by  the  flood. 
It  seems  that  David  Dale,  Esq.,  whose  house  was  situated  at  the 
foot  of  Charlotte  Street,  had  invited  a  large  party  to  dinner  on 
the  said    i8th  day  of  November    1795,  and  expected   William 

^  The  following  account  of  this  great  flood  is  taken  from  the  Scots  Magazine  of  14th 
March  1782  : — 

Glasgow,  14th  March  1782. — "  On  Tuesday  last  (12th),  the  River  Clyde  rose  to  a 
greater  height  than  the  oldest  people  in  the  city  remembered.  It  has  sometimes  over- 
flowed that  part  of  the  town  which  lies  very  low,  but  upon  this  occasion  it  rose  about 
20  feet  of  perpendicular  height  above  the  usual  course  of  the  river.  This  remarkable 
inundation  was  occasioned  by  a  very  heavy  fall  of  rain  and  snow,  which  began  on  Sunday 
last,  about  three  afternoon,  without  intermission  all  that  night  and  next  day.  Upon 
Monday  night,  about  ten  o'clock,  some  parts  of  the  Bridgegate  were  under  water,  and 
the  flood  continued  to  increase.  It  was  at  the  greatest  height  upon  Tuesday  morning, 
about  seven  o'clock.  At  that  time  the  Bridgegate,  the  lower  part  of  the  Saltmarket, 
Stockwell,  Maxwell  Street,  Jamaica  Street,  and  the  populous  village  of  Gorbals,  were 
all  under  water.  The  inundation  was  sudden  and  unexpected.  Hundreds  of  families 
were  obliged  to  leave  their  beds  and  their  houses.  A  particular  account  of  the  damage 
which  individuals  have  sustained  cannot  be  ascertained,  but  the  loss  in  tobacco,  sugar, 
and  other  merchandise  carried  away  by  the  river  or  spoiled  by  water  will  amount  to  a 
very  large  sum.  A  young  woman  in  the  Gorbals  was  drowned  ;  and  a  woman  in 
Partick,  thinking  herself  in  safety,  refused  to  leave  her  house,  and  being  afterwards 
removed  from  it  by  her  neighbours,  expired  in  half  an  hour.  A  great  numl)er  of  horses 
and  cows,  which  could  not  be  removed  from  the  stables  or  byres,  were  drowned.  The 
river  on  this  occasion  was  about  1 8  inches  higher  than  in  the  memorable  flood  in  1 7 1 2. 
Yesterday  morning,  to  the  great  joy  of  the  inhabitants,  the  river  was  confined  to  its  usual 
channel." 


I20  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Simpson,  cashier  of  the  Royal  Bank,  the  great  miUionaire  Gilbert 
Innes  of  Stowe,  and  the  whole  posse  of  the  Royal  Bank  directory, 
to  come  from  Edinburgh  to  meet  Scott  Moncrieff,  George  M'Intosh, 
and  a  few  others  of  our  Glasgow  magnates  at  dinner  on  the  said 
day.      On  the  memorable  morning  of  the  said  i  8th,  all  was  bustle 
and  hurry-burry  in  Mr.  Dale's  house,  preparing  a  sumptuous  feast 
for  this  distinguished  party.      The  kitchen  fires  were  in  full  blaze, 
prompt  to  roast  the  jolly  joints  of  meat  already  skewered  on  the 
spits,  to  boil  the  well-stuffed  turkeys,  and  to  stew  the  other  tit-bits 
of  the  table  ;  while  the  puddings  and  the  custards  stood  ready  on 
the  dresser  for  immediate  application  to  the  bars  of  the  grate ; 
when,  lo  and  behold !  the  waters  of  the  Clyde  began  gently  to  ooze 
through  the  chinks  of  the  kitchen  floor,  and  by-and-by  gradually 
to  increase,  so  that  in  a  short  time  the  servants  came  to  be  going 
through  their  work  with  the  water  above  their  ankles.     At  this 
critical  moment  the  Monkland  canal  burst  its  banks,  and,  like  an 
avalanche,  the  waters  came  thundering  down  by  the  Molendinar 
Burn,  carrying  all  before   it,  and   filling   the   low  houses  of  the 
Gallowgate,   Saltmarket,   Bridgegate,  and   under  portions   of  St. 
Andrew's  Square,  with  a  muddy  stream,  and  the  wrecks  of  many 
a  poor  man's  dwelling.      In  consequence  of  the  regorgement  of 
water  caused   by  this  sad  mishap,  and  the  continued  increase  of 
the  flood,  the  Camlachie   Burn,  which  ran  close   by  Mr.   Dale's 
house,  was  raised  to  an  unusual  height,  and  at  once  with  a  con- 
fused crash,  broke  into  Mr.  Dale's  kitchen,  putting  out  all  the  fires 
there,  and   making  the  servants  to  run  for  their  lives,  they  having 
scarcely  had  time  to  save  the  half-dressed  dinner.     Then  came 
the  great  question.  What  was  now  to  be  done  ?     The  dinner  hour 
was   fast    approaching,   and   the   great   Edinburgh    visitors    were 
already   whirling    rapidly  towards    Glasgow   in    their    carriages  ; 
while  the  fires  of  the  kitchen  being  completely  extinguished,  the 
kitchen  itself  was  thereby  rendered  totally  useless.      In  this  cala- 
mitous dilemma,  Mr.  Dale  applied  to  his  opposite    neighbour  in 
Charlotte  Street,  William  Wardlaw,  Esq.  (Dr.  W.'s  father),  for  the 
loan  of  his  kitchen,  and  also  to  another  of  his   neighbours,  Mr. 
Archibald  Paterson,  for  a  like  accommodation,  both  of  whom  not 
only  readily  granted  the  use  of  their  kitchens,  but  also  the  aid  of 


DAVID  DALE'S  DINNER-PARTY.  121 

their  servants  to  cook  Mr.  Dale's  dinner.  But  still  the  question 
remained,  How  were  the  wines,  spirits,  and  ales  to  be  gotten  from 
the  cellar,  which  now  stood  four  feet  deep  of  water?  After  much 
cogitation,  a  porter  was  hired,  who,  being  suitably  dressed  for  the 
occasion,  was  to  descend  to  the  abyss  and  bring  up  the  said 
articles.  It,  however,  occurred  to  Mr.  Dale  that  the  porter  would 
not  be  able  to  distinguish  the  binns  that  contained  the  port, 
sherry,  and  Madeira  (Mr.  Dale  did  not  sport  French  wines)  from 
those  of  the  rum,  brandy,  porter,  and  ale.  In  this  emergency, 
Miss  Dale,  then  sixteen  years  of  age,  was  mounted  on  the  porter's 
back,  and  both  having  descended  to  the  cellar,  Miss  Dale,  amidst 
the  waters  of  the  deep,  pointed  out  to  her  chevalier  where  he  was 
to  find  the  different  articles  required  for  the  table.  After  having 
received  instructions,  the  porter  brought  up  his  fair  charge  to  the 
lobby  of  the  house,  where  Miss  Dale  dismounted  from  the 
shoulders  of  her  bearer  in  safety  ;  and  the  porter  having  again 
descended  to  the  cellar,  readily  found  the  wines  and  ales  that 
were  wanted,  which  he  delivered  to  Mr.  Dale  in  good  order.  All 
things  now  went  on  in  a  satisfactory  manner.  The  Edinburgh 
visitors  and  Glasgow  magnates  arrived  in  due  time,  the  dinner 
was  cooked  and  placed  on  the  table  in  the  best  style,  and  the 
whole  party  passed  the  evening  in  mirth  and  jocularity  at  the 
odd  circumstances  which  had  attended  this  merry  meeting. 

It  was  the  waters  of  the  Camlachie  Burn  which  inundated 
Mr.  Dale's  kitchen,  these  having  been  regorged  by  the  sudden 
rise  of  the  Molendinar  Burn,  when  the  two  burns  met  near  the 
Episcopal  Chapel.  The  arch  of  the  bridge  at  that  place  was 
not  large  enough  to  allow  a  sufficient  vent  for  the  accumulated 
waters  of  both  burns,  which  consequently  caused  a  flow  of  back 
water.  There  were  three  other  bridges  upon  the  Molendinar 
Burn  before  it  joined  the  River  Clyde.  All  these  bridges  upon  the 
occasion  in  question  were  also  overflowed,  the  top  of  their  arches 
being  only  about  4^  feet  above  the  ordinary  surface  of  the  rivulet. 

In  the  year  1764  a  very  important  action  of  damages  against 
the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  was  raised  in  the  Court  of  Session,  on 
account  of  their  having  irregularly  demolished  a  saw-mill  upon 
the  Molendinar  Burn.      On  the  3d   December    1859  I   published 


122  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

the    following  statement  of  this   case    in   the   Glasgow  Herald^ 
which  I  now  repeat : — 

"  In  my  early  days  (speaking,  however,  only  from  memory)  the  Molen- 
dinar  Burn  was  an  open  rivulet  from  its  source,  which  arose  from  some  small 
lochs  lying  to  the  north  of  the  city.  After  supplying  the  Town's  Mill  with 
water,  it  ran  through  a  considerable  part  of  the  city,  receiving  in  its  course 
all  the  filth  and  impurities  of  that  part  of  Glasgow  through  which  it  flowed. 
From  the  College  Garden  to  its  junction  with  the  River  Clyde  there  were 
1 8  bridges  which  crossed  the  Molendinar  Burn;  the  Gallowgate  Bridge  and 
the  bridge  at  the  south  extremity  of  the  Saltmarket  being  the  principal  ones. 
Within  my  time  this  burn  from  the  New  Vennel  to  the  River  Clyde  has  been 
covered  in,  or  arched,  in  various  portions  and  at  various  times,  so  that  it 
would  be  difficult  now  to  say  exactly  where  and  when  these  alterations  first 
took  place  in  the  course  of  their  construction." 

In  ancient  times  the  original  level  of  the  Gallowgate  Street 
at  the  bridge  has  evidently  been  the  banks  of  the  said  burn, 
which  then,  most  probably,  was  crossed  by  stepping  stones,  being 
at  the  time  in  question  a  limpid  stream,  crossing  the  country 
road  to  the  Gallow  Muir  and  Eastern  Common, 

When  a  boy  I  remember  that  there  were  some  small  houses 
situated  to  the  north-east  of  the  bridge,  which  stood  about  eight 
feet  back  from  the  line  of  the  carriage  road  of  the  Gallowgate, 
having  a  passage  gradually  sloping  towards  the  Molendinar  Burn. 
This  passage  was  closed  at  its  eastern  extremity  by  the  retaining 
wall  of  the  burn.  The  Gallowgate  then  was  considerably  higher 
at  the  bridge  than  the  lower  parts  of  the  said  passage,  and  there 
was  no  parapet  on  the  roadway  to  protect  passengers  from  falling 
into  the  passage  from  the  street.  In  short,  the  Gallowgate  Street 
from  the  bridge  westward  to  St.  Andrew's  Open  (then  called 
Kirk  Loan)  appeared  like  a  continuation  of  the  bridge  itself,  and 
it  is  extremely  probable  that  the  passage  in  question  originally 
was  generally  used  as  a  lane  to  the  burn,  for  the  purpose  of 
watering  horses.  The  passage  commenced  nearly  opposite  St. 
Andrew's  Open,  where  the  street  was  of  its  present  breadth,  but 
from  that  spot  to  the  Molendinar  Burn  it  became  narrowed  to  the 
extent  of  the  space  occupied  by  the  lane.  The  line  of  houses  on 
the  north  of  the  passage  was  built  in  the  old  Dutch  or  Flemish 
style,  with  corby  steps  and  gables,  fronting  the  lane  or  passage. 


GALLOWGATE  HOUSES. 


123 


I  remember  two  of  the  small  shops  fronting  this  alley  or 
passage,  in  both  of  which  a  respectable  small  business  was  carried 
on.  One  by  Mr,  Watson,  a  staymaker,  and  the  other  by  a  Mr. 
Richardson,  for  the  sale  of  worsted  articles.  The  opposite  pro- 
perty to  the  east  of  the  burn  belonged  to  the  Old  Tannery  Com- 
pany, rather  an  extensive  establishment.^  Mr.  John  Sym,  writer, 
resided  on  the  first  floor  of  the  tenement,  at  the  south-west  corner 
of  the  bridge,  and  the  Molendinar  Burn  flowed  alongside  of  his 
dwelling.  He  was  the  great-grandfather  of  the  celebrated  pro- 
fessor, John  Wilson  of  Edinburgh  (Christopher  North).  ("12th 
February  1787. — Married  at  Edinburgh,  Mr.  John  Wilson,  mer- 
chant in  Paisley,  to  Margaret  Sym,  daugher  of  Mr.  Andrew  Sym, 
merchant  in  Glasgow.")  John  Sym  was  the  father  of  Andrew 
Sym  above  mentioned. 

The  under  part  of  the  tenement  in  which  John  Sym  resided 
was  occupied  by  the  late  Mr.  Robert  Maxwell  of  Maxwelltown 
Place  as  a  place  of  business.  To  the  south  of  the  said  tenement 
a  person  of  the  name  of  John  or  James  Findlay  had  a  dwelling- 
house  built  over  the  Molendinar  Burn  itself,  there  being  a  space 
of  about  six  feet  and  a  half  between  the  floor  of  his  house  and 
the  ordinary  level  of  the  burn,  which  space  was  considered  suf- 
ficient to  allow  free  vent  to  the  water  in  case  of  floods.  (See  this 
house  in  the  Plan.)  Dr.  Woodrow's  garden  on  the  west  was 
bounded  by  the  Molendinar,  and  it  then  formed  a  pleasant  rural 
retreat,  being  situated  in  the  heart  of  open  grounds,  lying  between 
the  English  Chapel  and  St.  Andrew's  Square,  not  a  stone  of  the 
square  at  that  time  having  been  laid. 

From  an  article  published  in  the  Glasgoiv  Herald  of  27th 
November   1861    we  learn  that  in  1773  the  Tan  work  Company 

^  The  tanwork  consisted  of  15  large  tan-pits,  15  smaller  do.  ;  7  large  handlers,  12 
smaller,  do.  ;  I2  scours,  large  latches,  9  Ihne-pits,  2  bait  do.  ;  a  currying  shop,  3  large 
sheds  for  holding  bark  and  drying  leather  ;  a  stove  and  beam  shode  ;  a  writing-room, 
bark-mill,  with  a  stone  and  cast-iron  ring  ;  a  dwelling-house  of  3  rooms,  kitchen,  2 
garret-rooms,  and  two  cellars,  etc.  etc.  The  partners  in  1786  were  John  Bowman, 
John  Campbell,  Robert  Boyle,  William  Couts,  Robert  Marshall,  Archibald  Spiers,  and 
Peter  Spiers,  who  advertised  that  they  had  "men  and  women's  shoes,  etc.,  saddles 
and  saddlery,  which  they  are  selling  on  very  moderate  terms,  and  carry  on  the  tanning 
business  in  all  its  branches."  Robert  Marshall,  the  father  of  Captain  William  Marshall 
of  Rothesay,  was  the  managing  partner  of  the  tanwork. 


24 


OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 


employed  300  shoemakers  for  the  home  and  export  trade  ;  that  they 
had  a  shop  on  the  north  side  of  the  Trongate,  close  to  what  is 
now  Glassford  Street,  for  the  sale  of  shoes,  under  the  charge  of 
Mr.  George  M'Intosh,  one  of  the  partners  at  that  time,  and  father 
of  the  late  Mr.  Charles  M'Intosh  of  Dunchattan. 

The  following  is  a  curious  accompt  of  money  received  in  loan 
by  the  Tannery  Company,^  about  the  year  1765  : — 

"  Accompt  of  Cash  borrowed  on  Bonds  and  Bills. 
Ledger 
Folios. 

5- 


John  Shaw,  in  Glasgow 

James  Shaw,  in  Slammanan  (bill) 

George     Leckie,     in     Caltown     of 

Glasgow  (bill) 
Girzall  Hamilton,  in  Glasgow 
Borough  of  Ayr  . 
Thomas     Hamilton,     Minister    of 

Holywood 
Agnes  Lockhart,  in  Ayr 
James  Yeaman,  in  Dundee   . 
Jannett  Luke  (deceased) 
Glasgow  Merchants'  House  . 
Jas.Waddell,  of  Hothouseburn  (bill) 
Lillias  Grahame,  in  Glasgow 
Alex.    Cuninghame,   for  Parish  of 

Symington,      .  .  .  , 

Francis  Kennedy,  of  Dunure 
William  Flint  (deceased) 
Andrew  Cochran,   for  Hutcheson 

Hospital 
Alex.  Hogg,  in  Edinburgh     . 
Katherine  Wood,  in  Glasgow 
Girzall  Curry,  in  Glasgow 
John  Russell,  in  Drumduff  (bill) 
John  Belches,  of  Invermay   . 
John     Shanks,     New     Monkland 

parish  (bill)     . 
John  Murray,  of  Blackbarrony 
Donald  Campbell,  of  Airds  , 
Wm.  Addie,  of  Drumilzie      . 


£300 
160 

100 

330 
1000 


300 

555 
300 
900 
140 
700 

100 
800 
770 

300 

1000 

540 

200 

50 
900 

60 
900 

50 
470 


Rate  of 
Interest. 

4* 


5 
5 
5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4| 

5 

4f 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4| 

5 

4| 
5 
5 
4i 


^  This  concern  received  money  on  loan,  and  had  ;,^ 40, 000  lent  to  them,  at  5  pe 
cent  interest,  by  various  individuals.  This  list  is  also  given  at  page  467,  vol.  i.  of  this 
work. 


THE  TANNERY  COMPANY. 


125 


Ledger 
Folios. 


14. 


15- 


16. 


17. 


John  Kingan,  Minister  at  Crawford 
Jas.  Home,  of  Gamlishiels    . 
John  Shaw,  in  Edinburgh 
Christian  Govan,  in  Glasgow 
Mrs.  Dick,  in  Glasgow 
John  Boyd,  at  Barleyside  (bill) 
Margaret     and     Girzal     Sprewls 

Glasgow  ... 

Provost  John  Alexander,  in  Peebles 
Robert  Bailie,  of  Mayvile 
William  Wemyss,  of  Cuttlehill 
Michael  Luke,  in  Dundee     . 
William,  Duke  of  Montrose  . 
James  Hunter,  in  Ayr  . 
Dr.  John  Erskine,  of  Carnock 
Wm.  Stewart,  in  Edinburgh  . 
Gavin  Ralstone,  of  Ralstone 
John  Barker,  at  Kirkaldie 
Dame  Ann  Kennedy,  of  Dunskay 
Wm.  Fullarton,  of  Carstairs  . 
George,  Earl  of  North  Esk  . 
Thomas  Rigg,  of  Morton 
Margaret,  Countess  of  Stair 
William  Cunninghame,  of  Achan 

skeith,      .... 
Robt.  Hunter,  of  Thurstone  . 
John  Bryce,  in  Cairmuirs  (bill) 
Wm.  Wood,  of  Gallowhill  . 
Isobel  Jamieson,  in  Glasgow 
Robert  Buchanan,  of  Drumakill 
Barbara  and  Eliza  Scotts,  in  Glas 
gow  (bill)         .  .  .  , 

John  Thomson,  in  Edinburgh 
Heirs  of  Thomas  Peters 
Alexander  Spiers,  Trustee  for  Jas 

Dunlop's  creditors 
Creditors  of  Robert  Macmurich 
James  Coulter,  in  Glasgow    . 
James  Coats,  of  Blantyre  farm  (bill) 
Hew  Stewart,  East  Indies     . 
Wm.    Bogle,   Jas.    M'Dowall,  and 

Robert  Marshall 
John  Young,  in  Calderside  (bill) 
John  Kincaid,  in  Cairnmuirs  (bill) 


Rate  of 

Interest. 

;^200 

0 

0 

500 

0 

0 

500 

0 

0 

500 

0 

0 

200 

0 

0 

45 

0 

0 

4j 

300 

0 

0 

400 

0 

0 

500 

0 

0 

1200 

0 

0 

1000 

0 

0 

1000 

0 

0 

500 

0 

0 

1400 

0 

0 

200 

0 

0 

200 

0 

0 

300 

0 

0 

500 

0 

0 

1000 

0 

0 

700 

0 

0 

500 

0 

0 

1000 

0 

0 

300 

0 

0 

1000 

0 

0 

610 

0 

0 

4| 

1500 

0 

0 

500 

0 

0 

450 

0 

0 

417 

9 

4 

1000 

0 

0 

1913 

8 

4 

3000 

0 

0 

1 1 

7 

7i 

I  coo     00  5 

417     9     4  4i 

900     00  5 

254   16   10  4 

120     o     o  4| 

100     o     o  4^ 


126  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 


Ledger 
Folios. 


John    Campbell    and    others,    i 

Edinburgh 
Richard  Somner,  in  Haddington 
Lord  Stair  .... 


Rate  of 

Interest. 

£1300 

0 

0 

5 

500 

0 

0 

5 

220 

0 

0 

5 

^40,192      2     7i 


The  Trades'  House,  on  the  30th  of  June  1693,  prohibited 
the  cordiners  of  Gorbals  from  bringing  shoes  and  other  work  into 
Glasgow,  which  was  ratified  by  the  Magistrates  and  Council  on 
30th  September  of  that  year,  under  reservation  of  the  right  of 
the  inhabitants  to  go  to  Gorbals  to  have  their  measure  taken 
there,  and  to  bring  into  Glasgow  any  shoemaker  work  for  them- 
selves, on  any  day  of  the  week  except  Sunday. — (Crawfurd's 
Trades'  House ^  24.) 

The  following  is  a  curious  original  shoemaker's  account : — 

Madam  Ellisbeth  Moor, 
Dr  to  S.  Wotton,  3d  June,  18 19. 

I    s.    d. 
closing  up  Madm  Moor,     .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .0011 

mending  Miss  Plowden, 002 

tapping  and  bindg  Miss  hambleton, o     o   1 1 

turning  up,  closing  up,  and  corking  Madam  Moor,        .         .         .009 


turn  hover  plase.     — brought  up,    o     2     9 


Welting  a  pes  into  Madam  Moor, 
stitching  a  bust  into  ditto,  . 
heeling  Miss  Plowden, 
repairing  Madam  Moor's  soul,     . 
pesing  and  bottoming  Miss  Plowden, 


002 
o  o  I 
006 
004 
o     on 


Brought  up,  049 

heeling  and  corking  Madam  Moor, o     2    1 1 

stitching  and  making  water  tight  ditto, 006 

tupping  Madam  Moor, 002 

lining,  binding,  and  laying  a  pece  into  do., 004 


horned  Madam, 
i  beg  pardon  in  sendg.  you  this  here,     i  be  much  pressed 
and  do  hop  you'll  send  the  muny — 


CHAPTER  VIII. 

Fleming's  Saw-mill  on  the  Molendinar — Its  demolition  by  the  Magistrates  in  1764 — 
Fleming's  lawsuit  against  the  Magistrates — Depositions  of  witnesses,  containing 
many  interesting  notices — First  introduction  of  Scots  Crown  Fir — Sawmillfield 
— Commencement  of  Forth  and  Clyde  Canal. 

In  the  year  175  i  Mr.  William  Fleming,  an  extensive  timber  mer- 
chant (grandfather  of  Dr.  J.  G.  Fleming  and  William  Fleming, 
Esq.,  writer),  erected  a  saw-mill  on  the  Molendinar  Burn,  about 
ninety-three  yards  from  the  River  Clyde.  (See  the  Plan.)  It 
was  situated  immediately  north  of  the  present  Court- House,  about 
the  angle  where  the  Molendinar  Burn  turns  suddenly  to  the  south 
from  its  western  course,  but  which  is  now  all  arched  over.  This 
mill  was  built  under  a  contract  and  agreement  made  between  the 
Magistrates  and  Town  Council  of  Glasgow  on  the  one  part,  and 
Mr.  Fleming  and  his  partner  on  the  other  part,  and  the  deed  was 
drawn  out  by  Mr.  M'Gilchrist,  town-clerk  of  the  city.  Under  the 
faith  of  the  said  contract  Mr.  Fleming  had  successfully  carried  on 
for  upwards  of  twelve  years  the  business  of  sawing  foreign  and 
home  grown  timber,  to  the  great  benefit  of  the  city  and  its 
neighbourhood,  when  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow,  having  become 
dissatisfied  with  their  contract,  resolved  to  expel  Mr.  Fleming 
from  his  premises,  under  the  impression  that  he  was  merely  a  tenant 
at  will.  Accordingly,  on  the  23d  of  June  1764,  without  having 
given  Mr.  Fleming  any  intimation,  they  sent  twelve  men  under 
the  orders  of  Robert  Findlay,  the  master  of  works,  who  im- 
mediately proceeded,  brevi  maim,  to  demolish  Mr.  Fleming's  saw- 
mill, and  to  scatter  its  debris  into  the  waters  of  the  Molendinar 
Burn  ;  for  which   violent  and  arbitrary  proceeding  Mr.  Fleming 


128  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

immediately  commenced  an  action  of  damages  against  them 
before  the  Court  of  Session,  and  after  a  keen  and  protracted 
litigation,  he  succeeded  in  obtaining  a  final  judgment  in  his 
favour,  on  the  9th  of  July  1768,  by  which  the  Magistrates  and 
Town  Council  of  Glasgow  were  compelled  to  pay  to  him  (i8th 
November  1768)  the  sum  of  ;^6io  :  i  :  i,  by  way  of  damages, 
and  likewise  about  ;^ioo  as  dues  of  extract.  The  following 
were  the  Magistrates,  councillors,  and  officials  of  the  city  of  Glas- 
gow on  the  23d  of  June  1764  : — 

Archibald  Ingram,  re-chosen  lord  provost. 

Walter  Brock,  merchant,  bailie. 

Alexander  M'Kie,         do. 

Duncan  Niven,  barber,  trades'  bailie  {Roderick  Random's  Strap). 

Merchant  Councillors. 

Alexander  Spiers.  George  Murdoch. 

John  Alston.  John  Pagan. 

Colin  Dunlop.  William  Lang. 

John  Jamieson.  John  Gray,  new  councillor. 

John  Bowman.  James  M'Call,     do. 

Robert  Donald.  William  Coats,    do.     . 


James  Buchanan,  tailor. 
James  Robertson,  cooper 
John  Lawson,  mason. 
John  Wilson,  wright. 
John  Jamieson,  skinner. 
Daniel  Munro,  tailor. 


Trades'  Councillors. 

James  Lindsay,  founder. 
John  Fleming,  coppersmith. 
Robert  Martin,  watchmaker. 
John  Miller,  maltman,  new 

councillor. 
John  Jeffrey,  watchmaker,  do 


George  Brown,  re-chosen  dean  of  guild,  councillor  ex  officio. 
James  Clark,  deacon-convener,  do. 

Peter  Murdoch,  treasurer,  do. 

Robert  Findlay,  master  of  works,  do. 

John  Pagan,  bailie  of  Gorbals. 
Hugh  Turner,  water  bailie. 
George  Hamilton,  Provan  bailie. 
John  Martin,  bailie  of  Port-Glasgow. 
John  Wardrop,  procurator-fiscal. 
William  Meiklehouse,  visitor  of  the  maltmen. 
Robert  Colquhoun  and  Thomas  Miller,  town-clerks  (Mr.  Miller 
afterwards  became  Lord  President  of  the  Court  of  Session). 
Archibald  M 'Gilchrist,  depute  town-clerk. 


FLEMING'S  LAWSUIT.  129 

It  is  curious  to  see  how  few  of  the  descendants  of  the  above- 
named  gentlemen  now  occupy  official  situations  in  Glasgow,  or 
even  appear  in  the  list  of  our  topping  merchants  ;  indeed,  many 
of  their  names  have  become  strange  to  us  as  leading  men  of  our 
city  nowadays. 

In  the  course  of  the  lawsuit  which  took  place  between  Mr. 
Fleming  and  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  upon  the  occasion  in 
question  a  great  number  of  witnesses  v/ere  examined  pro  and  con, 
many  of  whose  depositions  throw  considerable  light  upon  the 
state  of  the  Low  Green  of  Glasgow  and  the  Molendinar  Burn,  as 
they  stood  a  century  ago,  but  it  would  go  much  beyond  the 
limits  allowed  for  the  present  jottings  to  extract  these  depositions 
in  full,  therefore  only  a  selection  from  them  will  now  be  given. 

James  Duncan  senior,^  bookseller  in  Glasgow,  aged  eighty 
years,  born  about  the  year  1685,  inter  alia,  depones — 

"  There  is  a  dam  called  the  Skinners'  dam,  which  the  deponent  has  known 
for  twenty  years  and  upwards,  on  the  Molendinar  burn,  a  little  above  the  pur- 
suer's mill,  and  that  he  has  often  seen  the  skinners  steep  and  wash  their  skins 
in  the  said  dam,  and  he  has  also  often  seen  girs  steeped  in  the  said  bum,  both 
below  and  above  the  said  bridge." 

John  Robertson,  bookseller  in  Glasgow,  aged  sixty  years,  born 
about  1704,  depones — 

"  That  the  foot  of  Stockwell  Street  lies  lower  than  the  opposite  side  of  the 
Bridgegate  Street,  and  that  there  is  a  large  syver,  which  runs  down  the  Stock- 
wellgate  Street,  near  to  the  Goose-dubs,  and  empties  into  Clyde.  That  the 
skinners  of  Glasgow  have  a  green  for  washing  and  drying  their  skins  on  the 
said  green." 

James  Inglis,  hatter,  aged  forty-three  years,  depones — 

"  That  he  has  known  and  observed  the  Molendinar  burn  for  these  many 
years  past,  and  has  particularly  observed  that  the  burn  from  a  little  below  the 
chapel  (English  Chapel)  down  to  the  pursuer's  saw  mill  is  considerably  filled 
with  dirt,  and  nastiness,  and  rubbish  ;  and  that  where  he  was  in  use  to  see 
the  channel  and  clean  bed  of  the  burn  for  the  distance  above  mentioned,  there 
is  nothing  now  but  glare,  rubbish,  and  nastiness.  Depones — About  32  years 
ago,  say  1730,  he  knows  the  water  in  the  said  burn  was  clear  and  fresh,  and 
was  used  for  washing  of  clothes  and  other  purposes.' 

1  !Mr.  Duncan  introduced  the  art  of  type-making  into  Glasgow  in  the  year  17 18,  and 
M 'lire's  History  of  Glasgow  is  printed  by  types  from  Mr.  Duncan's  manufactory. 
VOL.  III.  K 


130  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Adam  Wylie,  tanner  in  Glasgow,  aged  forty-five  years,  de- 
pones— 

"That  he  was  born  in  the  town  of  Glasgow,  say  about  1720,  where  he 
has  resided  all  his  lifetime.  That  the  tannery  dam  over  the  Molendinar  burn, 
which  is  situate  on  part  of  the  east  side  of  the  town,  next  the  Gallowgate 
Bridge,  was  erected  some  years  before  the  pursuer  built  his  saw  mill ;  that 
the  said  dam  was  built  with  stones,  and  had  timber  sluices  both  in  and  above 
the  dam.  That  the  Tannery  Company  have  also  another  dam  a  little  above 
the  said  dam  first  deponed  on,  and  the  said  upmost  dam  was  made  for  keeping 
the  rubbish  in  the  burn  from  running  down  to  the  first  mentioned  dam,  on 
which  the  Tannery  Company  have  a  bark  mill.  Depones — That  he  believes 
there  are  more  hides  manufactured  by  the  said  Tannery  Company,  and  more 
business  carried  on  by  them  in  the  tanning  way  than  by  all  the  other  tanners 
in  Glasgow.  That  the  most  of  the  hides  manufactured  by  the  said  Tan  Work 
Company  are  washed  and  steeped  in  the  Molendinar  burn,  above  the  Tannery 
Company's  bark  mill  dam,  and  in  the  dam ;  and  that  in  the  summer  season, 
in  time  of  drought,  very  little  water  runs  in  the  burn  below  the  bark  mill  dam. 
Depones — That  before  the  said  bark  mill  dam  was  built,  he  has  seen  the 
water  in  the  burn,  in  time  of  speats,  overflow  its  banks,  and  run  into  the 
houses  on  both  sides  of  the  burn,  and  also  since  the  bark  mill  was  built ;  and 
at  these  times  he  has  seen  the  water  of  the  burn  rise  so  high  as  to  run  into 
the  spring  wells,  called  the  Four  Sisters.  Depones — That  before  the  said 
bark  mill  dams  were  erected  there  were  three  steps  of  a  stair  at  several  places 
opposite  to  the  said  wells  for  people  to  go  down  and  take  water  out  of  the 
burn.  And  depones — That  before  the  bark  mills  were  built,  the  said  wells 
were  made  lock-fast  either  on  Saturday  night  or  early  on  Sunday  morning, 
and  kept  lock-fast  all  Sunday  ;*  and  at  these  times  there  was  a  conveyance 
below  ground  from  the  said  wells  to  the  burn,  wherein  the  water  of  the  wells 
ran,  and  there  was  a  spout  of  stone  upon  the  edge  of  the  burn,  whereby  any 
person  wanting  water  of  the  wells  on  Sundays  supplied  themselves  with  the 
water  which  ran  by  the  same  conveyance  to  the  burn,  and  those  who  wanted 
water  on  Sundays  used  to  go  down  two  steps  of  a  stair  that  was  made  upon 
the  east  wall  of  the  burn  before  they  could  come  at  the  foresaid  spout  to  get 
water.  [N.B. — Hence  came  the  name  of  the  Street  "the  Spoutmouth."] 
Depones — That  by  the  stones  and  rubbish  which  came  down  the  burn,  and 
bark  which  is  brought  from  the  Tannery  Company  tan  yard  and  laid  on  the 


1  Burgh  Records,  22d  September  1575. — "Item,  ye  provest  and  counsale  ordanis 
ye  new  comone  well  in  ye  Gallogate  to  be  opponit  daylie  in  ye  morning,  and  lockit  at 
ewin,  and  deputis  Michael  Pudzean  or  sum  other  to  attend  y.'ito,  and  keep  ye  said  well 
and  key  yairof,  and  to  half  xl.  s.  of  feall  y  .Uour  for  ye  space  of  ane  zeir  nextocum." 

Item. — "  Paid  for  Irne  work  to  ye  quhelis  of  ye  comone  well  to  stope  ye  cordis  to 
cum  furthe  of  ye  quhelis  at  ye  maister  of  works  comand." 

N.B. — From  the  above  notice  it  appears  that  there  were  no  pump  wells  in  Glasgow 
in  1575,  but  only  draw  wells,  with  the  common  machinery  of  wheel  and  pinion. 


FLEMING'S  LAWSUIT.  131 

vacant  ground  opposite  to  the  said  wells,  the  channel  of  the  burn  is  filled  up 
so  high  as  the  uppermost  of  the  foresaid  steps  of  the  stairs  before  mentioned 
opposite  the  wells.  Depones — That  the  wheel  of  the  tannery  bark  mill 
occupies,  with  the  axletree,  three  feet  of  the  channel  of  the  said  Molendinar 
burn.  That  he  has  measured  this  day  the  breadth  of  the  said  burn  betwixt 
wall  and  wall  opposite  the  said  bark  mill,  and  found  the  same  measured  eight 
feet  and  eleven  inches  or  thereby ;  that  he  also  measured  the  sluices  in  the 
tan  work  down  opposite  to  the  said  bark  mill,  being  two  in  number,  one 
thereof  measured  three  feet  nine  inches  in  breadth,  and  the  other  two  feet 
eight  inches  in  breadth.  That  the  said  sluices  are  fixed  above  a  stone  dam 
which  he  computes  to  be  about  three  or  four  feet  high.  Depones — That  since 
the  building  the  said  bark  mill  dam  the  Tan  Work  Company  have  been  in 
use  to  clean  the  Molendinar  burn  below  their  dam  in  order  to  get  a  fall  to  their 
mill  water,  and  by  that  means  the  channel  or  bottom  of  the  burn  below  the  mill 
has  been  made  lower  than  it  was  before  the  said  bark  mill  was  erected. 
Depones — That  there  is  a  common  passage  from  the  Gallowgate  Street  of  Glas- 
gow, by  the  Spoutmouth,  on  the  west  side  of  the  said  wells,  to  the  foot  of  the 
Old  Vennel,  and  from  thence  to  the  High  Street,  leading  from  the  Cross  of 
Glasgow  to  the  High  Church,  and  that  in  time  of  speats  he  has  often  seen  the 
said  passage  stopped  by  its  being  overflowed  with  water  opposite  the  foresaid 
wells  and  above  them  for  some  space.  Depones — For  these  forty  years  past 
he  has  seen  two  dams  on  the  Molendinar  burn  above  the  pursuer's  saw  mill, 
the  one  of  these  dams  called  the  Tanners'  dam,  and  the  other  the  Skinners' 
dam,  and  they  are  both  still  extant.  Depones — That  he  knows  the  town  of 
Glasgow's  Slaughter  House  is  situated  a  little  to  westward  of  the  said  saw 
mill,  and  that  the  cattle  which  the  butchers  sell  in  Glasgow  are  slaughtered  in 
that  place  ;  and  the  deponent  has  seen  heaps  of  dung,  composed  of  tripes, 
blood,  and  shearn,  which  proceeded  from  the  cattle  which  had  been  slaughtered 
in  the  said  slaughter  house,  lying  near  to  the  wells  thereof,  which  is  situated 
on  the  south  side  of,  and  near  to  the  road  leading  from  the  foot  of  the  Salt- 
market  Street,  through  one  of  the  arches  of  the  bridge  to  the  Broomielaw, 
and  to  which  road  there  is  access  by  carts  and  carriages  by  a  lane  that  leads 
from  the  Bridgegate  Street  along  the  side  of  the  Merchants'  Hospital  and 
dyke  thereof 

«<  Depones — That  there  are  houses  on  both  sides  of  the  Molendinar  Burn 
near  to  the  foresaid  bark  mill  dam,  and  that  these  houses  are  nearer  the  burn 
than  any  houses  about  the  foresaid  saw  mill,  and  that  some  of  the  gavels  and 
walls  of  the  houses  near  the  said  bark  mill  bound  the  Molendinar  Burn. 
Depones  —  That  the  Gallowgate  Street,  through  which  the  said  Molendinar 
Burn  runs,  from  the  bridge  in  the  said  Gallowgate  Street  to  the  toll  bar  (then 
near  Kent  Street),  is  double  the  length  of  the  Gallowgate  Street  from  the 
Cross  to  the  said  Gallowgate  Bridge,^  and  he  judges  the  foresaid  bark  mill  to 

^  Mr.  Stuart,  in  his  Viezns  of  Glasgotu,  has  given  us  a  plate  at  page  99  showing  the 
town  residence  of  the  late  Kirkman  Finlay,  Esq.  The  following  notice  regarding  the 
house  in  which  Mr.   Finlay  was  bom  may  perhaps  be  interesting  to  many  of  our  Glas- 


132  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

be  about  forty  paces  above  the  said  Gallowgate  Bridge  ;  and  he  is  of  opinion 
that  the  bark  mill  dam  might  drown  people,  or  is  as  dangerous  as  the  saw 
mill  dam  if  they  fall  into  it.  And  on  the  defender's  interrogatory,  depones — 
That  the  said  bark  mill  is  built  on  the  ground  lying  on  the  west  side  of  the 
said  burn,  and  that  the  east  gavel  of  the  mill  is  the  west  boundary  of  the  burn. 
Depones  —  That  the  pursuer's  saw  mill  is  the  west  boundary  of  the  burn. 
Depones — That  the  pursuer's  saw  mill  is  built  over  the  channel  of  the  burn, 
and  that  he  has  seen  the  road  leading  by  the  Spoutmouth,  before  described, 
often  flooded,  and  passage  by  it  stopped  in  time  of  flood,  before  the  bark  mill 
was  erected,  and  since  the  erection  of  the  said  dam,  in  the  night  time,  when 
the  sluices  were  kept  shut.  When  speats  happened  he  has  known  the  water 
rise  in  houses  of  the  neighbourhood  as  high  as  the  people's  beds,  and  has 
seen  people  carried  out  in  their  shifts  from  their  beds ;  but  so  soon  as  the 
sluices  of  the  said  bark  mill  dam  were  drawn  the  water  immediately 
ebbed." 

Robert  Glen,  dyer  in  Glasgow  (deacon  In  1765  and  1771), 
aged  forty-eight  years,  depones — 

"That  he  is  proprietor  of  a  house  and  yard  upon  the  east  side  of  the  Molen- 
dinar  burn,  a  little  way  above  the  bark  mill  of  the  Tannery  Company  of 
Glasgow,  and  that  he  carries  on  a  dyerie  factory  there,  and  has  twenty -five 
blue  vats  and  four  boilers  at  present  using  in  the  said  factory.  Depones — 
That  he  knew  seven  or  eight  speats  in  the  Molendinar  burn  in  one  year,  since 
he  came  to  possess  the  houses  and  grounds  where  he  now  lives.  That  upon 
a  particular  occasion  he  had  gone  out  of  his  house,  been  absent  about  an 
hour,  and  when  he  came  to  return  he  found  the  road  to  his  house  covered 
with  water  of  the  Molendinar  burn,  a  speat  or  flood  having  come  down  about 
that  time.  That  he  got  a  horse  and  rode  through  the  water,  which  covered 
the  causeway  leading  into  his  house,  and  he  stepped  on  the  stair  leading  up 
to  his  own  house.  That  he  then  found  Mrs.  Hunter,  his  tenant,  in  his  house 
upon  the  ground,  below  his  dwelling-house,  attempting  to  keep  out  the  water 
from  her  house  by  claes,  which  she  was  putting  behind  the  door ;  but,  as  he 
observed  the  speat  still  increasing,  he  persuaded  her  to  come  out,  and  she 
having  said  to  the  deponent  she  was  afraid  of  being  drowned,  he  reached  over 
his  own  stair  a  cloth,  which  she  took  hold  of,  and  in  this  manner  he  pulled 
her  out  of  her  own  house,  over  the  half  door  thereof,  up  to  where  he  was 
standing,  and  she  went  into  his  house,  and  slept  there  all  night.     Depones — 

gow  citizens.  This  house,  to  the  best  of  my  recollection,  was  situated  a  little  to  the 
east  of  the  Gallowgate  Bridge,  and  on  the  south  side  of  the  street. 

Glasgow  Mermry,  26th  March  1778.  —  "Notice — To  be  sold,  and  entered  into 
at  Whitsunday  next,  that  tenement  of  land  in  the  Gallowgate,  consisting  of  seven  rooms, 
kitchen,  and  two  cellars,  stable,  hay  loft,  byre,  with  a  large  lead  cistern,  all  presently 
possessed  by  James  Finlay,  merchant  in  Glasgow,  the  proprietor.  The  premises  are  in 
exceeding  good  order,  and  very  commodious. — Apply  to  Archibald  Givan,  writer  in 
Glasgow."     {N.B. — Mr.  Kirkman  Finlay  was  born  in  1772.) 


FLEMING'S  LAWSUIT.  133 

That  the  water  was  so  high  as  that  it  was  going  out  and  in  at  the  window  of 
the  said  Mrs.  Hunter  her  house ;  and  the  sole  of  the  said  window  is,  as  the 
deponent  judges,  about  thirty  inches  high  above  the  ground.  Depones — That 
the  river  Clyde  had  no  influence  upon  the  speats  in  the  burn  above  the  bark 
mill,  before  deponed  upon,  nor  did  not  raise  the  same ;  and  he  does  not  think 
that  the  water  of  Clyde  ever  crossed  the  bark  mill  dam,  or  raised  the 
water  in  the  Molendinar  burn  so  high  as  to  stagnate  the  water  on  the  said 
burn  in  time  of  floods,  above  the  said  mill  dam,  and  of  this  last  he  is  sure. 
Depones — That  there  is  a  little-house  {Foricd)  built  upon  the  side  of  the  burn, 
Molendinar,  in  the  yard  belonging  to  the  Tannery  Company,  a  little  below 
their  bark  mill,  and  that  the  said  little-hotise  empties  itself  into  the  said  burn, 
upon  the  west  side  thereof;  r.nd  he  has  seen  the  wall,  on  the  west  side  thereof, 
immediately  below  the  said  little-house^  bespattered  with  ordure  ;  and  the  back 
of  the  said  little-hotcse  is  seen  from  the  Gallowgate  Bridge,  and  when  the 
deponent  looked  thereto,  he  obsei-ved  it  in  the  condition  above  deponed  upon  ; 
and  the  deponent  has  observed  the  foresaid  little-house  at  different  times,  for 
ten  or  twelve  years  past.  Depones — That  the  said  Tannery  Company  are  in 
use  to  lay  the  bark  which  they  take  out  of  the  tan  holes,  upon  the  ground  at 
the  east  side  of  the  burn,  betwixt  the  bum  and  the  Spout  well,  and  that  when 
floods  came  down  the  said  burn  that  bark  (being  useless)  is  washed  into  the 
channel  thereof.  ^  Depones — That  in  the  summer  time,  in  time  of  drought 
and  warm  weather,  he  has  seen  the  water  in  the  Molendinar  burn,  above  the 
bark  mill  dam,  stagnate  and  black,  and  belling  up,  throwing  forth  a  stench 
and  rotten  smell  therefrom.  Depones — That  the  foresaid  bark  mill  and  dam 
thereof  is  situated  a  little  above  the  Gallowgate  Bridge,  and  that  he  judges 
the  said  bridge  lies  about  two  hundred  yards  from  the  Cross  of  Glasgow. 
Depones  —  That  the  deponent  complained  to  Robert  Marshall,  one  of  the 
partners  of  the  Tannery  Company,  that  the  dams  of  the  said  company  did 
him,  the  deponent,  hurt,  but  that  he  got  no  redress  in  consequence  of  the  said 
complaint.  Depones — That  he,  the  deponent,  and  several  of  his  neighbours 
presented  a  petition  to  the  magistrates  and  town  council  of  Glasgow,  complain- 
ing of  the  dams  belonging  to  the  said  Tannery  Company,  across  the  Molen- 
dinar burn,  and  of  the  burns  being  choked  up  thereby,  and  of  their  long 
having  lain  under  that  grievance,  and  asking  redress,  but  to  which  the  town 
council  have  not  yet  given  any  answer  ;  and  the  said  petition  was  presented 
about  six  months  ago.  And  depones — That  the  presenters  of  the  said  petition 
employed  Mr.  "William  Sommervell,  writer  in  Glasgow,  who  at  their  desire, 
wrote  a  letter  to  each  of  John  Bowman,  Esq.,  and  Andrew  Cochran,  Esq., 
both  partners  of  the  said  Tannery  Company,  informing  them  that  they  had 

^  This  refuse,  or  exhausted  bark,  used  frequently  (down  to  my  time)  to  be  spread 
upon  the  streets  of  Glasgow,  before  the  dwellings  of  persons  who  were  sick,  in  order,  as 
was  alleged,  to  prevent  their  being  disturbed  by  the  noise  of  carts  and  carriages  passing 
along.  I  believe,  however,  that  this  was  done  by  the  better  classes  of  citizens,  more 
from  sheer  vanity  and  effect,  than  from  any  fear  of  the  patients  being  disturbed  by  the 
rattling  of  carriages. 


134  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

presented  the  above-mentioned  petition  to  the  town  council,  and  if  they  did  not 
get  redress  thereby,  they  would  be  obliged  to  take  another  method.^ 

"Depones — That  he  had  observed  the  servants  of  the  said  Tannery  Com- 
pany cleaning  and  carrying  away  the  rubbish  out  of  the  channel  of  the  burn 
every  year,  from  the  Gallowgate  Bridge,  and  for  a  considerable  way  downwards, 
and  which  rubbish  they  dug  up  with  mattocks.  Further  depones — That  he 
knows  of  another  little-house  upon  the  east  side  of  the  burn  Molendinar,  a 
little  below  the  Gallowgate  Bridge." 

Alexander  Dalmahoy,  bridle  cutter  in  Glasgow,  aged  thirty, 
depones — 

"  That  the  house  in  which  the  deponent  lives,  and  a  tan  work  which  the 
deponent  also  possesses,  both  lie  opposite  the  Slaughter  House  and  below  the 
saw  mill,  and  that  when  there  are  floods  in  the  Clyde,  water  comes  in  both  to 
deponent's  house  and  tan  work.  Depones  —  That  he  saw  the  water  in  the 
tanners'  and  skinners'  dam,  last  summer,  as  black  and  thick  as  ever  he  saw  it 
before.  Depones — That  he  never  saw  a  sluice  in  either  the  skinner  or  tan- 
ners' dam,  during  the  time  the  pursuer's  saw  mill  stood." 

William  Parlane,  indweller  in  Glasgow,  aged  eighty -three 
(born  about  1680),  depones — 

"  That  he  knew  the  deceased  William  Telfer,  upwards  of  forty  years  ago, 
had  a  saw  mill  on  the  Green  of  Glasgow,  at  which  the  deponent,  at  the 
employment  of  the  said  William  Telfer  (deacon  of  hammermen  in  1705-6, 
and  1722-3)  wrought  six  weeks  ;  that  about  forty  years  ago  (say  about  1724), 
Arthur  Robertson  (treasurer  of  Glasgow  in  1747,  and  bailie  of  Gorbals  in 
1754  ;  he  was  the  first  cashier  of  the  Ship  Bank  in  1750,  then  situated  at  the 
east  end,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Bridgegate),  merchant  in  Glasgow,  took  the 
said  saw  mill  which  was  built  on  the  Green,  and  on  the  east  side  of  the  burn 
Molendinar,  from  the  said  William  Telfer,  and  also  a  'wind-mill,  which  was 
erected  above  the  saw  mill ;  and  the  deponent  had  the  charge  of  the  said 
mills,  from  the  said  Arthur  Robertson,  for  about  nine  months,  or  thereby,  at 
the  end  whereof,  the  said  Arthur  Robertson  got  a  new  servant  to  take  the 
deponent's  charge  of  his  mills  off  his  hands,  and  so  on.  After  the  new  servant 
came,  Mr.  Robertson  gave  up  the  possession  of  the  said  mill  to  the  said 
William  Telfer,  whose  son,  Peter,  took  possession  of  the  mills,  and  he,  being 
a  smith  to  his  trade,  took  the  iron  work  of  the  mills  and  converted  it  to  other 
purposes,  and  also  sold  the  stones  wherewith  the  mill  was  built.  That  this 
sale  and  conversion  happened  when  the  said  William  Telfer  was  at  London, 
and  the  deponent  knows  that  he  was  absent,  for  some  time,  when  the  mill 

1  John  Bo\vman,  Andrew  Cochran,  and  William  Coats,  partners  of  the  Tannery 
Company,  were  lord  provosts  of  Glasgow.  Alexander  Spiers,  and  one  or  two  more 
members  of  the  said  tannery  concern,  were  town  councillors,  so  that  the  Tannery  Com- 
pany possessed  great  influence  at  the  council  chamber. 


FLEMING'S  LAWSUIT. 


f35 


was  demolished.  That  the  dam  which  served  the  said  mill  was  a  laigh 
timber  dam,  or  a  thing  fit  to  set  in  gang  water  to  a  little  mill,  and  did  no  sort 
of  harm,  and  the  wheel  of  the  said  mill  was  only  three  feet  in  diameter  :  and 
being  interrogated,  for  the  defenders,  depones — That  while  William  Telfer 
had  the  foresaid  saw  mill,  he  caused  clean  the  Molendinar  burn,  from  the 
mill  up  to  the  chapel,  once  every  two  years  ;  and  that  so  far  as  he  remembers,  at 
this  time,  tanners  and  skinners  had  no  dam  in  the  burn,  neither  was  bark 
mill  dam  belonging  to  the  Tan  Work  Company  then  erected,  and  there  was 
no  house  or  building  of  any  kind  above  the  foresaid  timber  dam  which  served 
Telfer's  mill." 

Alexander  Rae,  hammerman  St.  Enoch's  Burn,  aged  sixty- 
eight  years,  depones — 

"  That  some  complaint  having  been  made  to  Hugh  Rogei',  then  provost  of 
Glasgow  (provost  in  1732-3),  that  William  Telfer's  mill  dam  caused  the  water 
wash  off  the  lime  from  off  the  stones  of  the  bridge,  a  visit  of  council  of  Glas- 
gow was  called  upon  the  said  dam,  as  the  deponent  was  informed,  at  which 
John  Telfer  was  present,  and  said  he  would  have  nothing  to  do  with  the  dam ; 
whereon  the  council  ordered  the  dam  to  be  taken  down,  which  was  accordingly 
done ;  and  at  this  time  the  saw  mill  was  standing,  and  a  wind  mill,  which  was 
erected  on  the  said  saw  mill,  was  kept  going  for  some  time  ;  but  afterwards 
some  differences  having  happened  betwixt  the  said  John  Telfer  and  Peter 
Telfer  his  brother,  concerning  the  said  saw  and  wind  mills,  they  were  both 
allowed  to  go  to  ruin." 

Archibald  Ingram,  late  provost  of  Glasgow  (he  was  provost  in 
1762-3,  and  died  2 2d  July  1770  ;  Ingram  Street  was  named  for 
him),  aged  sixty  years  and  upwards,  depones — 

"That  to  the  best  of  his  remembrance,  after  Whitsunday,  1764,  and  when 
the  deponent  was  provost  of  Glasgow,  an  Act  of  Council  was  passed  ordering 
the  dam  of  the  pursuer's  saw  mill  to  be  taken  down,  and  a  committee  of  the 
council  were  named  to  see  the  said  Act  put  in  execution. 

"  Depones — That  the  next  day,  or  a  day  or  two  after  the  foresaid  Act  of 
Council  passed  and  was  minuted,  the  dam  of  the  pursuer's  saw  mill  was  taken 
down  Depones — The  foresaid  orders  of  council  to  the  committee  to  take 
down  the  pursuer's  dam  was  openly  given  in  council,  and  was  agreed  to  by  a 
majority  of  council." 

William  Lang  (deacon  of  the  hammermen  in  1741,  and  bailie 
of  Glasgow  in  1767),  merchant  in  Glasgow,  aged  fifty  years, 
depones — 

"  That  he  has  lived  in  a  house  built  on  the  west  side  of  the  Molendinar 
burn,  immediately  below  the  Gallowgate  Bridge,  for  some  years  past ;    and  in 


136  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

the  summer  seasons  he  observed  the  water  in  the  said  burn  to  be  as  black  as 
ink  almost,  except  when  there  was  fresh  water  in  the  bum.  Depones — That 
he  knows  the  Molendinar  burn  for  some  space  above  and  below  the  Gallow- 
gate  Bridge  is  bounded  with  houses  on  both  sides  thereof,  and  that  the 
Tannery  Company  have  a  house  of  office^  the  nastiness  of  which  falls  into  the 
burn  a  little  above  the  Gallowgate  Bridge  ;  and  that  the  nastiness  of  the  said 
house  of  office  is  open  to  the  view  of  every  person  who  passes  the  Gallowgate 
Bridge,  which  is  but  a  small  distance  from  the  Cross  of  Glasgow,  and  the 
Gallowgate  in  which  the  bridge  is,  is  one  of  the  four  principal  streets  of 
Glasgow." 

John  Woodburn,  merchant  in  Glasgow,  aged  fifty-five  years, 
depones — 

"That  in  June  1764,  he  was  desired  by  Robert  Findlay,  master  of  works, 
to  provide  some  men,  which  he  did  to  the  number  of  ten  or  twelve  ;  and 
Duncan  Niven,  then  one  of  the  bailies  of  Glasgow,  the  said  Robert  Findlay, 
the  deponent,  and  the  said  ten  or  twelve  men,  went  to  the  pursuer's  saw  mill 
about  six  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  there  the  said  ten  or  twelve  men,  at  the 
order  of  the  said  Duncan  Niven  and  Robert  Findlay,  entered  the  pend  at  the 
south  end  of  the  pursuer's  saw  mill,  and  took  down  all  the  wood  they  found 
betwixt  the  said  south  pend  and  the  north  pend  of  the  said  mill,  and  also  the 
timber  sluices  which  were  fixed  on  the  north  end  of  the  said  mill,  and  removed 
also  some  stones,  some  whereof  were  long,  that  were  placed  below  the  pend  of 
the  mill,  and  laid  the  stones  on  the  ground  at  the  side  of  the  mill,  where  the 
timber  was  also  laid,  and  removed  everything  that  obstructed  the  course  of  the 
water  in  the  pend  ;  and  that  the  work  before  deponed  to  was  performed  by 
porters,  not  by  tradesmen." 

(Deacon  William  Fram,  mason  in  Glasgow,  and  others,  de- 
poned in  similar  terms  as  to  the  demolition  of  Mr,  Fleming's  saw 
mill.) 

John  Wilson,  wright  in  Glasgow,  aged  fifty  years  or  thereby, 
depones — ■ 

"  That  he  is  well  acquainted  with  the  pursuer's  saw  mill,  which  is  built  in 
the  channel  of  the  Molendinar  burn ;  also  with  the  dale  yard  belonging  to  the 
said  mill,  which  is  a  part  of  the  west  end  of  the  Green  of  Glasgow,  and  is 
situated  a  little  to  the  north-east  of  the  Slaughter  House  of  the  town  of  Glasgow, 
and  the  said  burn  and  Skinners'  green  only  intervene  betwixt  the  said  dale 
yard  and  Slaughter  House.  Depones — That  he  was  a  member  of  the  town 
council  of  Glasgow  when  the  magistrates  and  council  passed  an  Act  in  council 
for  taking  down  the  dam  of  the  pursuer's  saw  mill,  which  act  was  gone  openly 
about,  and  minuted  down  by  the  town  clerk,  according  to  the  appointment  of 
the  magistrates  and  council  ;  but  according  to  uniform  custom,  the  Act  was 


FLEMING'S  LAWSUIT.  137 

not  recorded  or  engrossed  in  the  Council  books  upon  the  day  whereon  it  passed, 
nor  was  it  subscribed  until  the  next  meeting  of  council ;  before  which  time 
came,  the  deponent  saw  the  saw  mill  dam  taken  down." 

William  Miller,  millwright  in  Gorbals,  aged  fifty  years,  de- 
pones— 

"  That  at  the  desire  of  the  pursuer,  he  took  a  level  of  the  Molendinar  burn, 
from  the  north  gavel  of  the  pursuer's  saw  mill  to  the  tanners'  dam,  and  from 
that  to  the  skinners'  dam ;  that  he  found  the  tanners'  dam  to  be  two  inches 
higher  than  the  saw  mill  dam,  and  the  top  of  the  skinners'  store  dam  was  two 
feet  higher  than  the  top  of  the  saw  mill  dam  ;  that  in  measuring  he  found  the 
distances  betwixt  the  saw  mill  dam  and  the  skinnei's'  dam  to  be  seventy-three 
yards,  and  the  distance  betwixt  the  saw  mill  dam  and  the  tanners'  dam  to  be 
twenty-eight  yards  and  six  inches.  Depones — That  on  measuring,  he  also 
found  the  distance  from  the  skinners'  dam  to  the  place  where  the  Molendinar 
and  Camlachie  burns  join,  to  be  ninety-one  yards ;  and  on  measuring  the 
breadth  of  the  Molendinar  burn  a  little  below  where  it  and  the  Camlachie 
burn  join,  he  found  it  to  be  twelve  feet :  that  the  breadth  of  the  burn  at  the 
skinners'  dam  is  sixteen  feet  six  inches  :  that  on  measuring  further,  he  found 
the  east  sluice  in  the  pursuers'  mill  was  two  feet  eleven  inches  broad,  and  two 
feet  four  and  a  half  inches  in  depth  :  that  the  westmost  sluice  measured  two 
feet  eight  and  a  half  inches  in  breadth,  and  two  feet  four  and  a  half  in  depth  : 
that  the  distance  from  the  south  gavel  of  the  saw  mill  to  Clyde,  at  low  water, 
is  ninety-three  yards." 

Patrick  Maxwell,  cordiner  in  Glasgow,  aged  fifty-six  years, 
depones — 

"  That  since  the  saw  mill  dam  was  built,  and  before  it  was  taken  down, 
he  has  frequently  observed  that  the  water  above  the  dam  was  black  and  thick, 
and  like  as  if  it  had  been  boiling  or  bubbling  up  in  summer  time,  or  in  the 
drought  of  summer,  and  a  nauseous  smell  or  stink  arising  out  of  that  black 
water,  which  the  deponent  has  smelt  himself;  and  has  heard  the  skinners 
when  they  were  washing  their  skins  in  the  burn  say  there  were  vermin  therein, 
which  bit  their  legs  ;  and  the  deponent  has  seen  the  marks  thereof,  and  seen 
the  blood  appearing  out  of  the  wound.  Depones — That  during  the  time  the 
saw  mill  dam  stood,  the  bottom  of  the  burn  was  seldom  seen,  except  sometimes 
on  Saturday  evenings,  when  the  sluices  of  the  saw  mill  dam  were  drawn  up  ; 
and  then  the  bottom  of  the  burn  was  a  frightful  sight,  being  covered  over  with 
glar,  and  stinking  meat,  thrown  into  it  by  the  butchers  when  they  had  been 
too  long  kept,  dead  dogs  and  cats." 

John  Fleming,  dyer  in  Glasgow,  aged  seventy  years,  de- 
pones— 

"  That  during  the  standing  of  the  saw  mill  dam,  he,  in  times  of  drought 


138  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

in  summer,  has  observed  the  water  above  the  mill  in  a  great  fermentation, 
which  raised  such  a  thick  scum  upon  the  top  of  the  water  as  he  thinks  would 
have  carried  a  partridge ;  and  he  has  actually  seen  the  bird  water-wagtail 
standing  thereon  without  sinking.  Depones — That  he  remembers  that  before 
the  tan  work  and  bark  mill  thereof  in  the  Gallowgate  was  built,  the  water  in 
the  burn  Molendinar  was  so  good,  that  people  in  the  Bridgegate  took  the 
water  thereof  for  the  brewing  of  their  ale.  Depones — He  was  informed  by 
several  of  the  skinners  that  the  time  of  the  standing  of  the  said  saw  mill  dam, 
there  was  some  kind  of  vermin  in  the  burn  that  bit  their  legs,  and  raised  lumps 
upon  them,  while  they  were  standing  in  the  burn  bare-legged,  washing  their 
sheep  skins ;  and  that  since  the  saw  mill  was  removed,  the  skinners  have 
informed  the  deponent  that  there  were  no  such  vermin  in  the  burn.  Depones 
— He  has  heard  it  reported  that  one  child  was  drowned  in  the  burn,  and  two 
or  three  more  got  lying  dead  in  the  burn  ;  and  also  that  several  children  had 
fallen  into  the  burn,  and  would  have  been  drowned  if  persons  who  had  seen 
them  fall  in  had  not  come  and  taken  them  out.  Depones — That  the  tanners' 
dam  and  skinners'  dam,  from  the  time  the  deponent  first  knew  them,  were 
placed  across  the  burn  in  the  same  places  where  they  now  stand,  and  that  the 
skinners'  dam  is  at  present  not  above  eight  inches  high  above  the  rubbish  in 
the  channel  of  the  burn  :  That  the  tanners'  dam  is  situated  immediately  under 
the  bridge  over  the  said  burn  at  the  south  end  of  the  Butchers'  Street  (now 
Market  Street),  which  is  the  second  bridge  over  the  burn  above  the  saw  mill : 
That  the  skinners'  dam  is  situated  betwixt  the  tanners'  dam  and  the  bridge 
over  the  said  burn,  at  the  south  end  of  the  Saltmarket  Street.  Depones — The 
Green  of  Glasgow  is  a  large  enclosure,  and  the  deponent  measured  the  cir- 
cumference thereof,  and  found  it  to  measure  a  mile  and  a  half,  and  a  little 
more.  Depones — That  within  these  twenty  years  last  he  remembers  to  have 
heard  it  reported  that  the  magistrates  and  city  council  had  agreed  to  feu  or 
set  in  tack  to  a  company  of  merchants  in  the  city  about  two  acres  at  the  west 
end  of  the  Green,  including  the  ground  whereon  the  saw  mill  stands,  in  order 
to  build  a  manufactory  for  weaving  woollen  broadcloth :  That  the  company 
made  an  entry  through  the  wall  that  surrounded  the  Green,  and  put  a  gate  on 
the  entry :  That  the  gate  was  thrown  down  the  very  first  night  after  it  was 
put  up,  and  thrown  into  the  said  burn  :  There  was  great  grumbling  amongst 
the  inhabitants  on  account  of  the  said  feu  or  set,  and  the  deacon  convener 
and  members  of  the  Trades'  House  took  the  matter  into  their  consideration, 
and  a  stop  was  put  to  the  further  procedure  of  the  said  feu  or  set,  and  the 
Green  was  allowed  to  continue  in  its  former  state." 

John  Brodie,  saddletree  maker  in  Glasgow,  depones — 

"  That  all  the  floods  that  ever  he  saw  in  the  Bridgegate,  first  began  near 
opposite  to  Blythswood's  house ;  but  the  water  from  Clyde  first  runs  up  a 
syver  at  the  Merchants'  house,  and  crosses  the  Bridgegate,  and  stands  on  the 
north  side  thereof,  at  the  foot  of  the  Old  Wynd,  and  betwixt  it  and  John 
Rankin's  (father  of  the  late  James  Rankin)  house  ;  and  next  the  water  runs  in 


FLEMING'S  LAWSUIT.  139 

at  the  mouth  of  a  syver  below  the  Water  Port,  and  from  thence  runs  up  the 
foot  of  Stockvvell-gate  and  along  the  Goose-dubs,  and  all  the  places  lie  below 
and  to  the  westward  of  the  saw  mill." 

Mr.  Fleming  was  the  first  timber  merchant  who  introduced 
into  Glasgow  the  general  use  of  Scots-grown  timber  for  coarse 
and  common  purposes,  such  as  for  making  coffins,  packing  boxes, 
house  lathing,  coal-heugh  gearing,  cleading  of  carts,  and  such- 
like ordinary  uses.  In  fact,  the  erection  of  his  saw-mill  effected 
a  great  change  in  various  departments  of  the  timber  trade,  and 
lowered  the  prices  of  both  workmanship  and  materials  of  various 
articles  connected  with  the  trade  in  question,  as  the  following 
deposition  shows. 

John  Wilson,  wright  in  Glasgow,  aged  fifty  years  or  thereby, 
depones — 

"  That  he  knows  the  pursuer  was  bred  a  wright,  and  that  after  he  built  the 
saw  mill  in  dispute  he  began  to  purchase  different  parcels  of  Scotch  fir,  which 
wood  has  been  used  chiefly  for  making  lath  for  plaister,  boxes  for  packing 
goods,  bars  for  coal  heughs,  and  cleading  of  carts.  That  the  first  time,  so  far 
as  the  deponent  knows,  that  Scotch  fir  was  used  in  Glasgow  for  making  boxes, 
and  lath  for  plaister,  was  some  time  after  the  pursuer's  saw  mill  was  erected ; 
and  the  pursuer  having  lowered  the  price  of  boxes,  the  wrights  of  Glasgow  put 
an  advertisement  in  the  newspapers,  that  it  was  improper  to  make  boxes  of 
Scotch  fir;  but  that,  notwithstanding,  the  demand  for  Scotch  fir  boxes  in- 
creased. Depones — That  Scotch  fir  has  now  become  a  staple  commodity  for 
the  purposes  before  deponed  to.  Depones — That  so  far  as  he  remembers,  the 
price  of  boxes  made  of  foreign  fir,  before  the  pursuer's  mill  was  erected,  was 
from  5s.  to  6s.  each,  and  that  after  the  building  of  said  mill,  boxes  of  the 
same  sizes,  made  of  Scotch  fir,  were  sold  at  4s.  6d.  and  5s.  each.  Depones — 
That  the  pursuer  furnished  the  deponent  with  different  parcels  of  lathing  of 
Scotch  fir,  and  also  nailed  the  same  on  the  house  and  made  it  fit  for  plaister, 
for  all  which  he  charged  the  deponent  only  sixpence  per  square  yard,  and  the 
deponent  could  not  have  provided  himself  with  the  same  quantity  of  lathing  of 
foreign  fir  and  workmanship  under  eightpence  per  yard.  Depones — That  in 
his  opinion  the  saw  mill  was  erected  both  for  the  interest  of  the  pursuer  and 
the  public." 

John  Herbertson,  late  deacon  of  the  wrights  in  Glasgow, 
depones — 

*'  That  before  the  pursuer's  saw  mill  was  erected  he  paid  to  whip  sawers 
for  sawing  a  hundred  feet  of  big  fir  trees  into  lathing  at  the  rate  of  2s.  6d., 
which  was  the  lowest  price,  and  sometimes  he  paid  2d.  more  for  sawing  the 


140  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

like  quantity  of  wood ;  that  he  also  paid  the  whip  sawers  at  the  rate  of  3s.  for 
sawing  one  hundred  feet  of  joisting,  and  that  he  paid  at  the  mill  for  a  like 
sawing  at  the  rate  of  2s,  id.  for  each  hundred  feet.  Depones — That  in  his 
opinion  any  wood  that  he  got  sawn  at  the  saw  mill  was  better  done  than  that 
which  he  got  done  by  the  whip  sawers." 

John  Muirhead,  wright  in  Gorbals  (father  of  Robert  Muirhead, 
bailie  of  Glasgow  in  1798,  for  whom  Muirhead  Street,  Gorbals, 
was  named),  depones — 

*'  That  Robert  Campbell  of  Finab,  about  ten  or  twelve  years  ago,  informed 
the  deponent  that  the  pursuer  had  bought  from  him  Scots  fir  to  the  value  of 
£S'^°  or  ;^6oo ;  and  he  also  knows  that  he  bought  several  other  considerable 
quantities  of  fir  from  other  persons.  Depones — That  the  expense  of  carriage 
of  fir  by  water  to  Glasgow  from  any  part  of  the  country  below  or  about 
Greenock,  or  from  Lochlomond,  or  any  of  the  Highland  lochs,  does  generally 
far  exceed  the  original  price.  Depones — That  he  is  of  opinion  that  fir  can 
be  brought  from  North  America  to  Greenock  cheaper  than  Scotch  fir  can  be 
brought  from  Lochaber  to  that  place.  Depones — That  Scotch  fir  sells  about 
a  third  part  cheaper  than  either  North  America  or  Norway  fir  sells  for." 

A  great  number  of  witnesses  were  examined  in  the  course  of 
this  lawsuit  regarding  the  different  floods  of  the  River  Clyde,  and 
how  far  Mr.  Fleming's  saw-mill  and  dam,  by  interrupting  the  free 
passage  of  the  waters  of  the  Molendinar  Burn,  had  tended  to 
increase  the  damage  done  by  the  overflowing  of  the  Clyde  to  the 
Bridgegate  and  to  the  lower  parts  of  the  city  ;  but  as  none  of 
those  old  speats  deponed  to  were  at  all  equal  in  magnitude  to  the 
great  inundation  of  the  12th  of  March  1782,  to  that  of  1795,  or 
even  to  the  one  of  1808,  I  have  omitted  the  depositions  of  the 
witnesses  thereto. 

In  articles  published  in  the  Glasgoiv  Herald  I  have  taken 
notice  of  those  mighty  floods  last  mentioned,  having  seen  them 
when  at  their  greatest  height,  and  was  personally  interested  in  that 
of  1808,  being  obliged  to  leave  my  country  dwelling,  then  situated 
between  Springfield  and  Greenlaw,  in  my  shirt,  and  to  wade  to 
dry  land  with  only  my  head  above  the  torrent  of  the  Clyde,  which 
was  then  running  like  a  mill-dam  lade.  The  Paisley  road  next  to 
Tradeston  was  then  flooded.  I  may  here  mention  that  towards 
the  close  of  last  century  the  Philosophical  Society  of  Glasgow 
issued  a  proposal  to  make  the  Molendinar  Burn  navigable  up  to 
the  Gallowgate  Bridge  ;    and  if  the  mania  for  joint-stock  com- 


SAWMILLFIELD.  141 

panics,  with  limited  liability,  had  then  been  as  rife  as  we  have 
seen  them  of  late,  we  might  perhaps  have  beheld  a  little  Broomie- 
law  in  the  Gallowgate,  with  its  upper  and  lower  navigation.  But 
from  this  digression  I  return  to  Mr.  Fleming,  who,  shortly  after 
having  received  from  the  city  the  sum  of  ;^6 1  o  :  i  :  i  of  damages 
for  the  loss  of  his  saw-mill  (with  ;^ioo  for  dues  of  extract), 
purchased  a  part  of  the  lands  of  Hamilton  Hill,  and  in  honour  of 
his  victory  over  the  Magistrates  and  Town  Council  of  Glasgow, 
he  named  his  newly-acquired  lands  "  Sawmillfield."  It  was  in  or 
about  1767  that  Mr.  Fleming  purchased  from  John  Young  of 
Youngfield,  late  deacon  of  the  tailors  in  Glasgow,  for  the  price 
of  ^1200  sterling,  two  pieces  of  ground  which  were  part  of 
the  Great  Western  Common  of  Glasgow.  To  the  first  piece, 
consisting  of  2 1  acres  or  thereby,  Mr.  Young  had  acquired  right 
immediately  from  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  by  a  feu-charter. 
To  the  other  piece,  consisting  of  19  acres,  Mr.  Young  acquired 
right  from  Robert  Hamilton  of  Hamilton  Hill,  whose  author  had 
acquired  right  thereto  by  a  feu-contract  from  the  Magistrates  of 
Glasgow.  Mr.  Fleming  appears  to  have  kept  the  culture  of  these 
lands  in  his  own  hands  during  his  lifetime,  but  after  his  death  (for 
behoof  of  his  family)  they  came  under  the  m.anagement  of  his 
widow,  who  was  a  Miss  Tarbet,  the  sister  of  the  well-known  Mrs. 
Dr.  Balmanno,  for  whom  Balmanno  Street  was  named.  In  the 
Glasgozu  Journal  of  ist  July  1789  Mrs.  Fleming  advertised  the 
Sawmillfield  lands  to  be  let,  as  follows  : — 

"  To  be  set  by  public  roup,  for  such  a  number  of  years  as  may  be  agreed 
on,  the  lands  and  farm  of  Sawmillfield,  lying  within  a  mile  of  the  City  of 
Glasgow,  with  the  farm  houses  and  offices  thereon,  which  are  mostly  new,  and 
very  commodious.  The  above  lands  lie  along  the  east  side  of  the  high  road 
leading  from  the  City  of  Glasgow  to  the  basin  at  the  west  end  of  the  Great 
canal,  and  by  their  vicinity  to  the  canal,  being  within  160  yards  of  it,  may  be 
of  great  advantage  to  an  active  tenant. — For  particulars,  apply  to  Archibald 
Smith,  writer  in  Glasgow." 

Immediately  after   Mr.    Fleming^   had   purchased   the   lands 

^  Mr.  Fleming  left  a  family  of  four  sons,  all  of  whom  were  well  known  in  Glasgow, 
and  I  have  no  doubt  are  remembered  by  all  our  elderly  citizens ;  their  names  were 
William,  Matthew,  John,  and  Hugh.  John  was  an  eminent  writer,  and  the  other  three 
were  merchants  of  high  standing. 


142  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

above  mentioned,  the  Forth  and  Clyde  Canal  was  projected,  which 
ultimately  came  through  the  heart  of  his  lands.  On  the  loth  of 
June  1768  the  first  spadeful  of  earth  for  the  formation  of  the  said 
canal  was  dug  out.  The  navigation  was  filled  with  water  on  3d 
September  1773,  and  to  Stockingfield  on  loth  November  1775. 
On  the  loth  November  1777  the  collateral  cut  to  Hamilton  Hill 
was  finished,  where  a  large  basin  was  made  for  the  reception  of 
vessels  and  rafts  of  timber.  On  the  6th  of  July  1786  the  opera- 
tions commenced  for  extending  the  navigation  from  Stockingfield 
to  the  Clyde,  which  was  completely  finished,  and  the  canal  opened 
from  sea  to  sea  on  the  28th  of  July  1790.  The  basin  at  Hamilton 
Hill  having  been  found  too  distant  from  the  city  of  Glasgow,  and 
inconvenient  for  the  trade,  the  canal  company  purchased  eight 
acres  of  ground  within  half  a  mile  of  Glasgow,  and  on  the  1 1  th  of 
November  1790  finished  a  basin  on  a  larger  scale,  where  they 
have  erected  granaries  and  store-house,  with  all  other  necessary 
accommodation  for  an  extensive  inland  traffic. 

Mrs.  Fleming,  like  her  sister,  Mrs.  Balmanno,  was  a  very  clever 
and  acute  old  lady,  and  at  first  was  in  a  mighty  passion  when  she 
learned  that  the  Forth  and  Clyde  Canal  was  to  be  cut  through  the 
very  middle  of  the  family  lands,  thereby  cutting  the  family  farms 
in  halves,  and  forcing  the  tenants  to  cross  the  canal  on  every 
occasion  when  they  required  to  plough  or  dress  the  respective 
detached  parts  ;  but  the  old  lady  lived  to  change  her  opinion  on 
this  subject,  when  she  found  that  so  far  from  the  canal  having 
injured  the  value  of  the  family  lands,  it  had  tended  to  increase 
the  same  to  an  extent  quite  beyond  all  expectation. 


CHAPTER    IX. 

Port-Dundas  as  a  harbour  versus  the  Broomielaw — Cow-milking  on  the  Green — Rates 
for  grazing — Dell^in  the  Green — The  Washing-House,  and  Scotch  mode  of  cleans- 
ing clothes  —  Castle  Boins — The  Big  Tree — The  Green  the  scene  of  military 
punishment — A  soldier  shot,  1750 — Dispute  between  the  Magistrates  and  the 
Officers  of  Colonel  Herbert's  regiment. 

At  this  time  Mr.  Golborne  had  erected  1 1 7  jetties  on  the  Clyde 
between  Glasgow  and  Greenock,  and  had  deepened  the  channel 
of  the  river,  so  that  vessels  drawing  seven  feet  of  water  could 
navigate  up  to  the  harbour  at  the  Broomielaw,  but  the  canal 
being  eight  feet  deep,  immediately  upon  its  having  been  made 
open  for  traffic,  Port-Dundas  became  a  more  important  port  than 
the  Broomielaw. 

It  is  curious  to  see  the  numerous  arrivals  announced  by  the 
newspapers,  of  vessels  discharging  their  cargoes  at  the  canal  basin, 
in  1778,  being  only  one  year  after  the  formation  of  the  basin  at 
Hamilton  Hill,  while  not  a  single  arrival  at  the  Broomielaw, 
during  the  same  space  of  time,  is  taken  notice  of  in  the  public 
lists  of  arrivals, 

Glasgow  Mercury,  5th  February  1778. — "  Canal,  February  4th,  1778. — 
Arrived,  the  Borrowstounness,  Thompson,  from  Borrowstounness,  with  merchant 
goods  ;  the  Success,  Begg,  from  Leith,  with  bark  and  goods  ;  the  Netherwood, 
Baine,  with  grain  and  goods ;  the  Bell,  Neilson,  with  wheat  and  barley  ;  the 
Eagle,  Mennon,  with  wheat ;  the  Industry,  Hodge,  with  iron  deals  and  wheat ; 
the  Evan,  Shaw,  with  barley ;  the  Clyde,  Anderson,  with  iron  and  tallow ;  the 
Industry,  Johnston,  with  barley ;  the  Dolphin,  Ronald,  with  beans  and  malt ; 
the  Dispatch,  Burgess,  with  goods  and  grain  ;  the  Catherine,  Keller,  with 
bear  and  iron  ;  the  Janet,  Dewar,  with  goods  and  grain  ;  the  Martha,  Walker, 
with  grain  and  iron ;  the  Nelly,  Wachop,  with  barley  and  wheat.  All  from 
the  Sea  Lock." 


144  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

"  Canal  Basin,  iSth  February  1778. — Arrived  since  our  last. — The  Carron 
Packet,  Calder,  Carron,  merchant  goods;  Lighter,  No.  i,  Dewar,  goods  or 
guns  ;  Dispatch,  Burgess,  Borrowstounness,  lintseed  and  ashes  ;  Borrow- 
stounness,  Thompson,  do.,  lintseed  and  wood ;  the  Glasgow,  Shaw,  do.,  goods 
and  meal ;  the  Free  Mason,  Easton,  barley  ;  Dolphin,  Ronald,  wheat ;  the 
Eagle,  Mennon,  meal ;  the  Glasgow  Packet,  Aikman,  grain ;  the  Martha, 
Walker,  grain  ;  the  Nelly,  Wachop,  grain  ;  the  Bell,  Hodge,  iTieal.  All  from 
the  Sea  Lock." 

The  committee  of  management  at  this  time  appointed  Mr. 
Nicol  Baird  (the  grandfather  of  the  Messrs.  Baird  of  the  Canal 
Brewery),  to  be  the  surveyor  on  the  canal.  Mr.  Baird  then  lived 
at  Westertovvn,  near  Falkirk. 

It  may  easily  be  seen  that  the  formation  of  the  canal  through 
the  lands  of  Sawmillfield  added  greatly  to  the  value  of  the  said 
lands,  and  the  prolongation  of  it  to  Port-Dundas  added  still 
further  towards  their  enhancement. 

The  following  advertisement  shows  where  the  dwelling-house 
and  workshops  of  Mr.  William  Fleming  were  situated  in  Glasgow: — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  nth  December  1792. — "To  be  sold,  the  property  in 
Gibson's  Close,  Saltmarket,  belonging  to  the  heirs  of  the  late  William  Fleming, 
Sawmillfield,  consisting  of  a  back  house  of  two  storeys,  and  cellars,  with  a 
work  house  in  the  close  leading  from  the  Trongate  to  Prince's  Street,  and  a 
stable  underneath,  together  with  the  whole  dung  of  Gibson's  Close.  The 
yearly  rent  is  at  present  ^30  5s.  Henry  Barton,  one  of  the  tenants,  will 
show  the  premises. — Apply  to  William  Fleming,  (father  of  Dr.  Fleming), 
opposite  the  Exchange,  Glasgow." 

It  thus  appears  that  the  sweepings  of  Gibson's  Close  were 
held  out  as  an  inducement  for  purchasers  to  come  forward. 

The  following  notification  regarding  this  old  Glasgow  family 
appeared  in  the  North  British  Daily  Mail  of  26th  February 
1863:— 

"  Glasgow  Cathedral. — We  noticed  in  Monday's  impression,  the  erection 
of  two  windows  in  the  chapter  house  of  the  Cathedral,  designed  and  executed 
by  Mr.  Hughes,  glass  painter  of  London  ;  the  set  has  been  completed  by  the 
placing  of  other  two.  As  we  formerly  indicated,  a  unity  of  subject  connects 
the  four,  which  are  representative  of  charity,  or  acts  of  m^ercy,  a  thoughtful 
and  unquestionably  judicious  arrangement,  for  which  we  are  indebted  to  Mr, 
Charles  Heath  Wilson.  One  of  the  last  erected  windows  is  dedicated  to  the 
memory  of  their  ancestors,  merchant  burgesses  in  Glasgow,  since  1643,  and 
of  their  parents,  William  Fleming  of  Sawmillfield,  and  Janet  Gibson,  his  wife, 


SLAUGHTER-HOUSE  PASSAGE.  145 

by  William  Fleming,  John  Gibson  Fleming,  and  David  Gibson  Fleming.  The 
texts  which  form  the  subject  of  illustration  are  :  '  I  was  a  stranger,  and  ye  took 
me  in  ;  I  was  naked,  and  ye  clothed  me,'"  [The  three  last-named  gentlemen 
were  the  grandchildren  of  William  Fleming  sen.,  of  Sawmillfield,  and  his  wife. 
Miss  Tarbet.] 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  Plans  hereto  annexed  that  the 
entry  to  Mr.  Fleming's  saw -mill  and  wood -yard  was  by  the 
Bridgegate  and  along  the  Slaughter-House  lane,  from  which  lane 
there  was  a  narrow  crooked  passage  leading  directly  to  the 
Slaughter- House,  and  to  the  enclosure  for  cattle  intended  for 
slaughter.  There  was  no  other  entry  to  the  Low  Green  of  Glas- 
gow from  the  west,  except  by  crossing  this  passage,  which  pass- 
age formed  the  most  intolerable  nuisance  of  the  city,  for  the 
putrid  refuse  of  the  Slaughter-House  lay  there  in  heaps,  and  the 
passage  itself  was  quite  a  quagmire  from  dirt,  and  the  dung  of 
the  cattle  left  there  by  them  when  passing  into  the  enclosure  and 
shambles.  In  fact,  no  attention  was  then  paid  by  the  fleshers 
or  by  the  public  authorities  to  keep  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
Slaughter-House  clean,  in  consequence  of  which  the  miasmatic 
effluvia  and  nauseous  smell  at  or  near  the  place  were  quite  over- 
powering to  all  who  had  delicate  olfactory  nerves.^  I  never  saw 
a  lady  venture  to  enter  the  Green  from  the  west  by  the  route  of 
the  Slaughter-House  lane,  for  if  she  had  made  the  attempt  she 
would  have  required  to  have  done  so,  armed  with  pattens  ^  on 

1  "  Glasgow,  1st  March  1764. — By  order  of  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow. — Whereas, 
there  are  several  middens  or  quantities  of  dung  laid  down,  and  presently  lying  on  the 
streets  and  avenues  leading  into  the  city  of  Glasgow,  to  the  great  nuisance  of  all  persons 
coming  in,  or  going  out  of  the  city,  or  taking  the  benefit  of  the  air  around  the  city. 
These  are,  therefore,  requiring  all  persons  interested  in  said  dung,  that  they  carry  the  same 
from  off  the  streets  and  avenues,  or  lanes,  leading  into  the  city,  betwixt  and  the  15th 
day  of  March  next  to  come.  Certifying  all  and  every  person  who  shall  refuse  or  delay  so 
to  do,  that  the  magistrates  will  confiscate  all  dung  lying  on  the  streets,  avenues,  or  lanes, 
leading  into  the  said  city  after  the  said  day,  and  grant  a  warrant  for  carrying  away  and 
applying  the  same  to  other  uses,  and  fine  the  persons  who  laid  down  the  same,  in  ten 
pounds  Scots,  each ;  and  these  are  strictly  prohibiting  and  discharging  all  ai.d  every  person 
or  persons  whomever,  from  laying  down  any  dung  on  any  of  the  streets,  avenues,  or  lanes 
leading  into  the  city,  under  the  penalty  of  ten  pounds  Scots,  for  each  transgression." 

2  At  this  time  there  were  no  side  pavements  in  Glasgow  for  the  benefit  of  pedes- 
trians, in  consequence  of  which  pattens  were  in  universal  use  by  all  ranks  of  females, 
during  wet  weather.  From  the  following  advertisement  it  appears  that  pattens  could  be 
purchased  at  a  very  low  rate,  which  no  doubt  tended  to  make  their  use  quite  common 
in  Glasgow  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  17th  July  1766. — "Reginald  Tucker,  makes  and  sells  for  ready 
VOL.  III.  L 


146  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

her  feet,  to  prevent  her  shoes  being  submersed  in  h'quid  mud  and 
the  ordure  of  cattle.  The  usual  route  to  the  Low  Green  from 
the  west  was  by  the  Bridgegate  to  the  foot  of  the  Saltmarket. 
The  main  entry  into  the  Green  was  by  a  large  gate  of  timber, 
which  was  under  the  charge  of  the  herd  of  the  Green  ;  it  was 
generally  kept  shut,  but  always  thrown  open  on  public  occasions, 
such  as  reviews  and  military  spectacles,  etc.  The  entry  into  the 
Green  for  pedestrians  on  ordinary  occasions  was  by  a  small 
turnstile  in  the  form  of  a  cross  X  ,  which  moved  upon  a  pivot, 
thus  preventing  access  to  equestrians. 

At  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  at  six  o'clock  in  the 
evening,  the  cows  which  pastured  on  the  Green  were  brought  to 
this  place  of  the  common  to  be  milked.  And  I  have  seen  our 
gentlemen  golfers,  after  finishing  their  morning's  sport,  stopping 
short  here,  and  with  great  gusto  swigging  off  a  tinful  of  milk 
reeking  warm  from  the  cow,  to  give  them  an  appetite  for  their 
breakfasts.  In  the  evenings  the  scene  was  very  lively,  for  in  all 
directions  there  were  seen  well-dressed  nursery  maids,  with  their 
little  charges,  striving  who  should  first  get  their  japanned  tinnies 
filled  with  the  warm  reaming  milk,  and  ever  and  anon  looking 
sharply  around  them,  lest  the  great  bull  ^  (which  the  Magistrates 
kept  in  the  Green)  should  be  edging  towards  them. 

money  only,  women's  pattens,  from  ys  to  I2s  per  dozen."  (This  was  the  wholesale 
price.)  Some  few  fashionable  ladies  wore  clogs,  but  this  piece  of  female  dress  was  not 
only  more  cumbersome,  but  also  much  dearer,  and  less  serviceable  for  encountering 
clarty  streets  than  pattens. 

1  "State  of  accounts  of  John  Brown,  master  of  work  of  Glasgow,  for  October, 
November  and  December,  1777. 
1777       Paid  Ninian  Hill  for  selling  a  bull         .  .  .       £0     z     d 

,,     ,,   24th  March,  James  Thomson  for  spreading  mole 

hills,  &c.,  in  the  green     .  .  .  .  .  I     o     o 

„     „  9th  June,  for  a  bull  for  the  green  .  .         .         3   13     o 

,,     ,,   26th  June,  paid  for  making  a  gravel  walk  in  the 

green,  being  240  yards  long  and  1 7  feet  broad  .  451" 

Council  Records,  24th  June  1576. — "  Item,  It  is  statute  by  the  baillies,  counsall  and 
commountie  that  thair  be  an  calf  bird,  conducit  to  keip  the  calfes  upon  the  grein  furthe 
of  scaythe,  wtherwayis  gif  yai  be  fundin  in  scaythe  to  loe  pundit,  and  also  ordanis  yame 
yat  hes  ye  freir  land  in  ye  brumilaw,  to  bige  ye  weir  for  balding  furthe  of  ye  beistis." 

Council  Records^  9th  May  1578. — "  The  quhilk  daye  Archibald  Johnestoun  is  made, 
and  constitute  calf  hirde,  for  keiping  of  the  calfis  vpone  ye  greyne,  for  yis  instant  zeir, 
and  he  to  halve  meit  and  drink  daylie  about  of  yame  yat  hes  ye  calfis,  togidner  with 
vi.d.  frae  ilk  ane  yat  hes  ye  saymne,  and  siclyk  frae  yame  yat  hes  land  besid  ye  greyne, 


GLiVSGOW  GREEN.  147 

Since  the  time  when  Mr,  Fleming's  saw-mill  was  demolished 
the  Glasgow  Green  eastward  has  undergone  several  alterations, 
particularly  by  the  erection  of  Monteith  Row,  of  the  Camlachie 
Burn  at  the  Calton  Green  being  arched  over,  and  of  our  old  ser- 
pentine walks  being  nearly  all  grubbed  up. 

At  the  eastern  extremity  of  the  Green  the  late  Mr.  Alexander 
Allan  attempted  to  throw  an  arch  over  the  public  footpath  which 
leads  to  Rutherglen  Bridge,  so  as  to  connect  his  grounds  with  the 
river,  thereby  making  a  dark  tunnel  of  this  public  footpath.  This 
innovation,  however,  was  successfully  opposed  by  the  people  of 
Rutherglen,  and  the  footpath  kept  open. 

Brown,  in  his  History  of  Glasgoiv,  at  p.  188,  thus  writes  re- 
garding the  Green  of  Glasgow  : — 

"The  traveller  may  here  see  100  milk  cows  giving  milk  to  upwards  of 
500  old  men,  women,  and  children.  Here  the  aged,  the  sick,  and  the  young 
receive  uncontaminated  that  natural  nourishment,  the  milk  from  the  cow.  This 
beautiful  Green  affords  grass  for  about  120  cows,  of  a  large  size,  and  of  a 
mixed  breed,  from  the  Alderney  kind,  yielding  on  an  average  upwards  of  1 2 
Scots  pints  of  milk  per  day,  in  the  summer  time," 

Denholm,  in  his  History,  at  p.  141,  informs  us  that: — 
"  The  revenue  arising  from  the  pasturage  of  cows  on  the  Green  fluctuates 

for  keiping  of  yair  comes,  and  yat  no  hors  be  fund  thairupone  unlangalit  \La7igletiie, 
having  the  fore  and  hind  legs  tied  together  to  prevent  running. — ^Jamieson],  and  entir 
to  service  ye  morne,  witht  power  to  ye  said  Archibald  to  poynd  for  key  or  great  stirkies. 
Souertie  for  his  seruice  and  guid  reull,  James  Ritchie,  cowper." 

Council  Reco7-ds,  26th  May  1579. — "  Matho  Wilsoun  is  maid  and  constitut  calf  hird 
quha  hes  fund  Patrik  Bell  cautione  for  adminstratioun  in  his  office,  and  is  ordanit  to 
have  vi.d.  for  ilk  calf,  and  his  meit  daylie  about,  or  ellis  xii.d.  for  ilk  melte  [Melteth, 
1st,  a  meal;  2d,  the  quantity  of  milk  yielded  by  a  cow  at  one  time, — ^Jamieson],  gif  yai 
failze  and  to  be  poyndit  y'  for." 

Council  Records,  ist  October  1577, — "Item,  It  is  statut  yat  it  sail  nocht  be  leful  to 
nowther  fre  or  unfre  to  bald  byhirsalis"  \IIirsell,  kyrsale,  a  flock  of  sheep — a  great 
number.      "Jock,  man,  ye're  just  telling  a  hirsel  o'  e'n  down  lees  "  (lies). — ^Jamieson.] 

"Item,  It  is  statut  and  ordanit  yat  yer  be  na  swyn  nor  geis  haldin  nor  pasturat 
within  the  burroruds  about  the  towne,  but  haldin  in  houss,  vnder  ye  pant  of  escheting 
thereof," 

Council  Records,  7th  May  1574. — "The  quhilk  day  William  Kyle  is  fund  in  ye 
wrang,  for  ye  taking  and  intrometting  w*..  at  his  awin  hand,  but  ordour,  ane  cow  gevin 
be  him  at  Alhallovmes  last,  to  Janet  Baxtare  as  tyde  \Tydie,  pregnant,  when  applied 
to  a  cow;  also  to  a  woman,  as  a  "tidy  bride,"  one  who  goes  home  enceinte  to  the 
bridegroom's  house. — ^Jamieson],  for  ye  first  calf  and  milk,  and  being  in  her  possessione 
sensyne,  and  y''  fore  is  decernit  to  delyuer  to  her  ane  tyde  cow,  and  to  satisfe  hir  for 
ye  proffett  of  calf  and  milk  y'  of  incontinet  and  dwme  gevin  yairon." 


148  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

according  to  their  number,  the  proprietor  of  each  paying  £2  for  five  months' 
grazing." 

Chapman,  who  published  his  History  in  181 2,  states  : — 

'  Another  source  of  revenue  from  the  Green  proceeds  from  the  pasturage 
of  cows,  for  the  grazing  of  each  of  which  during  about  six  months  the  pro- 
prietors pay  _j^3  3s.  and  2s.  to  the  keeper,  per  annum." 

In  a  report  published  by  Dr.  Cleland  in  1 8 1 3  he  mentions 
that : — 

"  In  the  present  situation  of  the  Green,  the  average  number  of  cows  for 
the  last  three  years  which  have  paid  a  grass  fee  of  ;^3  3s.  per  head  is  127."  1 

"Notice — 1st  July,  1794. — Cows  will  be  admitted  into  the  Green  at  the 
Fair  of  Glasgow,  to  graze  the  remainder  of  the  season,  on  payment  of  25s 
grass  mail,  and  is  6d  fee  for  the  herd,  for  each  cow,  the  day  before  the  Fair.' 
— {Glasgow  Advertiser^  4th  July  1794.) 

The  following  advertisement,  showing  the  rates  at  which 
cattle  were  taken  in  to  graze  in  muir  lands  and  pasture  lands  is 
curious  when  compared  with  the  rates  charged  for  grazing  cattle 
in  the  Green  of  Glasgow  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  19th  March  1759. — "  Cattle  for  grazing  will  be  taken 
into  the  Parks  of  Glanderston  on  the  following  terms,  viz, — 

Scots.  Sterling. 

Into  the  Moor  Park  of  Walton,  for  a  Cow  or  Quey,  ;^4     o     o  ;^o     6     8 
For  a  Stirk, 
For  a  Horse, 

400  068 

a  Cow  or  Ouey,      600  0100 

300  050 

.     900  0150 

600  o   10     o 

the  House,  for  a 

.    12     o     o  100 

.    18     o     o  I    10     o 

.   12     o     o  100 


200  034 

600  o   10     o 


For  a  Colt  of  one  year  old, 

Into  the  lower  Park  of  Walton,  for 

For  a  Stirk, 

For  a  Horse, 

For  a  Colt  of  one  year  old. 

Into  either  of  the  two  Parks  near 

Cow  or  Quey,     . 
For  a  Horse, 
For  a  Colt  of  one  year  old, 

The  two  last  parks  being  the  best  for  making  beef. 
The  above  prices  are  all  Scots  money. 
"  None  to  be  admitted  into  any  of  the  parks  before  the  i  oth 
of  May,  and  to  be  taken  out  some  time  in  the  month  of  Octo- 
ber thereafter.     When  put  in  must  acquaint  whether  for  the 
upper  or  lower  Park  of  Walton." 

1  In  18 16  the  grass  mail  was  raised  to  £^  :4s.,  and  2s.  6d.  to  the  keeper.     There 
were  two  bulls  in  the  Green  in  18 16. 


GLASGOW  GREEN.  149 

In  1 8 1 6,  when  the  working  classes  could  not  all  find  employ- 
ment, about  200  weavers  were  occupied  in  levelling  the  upper 
part  of  the  High  Green;  and  in  August  18 19,  324  weavers  out 
of  work  were  engaged  in  slope-levelling  the  High  Green  and  the 
Calton  Green,  some  parts  of  which  required  an  excavation  of  from 
six  to  seven  feet,  and  others  a  filling  up  of  from  eight  to  ten  feet. 

These  levelling  operations  made  a  considerable  change  in  the 
appearance  of  some  parts  of  the  High  Green,  more  particularly 
on  that  part  of  it  through  which  the  Camlachie  Burn  flowed,  im- 
mediately to  the  north-east  of  the  Washing-House  and  Fountain. 
Here  there  was  a  beautiful  and  romantic  dell,  with  hills  on  each 
side  of  it,  and  the  Camlachie  Burn,  uncontaminated  with  the  city 
filth,  gently  purling  through  its  centre.  It  was  quite  a  retired 
spot,  and  hid  from  the  view  of  the  golfers  or  strollers  on  the 
walks  of  the  Green  by  the  rising  ground  on  the  south. 

In  my  early  days  this  was  a  favourite  place  of  resort  of  boys 
to  amuse  themselves  with  all  the  juvenile  sports  and  games  of 
schoolday  times ;  and  here  was  the  chosen  field  when  a  pitched 
battle  took  place  between  the  youthful  combatants,  either  "w 
hairs"  or  ''over  the  napkin!'  Many  a  happy  evening  have  I  spent 
in  this  pretty  secluded  spot  with  my  companions,  playing  at  the 
"pemiy  stanes"  at  " hap,  stap,  and  jnmp^'  at  " leap  the  garter]'  at 
'Heap  frog','  at  ''putting  the  stane"  and  other  like  sports  and 
games  of  youthful  days.  Amongst  other  youngsters  who  took 
pleasure  in  spending  an  evening  in  this  retired  dell  at  such  ex- 
citing pastimes,  I  remember  that  our  eminent  townsman,  the  late 
Sir  Neil  Douglas,  stood  conspicuous  for  his  dexterity  in  all  the 
athletic  and  gymnastic  performances  which  might  have  been  going 
on  at  the  place,  and  was  considered  as  one  of  the  leaders  in  every 
game  which  required  strength  of  body  and  agility  of  limb. 

By  the  above-mentioned  levelling  operations,  this  romantic  dell 
has  now  passed  away,  its  bosom  filled  up  with  filthy  rubbish,  the 
purling  Camlachie  Burn  arched  over,  and  the  Glasgow  Green 
thereby  connected  with  the  Calton  Green ;  which  operations, 
however  useful  and  necessary,  have  altogether  destroyed  the 
primitive  amenity  of  the  valley  in  question  as  a  secluded  place  of 
amusement. 


ISO  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

This  dell  has  not  been  generally  exhibited  in  a  lucid  manner 
in  the  different  maps  of  Glasgow,  the  space  it  occupied  being 
represented  in  them  merely  as  vacant  undulated  ground  ;  but  in 
the  map  attached  to  Stuart's  Views  of  Glasgow  it  is  there  laid 
down  in  a  conspicuous  manner  as  a  romantic  valley,  with  hills  or 
elevated  grounds  for  its  north  and  south  boundaries,  and  the 
Camlachie  Burn  flowing  through  its  centre.  The  said  dell  is  seen 
to  extend  from  the  Washing- House  on  the  west  to  the  east  end 
of  the  Calton  Green,  and,  so  far  as  my  remembrance  goes,  it  is 
there  very  clearly  and  correctly  shown. 

I  am  not  sure  of  the  exact  date  when  the  Washing- House 
was  first  erected,  but  I  think  that  it  existed  in  the  year  1741. 
M'Ure,  who  published  his  History  in  1736,  does  not  mention  the 
public  Washing- House  on  the  Green.  He  says  that  the  second 
Park  (or  Green) — 

«'  Hath  all  the  summer  time  between  two  and  three  hundred  women 
bleaching  of  linen  cloth,  and  washing  linen  cloths  of  all  sorts  in  the  river 
Clyde ;  and  in  the  midst  of  this  enclosure  there  is  an  useful  well  for  cleansing 
the  cloths  after  they  are  washed  in  the  river :  likewise  there  is  a  lodge  built 
of  freestone,  in  the  midst  of  it,  for  a  shelter  to  the  herd  who  waits  upon  the 
horse  and  cows  that  are  grazed  therein."  1 

It  appears  from  the  above  extract  that  the  process  of  washing 
and  bleaching  cloths  by  the  inhabitants  of  Glasgow  was  generally 
performed  at  that  time  upon  the  banks  of  the  river  itself,  but 
that  there  was  a  well  in  the  midst  of  the  enclosure  for  cleansing 
the  cloths  after  they  were  washed.  This  well,  I  presume,  was 
the  Fountain  delineated  on  the  Plan,  situated  immediately  to  the 
east  of  the  Washing- House,  which,  from  its  low-lying  position 
and  proximity  to  the  Camlachie  Burn,  must  have  been  a  fine 
spring  well,  with  an  abundant  flow  of  water. 

By  referring  to  the  Plan  of  the  Green  there  will  be  seen  a 
building  erected  upon  the  bank  of  the  Camlachie  Burn,  a  little  to 
the  east  of  the  English  Chapel,  and  called  "Castle  Boins."  This 
building  was  said  to  have  been  in  old  times  used  as  a  washing- 
house,  and  received  the  name  of  "  Castle  Boins  "  from  the  number 
of  boynes  or  washing -tubs  which  were  then  to  have  been  seen  in 

^  The  herd's  house  is  shown  in  the  annexed  Plan. 


SCOTCH  WASHINGS. 


SI 


and  around  it  during  the  washing  process,  which  process  was 
mainly  performed  in  the  waters  of  the  Camlachie  Burn,  at  the 
time  in  question  a  pure  and  limpid  stream.^ 

Ray,  in  his  Itinerary,  published  in  1661,  informs  us  that  the 
customary  mode  of  washing  linens  at  that  time  in  Glasgow  was 
for  the  washerwomen  to  tuck  up  their  petticoats,  and  tread  the 
linens  with  their  feet  in  tubs.  I  have  been  in  the  Washing-House 
of  the  Green  of  Glasgow,  and  have  there  seen  more  than  a  score 
of  women  all  at  one  time  trampling  their  linens  in  their  boynes, 
with  up-tucked  petticoats  ;  and  so  little  did  they  regard  my  pre- 
sence, that  I  was  allowed  to  make  the  circuit  of  the  Washing- 
House  without  a  single  woman  lowering  the  folds  of  her  petti- 
coats. This  did  not  arise  from  want  of  modesty,  but  was  caused 
by  long  use  and  wont,  whereby  the  process  was  considered  of  so 
little  importance  that  no  one  was  understood  to  pay  any  notice 
to  it,  as  at  all  indecent  or  unbecoming. 

From  the  following  extract,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  foregoing 
mentioned  practice  of  women  washing  their  foul  clothes  by  tramp- 
ing them  with  their  feet  in  boynes,  was  usually  done  openly  in 
the  streets  of  Glasgow,  and  required  the  notice  of  our  Magistrates 
to  put  a  stop  to  it : — 

^  The  late  Dr.  Strang,  in  his  amusing  work  of  Glasgow  and  its  Clubs,  has  made  two 
trifling  mistakes  as  to  the  Washing-House  on  the  Green.  At  page  169  he  says  :  "This 
important  public  establishment  was  then  situated  near  the  spot  where  Nelson's  Monu- 
ment now  stands."  Now,  Nelson's  Monument  stands  on  the  High  Green,  close  to  the 
spot  where  the  herd's  house  is  shown  in  the  Plan  ;  but  the  Washing-House  was  situated 
in  the  Low  Green,  within  fifteen  feet  of  the  Camlachie  Bum,  as  may  be  seen  in  the  said 
Plan.  At  page  170  the  Doctor  says:  "Then  along  the  side  of  the  river  might  be 
seen,  in  fine  weather,  the  smoke  of  a  hundred  black  pots,  placed  in  interstices  of  a  wall 
that  ran  along  the  margin  of  the  river  Clyde,"  etc.  This  appears  to  have  been  merely 
a  little  slip  of  the  Doctor's  pen,  for  he  was  old  enough  to  have  remembered  that  there 
were  no  vestiges  of  a  wall  having  once  run  along  the  south  boundary  of  the  Low  Green. 
In  my  younger  days  the  bank  of  the  river  at  this  place  was  fenced  in  merely  by  a  few 
scattered  portions  of  rotten  fir  stobs,  which  aflforded  little  or  no  protection  to  the  Green 
from  speats.  Besides,  "Castle  Boins  "  shows  that  in  ancient  times  the  washings  took 
place  on  the  bank  of  the  Camlachie  Bum,  which  then  was  a  clear  and  limpid  stream 
Mr.  Pagan  informs  us,  in  his  Glasgoiu,  Fast  and  present,  at  page  31,  that  "  the  title- 
deeds  of  property  on  the  east  side  of  the  Saltmarket,  written  200  years  ago,  bear  that 
the  owners  shall  have  'free  ish  and  Entry '  by  the  closes  leading  to  the  burn,  and  that 
they  shall  also  have  the  privilege  o{  '  Fishing  therein.'"''  In  my  boyish  days  I  have 
fished  for  silver  eels  in  the  Camlachie  Burn,  near  the  serpentine  walks ;  and  up  to  the 
close  of  last  century  the  fishing  for  eels  in  the  Camlachie  Burn,  to  the  east  of  Bridgeton, 
was  quite  common  amongst  young  anglers. 


152  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Council  Records,  nth  October  1623. — "Washeriss  on  the  Foregate. — It 
is  statut  and  ordanit  that  na  manner  of  persone  stramp  or  wesche  ony  claythis, 
plading,  yarne,  or  ony  uther  thing  in  the  foregait,  or  backsyde,  quhare  they  may 
ho.  sene,  but  onhe  in  housis  and  private  plassis,  ilk  persone  under  the  pane  of 
xi.s.  toties  quoties." 

It  appears  from  the  following  advertisement  that  "Castle 
Boins,"  and  the  lands  connected  with  it,  came  to  be  resorted  to 
by  the  citizens  of  Glasgow  as  a  place  of  amusement  and  enter- 
tainment, where  a  tavern  had  been  erected  for  the  sale  of  herb 
ale,  and  other  change-house  potables,  the  place  being  then  quite 
in  the  country,  and  a  rural  retreat.  These  lands  afterwards  were 
occupied  as  an  extensive  tannery : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  26th  March  1778. — "To  be  sold,  the  following  Lands: 
— 1st  Lot.  That  well  constructed  Tannery  lately  erected  on  the  east  side  of 
the  Episcopal  Chapel,  adjoining  to  Camlachie  burn,  consisting  of  steep  holes, 
lime  pits,  tan  pits,  bark  lofts,  drying  lofts,  currying  room,  bark  mill,  cellars, 
and  other  conveniences  ;  together  with  a  good  Dwelling  House,  being  the 
most  complete  work  of  the  kind  extant  in  Glasgow.  2d  Lot.  That  fine 
piece  of  ground,  presently  a  Gardener's  yard,  on  the  side  of  the  Tan-work, 
fronting  the  Green  of  Glasgow  (commonly  called  Hoodie's  yard),  with  the 
pleasant  Rural  Tavern  or  Change  house  and  offices  upon  it,  which  has  always 
been  much  frequented,  and  remarkable  for  Herb  Ale.  —  Apply  to  Claud 
Marshall,  writer  in  Glasgow." 

A  portion  of  the  above-mentioned  lands  was  acquired  by 
David  Dale,  and  formed  a  part  of  his  garden.  When  Greendyke 
Street  came  to  be  widened,  a  small  slice  of  the  said  garden  was 
purchased  by  the  city  of  Glasgow  for  improving  this  locality. 
This  is  seen  by  the  published  report  of  Dr.  Cleland  on  the 
intended  city  improvements,  of  date  18 13.  The  report  states  as 
follows : — 

"  The  approach  from  the  bottom  of  the  Saltmarket  to  the  Calton  Green  is 
to  be  by  a  street  sixty  feet  wide,  the  north  side  of  which  will  be  formed  by 
running  nearly  a  straight  line  from  the  south  side  of  the  brick  wall  which  is 
formed  a  little  to  the  west  of  the  Episcopal  chapel  to  the  south-east  corner  of 
the  Rev.  Dr.  Lockhart's  property  in  Charlotte  Street,  touching  the  south  side 
of  the  south  wing  of  the  Misses  Dale's  house  in  that  street.  This  street  is 
then  to  be  connected  with  Great  Hamilton  Street  by  another  one  of  fifty  feet 
wide,  forming  an  obtuse  angle  with  it,  the  west  side  of  which  will  be  described 
by  the  east  wall  of  the  Charlotte  Street  gardens.     A  street  of  fifty  feet  wide  is 


CASTLE  BOYNES. 


153 


then  to  be  formed  in  front  of  the  building  lots  on  the  Calton  Green,  and  the 
sides  of  all  the  streets  which  are  next  the  Green  are  to  be  formed  with  parapet 
walls  and  iron  railings.  Exclusive  of  these  approaches,  the  other  entries  into 
the  Green  are  to  be  kept  open,  particularly  that  from  St.  Andrew's  Square, 
down  by  the  Episcopal  chapel,  and  from  Charlotte  Street,  William  Street, 
John  Street,  from  openings  in  the  intended  Calton  Green  buildings,  and  from 
the  head  of  the  Green  leading  to  Rutherglen  Bridge." 

The  above  intended  improvements,  with  some  alterations  for 
the  better,  were  shortly  afterwards  carried  into  effect. 

About  the  year  1861  the  land  where  Castle  Boins  stood  was 
purchased  by  John  Henderson,  Esq.,  of  Park,  and  on  it  he  built 
a  church  or  chapel  for  the  accommodation  of  that  district  of  the 
city.  The  property  is  thus  described  in  the  disposition  granted 
by  Mr.  Robert  Young  to  Mr.  Henderson  in  the  year  1861, 
viz. — 

"  All  and  whole,  that  piece  of  ground  near  the  Episcopal  chapel,  and  also 
near  where  formerly  stood  a  house  called  '  Castle  Boynes,'  through  which 
piece  of  ground  the  Molendinar  Burn  at  one  time  did  run,  containing  263 
square  yards  and  18  square  feet,  or  thereby,  bounded  on  the  east  by  the 
property  sometime  of  David  Dale,  Esq.;  on  the  west  by  the  stone  bridge  or 
arch  over  the  said  burn,  leading  to  the  said  chapel ;  on  the  north  to  the  pro- 
perty formerly  of  the  said  John  Burns,  above  described ;  on  the  south  by  the 
house  called  '  Castle  Boynes,'  and  by  the  street  or  road  leading  from  the  Old 
Bridge  to  St.  Mungo's  Lane,  or  '  Burnt  Barns,'  at  the  back  of  the  Green 
dyke  ;  which  piece  of  ground  is  now  included,  and  forms  part  of  the  tanwork 
lying  within  the  Burgh  of  Glasgow." 

With  regard  to  the  Washing-House  on  the  Green  of  Glasgow, 
it  is  said  that  a  small  building  was  erected  close  to  the  Camlachie 
Burn  for  a  washing  establishment  about  the  year  1732,  and  that 
water  was  pumped  into  it  from  the  said  burn  by  means  of  a  wind- 
mill, but  no  machinery  was  required  to  supply  "  Castle  Boins " 
with  water,  as  its  whole  northern  front  j'oined  the  Camlachie  Burn 
itself,  whereby  direct  covered  access  to  the  said  burn  was  obtained 
from  the  washing  premises. 

The  original  public  Washing-House  appears  to  have  received 
various  additions  at  different  times  ;  in  particular,  in  the  year 
1807  its  extent  was  more  than  doubled,  so  that  the  annexed 
Plan  refers  only  to  its  state  a  century  ago.     It  was  before  these 


154  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

additions  were  made  that  I  visited  the  said  Washing- House,  on 
which  occasion  the  whole  of  the  four  sides  of  the  inside  area 
were  occupied  by  above  a  hundred  washerwomen  doing  their  work 
comfortably  under  cover,  while  a  large  circular  stone  reservoir  of 
water  stood  in  the  centre  of  the  building  with  ready  access  to  it 
on  all  sides,  and  numerous  fires  blazed  under  cover,  on  which 
boilers  were  placed  all  round,  the  tacksman  being  obliged  to 
provide  hot  and  cold  water  to  the  washers.  The  Washing-House 
did  not  join  the  Camlachie  Burn,  but  stood  a  little  to  the  south 
of  it.  The  inhabitants  of  the  Calton  had  easy  access  to  the  said 
Washing-House  by  means  of  a  bridge  across  the  Camlachie  Burn, 
situated  immediately  to  the  north  of  the  washerie. 

Many  very  respectable  females,  of  bein  means,  took  the  advan- 
tage of  using  the  public  Washing-House  for  their  domestic  wash- 
ings, and  personally  tramped  the  tub  along  with  the  throng  of  the 
place.  I  have  known  females,  even  in  the  rank  of  ladies,  who 
duffed  their  brazus,  and  dressing  themselves  "  eoinme  Blanehisseuses" 
took  their  stand  at  the  washing  boyne  cheek  by  jole  with  the 
ordinary  washerwomen. 

It  appears  from  Chapman,  page  6"],  that  at  this  time  the 
Washing-House  produced  a  considerable  revenue  to  the  city. 
He  says — "  It  has  been  let  for  £,6qo  per  annum,  but  since  the 
introduction  of  water  by  pipes  into  the  town  the  rent  has  been 
much  reduced.  It  is  let  from  1811  to  18 12  at  ;^2  84."  This 
defalcation  seems  to  have  arisen  from  the  citizens  being  enabled 
to  perform  their  washing  operations  at  home,  seeing  that  they 
possessed  an  abundant  supply  of  water  within  their  respective 
dwellings,  from  the  Glasgow  Waterworks,  established  in  1806, 
and  the  Cranston  Hill  Waterworks,  set  agoing  in  1808.  To 
which  may  be  added  the  extension  of  the  city  to  the  west,  and 
the  general  change  in  residence  of  the  better  classes  of  the  com- 
munity to  the  western  districts.  The  dues  of  the  Washing-House 
were  collected  in  the  clerk's  lodge,  situated  near  the  Burnt  Barns, 
east  end  of  Greendyke  Street,  at  the  entrance  into  the  Low  Green 
opposite  the  Big  Tree,  which  lodge  stood  within  the  boundaries 
of  the  Low  Green. 

The  dues  payable  at  the  said  Washing-House  were — 


THE  "BIG  TREE."  155 

For  hot  and  cold  water  of  one  day's  washing,  without  the  use  of 

tubs  and  stools  ........     4d. 

For  use  of  a  washing-tub  and  washing-stool  for  one  day     .         .      ijd. 
Watching  through  the  night  a  day's  washing  of  clothes      .         .      3d. 
Boiling  clothes  in  a  large  boiler       ......     8d. 

Three  pailfuls  of  warm  water  for  rinsing  .  .  .  .  .id. 

Any  citizen  might  have  bleached  clothes  on  the  Green  which  had 
been  washed  at  home  without  charges,  and  might  have  kindled  a 
fire  to  warm  water  in  pots  for  the  washings,  and  might  also  have 
washed  at  the  side  of  the  river  without  paying  any  dues  to  the 
tacksman. 

A  little  to  the  west  of  the  Washing- House  there  stood  on  the 
Green  (see  the  Plan)  the  celebrated  "Big  Tree"  so  often  mentioned 
by  our  Glasgow  historians,  under  whose  umbrageous  shelter  tradi- 
tion says  that  the  ladies  of  Glasgow  assembled  to  view  the  grand 
muster  of  the  wild  Highland  host  of  Prince  Charles  in  January 
1746. 

Our  learned  fellow -townsman.  Dr.  Mathie  Hamilton,  thus 
describes  the  Green  of  Glasgow  and  its  "  Big  Tree  "  as  the  same 
appeared  in  the  year  1800  : — 

"At  that  period  the  Low  Green  was  often  inundated,  and  presented 
various  inequalities  of  surface,  but  in  most  parts  of  it  was  seen  a  fine  coat  of 
verdure,  the  grass  being  long  and  well  adapted  for  grazing ;  also  many  stately 
trees  were  there  all  along  and  inside  the  wall  above  noted.  These  trees 
extended  from  the  gate  which  was  opposite  Saltmarket  to  the  commencement 
of  what  was  called  the  'Serpentine' walks  at  the  south  end  of  Charlotte  Street. 
These  walks  went  over  the  ground  on  which  Monteith  Row  is  now  built,  and 
on  towards  the  eastern  limits  of  the  Green,  and  were  much  used  as  a  prom- 
enade, giving  a  romantic  and  sylvan  aspect  to  this  favourite  place  of  resort. 
One  very  large  elm-tree  deserves  notice  here,  as  in  a  plan  of  the  Green, 
published  in  the  Glasgoxu  Magazine  in  1783,  the  site  of  that  once  celebrated 
tree  is  omitted.  It  stood  quite  alone  on  the  Laigh  Green,  in  front  of  the  old 
Washing- House,  and  at  the  bend  of  the  ancient  gravel  walk,  which  was 
between  the  Washing- House  and  the  tree,  the  latter  being  west  and  south 
from  the  entrance  through  the  Greendyke  from  Charlotte  Street.  That  tree 
was  distinguished  from  all  others  by  its  insular  position,  its  size,  and  its  being 
so  well  adapted  to  give  shelter  from  a  sudden  shower,  or  the  solar  rays.  It 
was  called  the  'Big  Tree,'  and  about  the  year  1800  it  was  an  ornament  pleas- 
ing to  behold,  when,  during  the  summer  months,  its  widespread  branches 
were  covered  with  dark-green  foliage.  This  once  famous  tree  afforded  cover 
for  a  fev/  minutes  to  General  Lord  Moira,  his  numerous  staff,  and  a  Guard  of 


156  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Honour,  on  the  day  of  the  grand  review  in  1804.  It  has  been  asserted  that 
the  said  ancient  tree  was  the  original  represented  in  the  city  arms,  but  this, 
of  course,  is  quite  apocryphal.  This  tree  being  in  a  state  of  decay,  and  being 
in  the  way  of  modern  improvement,  was  removed,  along  with  various  other 
relics  of  bygone  ages." 

The  Low  Green  of  Glasgow  was  not  only  the  usual  place  for 
holding  military  displays  and  reviews,  but  was  also  the  locality 
where  the  guilty  soldier  received  martial  punishment  for  his  trans- 
gressions, either  by  whipping  or  by  his  being  drummed  out  of  the 
regiment  as  a  rogue  and  a  vagabond,  unworthy  to  associate  with 
his  fellow-soldiers.  When  soldiers  were  punished  in  the  Green 
for  their  misdeeds  by  whipping,  the  executioner  was  generally  one 
of  the  drummers  of  the  regiment,  and  the  punishment  was  usually 
pretty  severe ;  more  so  than  the  whippings  of  the  Glasgow  hang- 
man inflicted  upon  those  condemned  at  our  Circuit  Courts  for 
theft  or  robbery. 

As  spectacles  of  military  floggings  caused  great  crowds  to 
assemble  in  the  Green  to  behold  the  delinquents  punished,  the  said 
spectacles  often  ended  in  riot  and  disturbance  to  the  public,  in 
consequence  of  which  it  became  necessary  and  usual  to  have 
military  whippings  inflicted  privately  in  the  Guard-house,  situated 
at  the  corner  of  the  Candleriggs. 

In  August  1750  a  serious  dispute  arose  between  the  Magis- 
trates and  citizens  of  Glasgow  on  the  one  part,  and  the  military 
then  quartered  in  Glasgow  on  the  other  part,  regarding  the  death 
of  a  soldier  who  was  found  dead  in  a  cornfield  near  the  New 
Vennel.  On  the  20th  of  August  17 50  a  Highland  soldier  was 
shot  in  the  Green  of  Glasgow  for  desertion.  On  this  occasion 
the  populace  of  the  city  appear  to  have  taken  the  part  of  the 
deserter,  and  to  have  been  on  bad  terms  with  both  the  officers 
and  privates  of  the  regiment  to  which  the  deserter  belonged. 
The  following  account  of  this  affair  is  taken  from  the  Scots  Maga- 
zine of  August  1750,  at  pages  395  and  449. 

On  the  20th  of  August  1750  John  M'Leod,  a  soldier,  was 
shot  at  Glasgow  for  desertion.  Two  others,  under  sentence  for 
the  same  crime,  were  first  reprieved,  and  afterwards  transported. 
On  this  occasion  some  ill  humour  arose  between  the  people  and 


MILITARY  DISPUTE.  157 

the  soldiers.  A  threatening  letter  unsigned,  was  sent  to  the 
Colonel  ;  some  soldiers  were  knocked  down  in  the  streets,  under 
night,  and  one  was  found  dead  in  a  cornfield  near  the  town  on 
the  23d.  On  notice  of  the  above  anonymous  letter,  the  Magis- 
trates by  a  proclamation  offered  ;^io  sterling  to  any  person 
who  should  discover  the  author  of  it ;  requiring  the  inhabitants 
to  behave  discreetly  to  the  soldiers,  and  promising  £10  sterling 
for  discovering  any  person  that  should  contravene  this  order. 
An  advertisement  was  published  in  the  G/asg-oza  Journal  of  August 
27  by  the  officers,  bearing  that  there  was  great  reason  to  believe 
that  Joseph  Kinnelly,  the  soldier  found  dead  as  above,  was  mur- 
dered by  persons  unknown,  and  offering  fifty  guineas  for  discover- 
ing the  murderer  or  murderers  ;  ten  guineas  for  discovering  the 
author  of  the  anonymous  letter  above  mentioned,  and  five  guineas 
for  discovering  any  person  that  had  been  or  should  be  guilty  of 
knocking  down  or  wounding  any  soldier.  P.S. — In  the  next 
Journal,  that  of  3d  September,  was  inserted  by  order  of  the 
Magistrates  the  following  report  signed  by  Messrs.  James  Stewart, 
surgeon's  mate  of  the  regiment,  and  James  Muir  and  John  Craw- 
ford,^ surgeons  in  Glasgow,  dated  23d  August,  and  addressed 
"To  Mr.  William  Weir,  Sheriff-substitute  for  the  Shire  of  Lanark," 


"  Sir — According  to  your  order  we  have  inspected  the  corpse  of  Joseph 
Kinnelly,  soldier,  and  found  no  marks  of  violence,  or  any  reason  to  say  he 
hath  been  murdered." 

This  produced  another  advertisement  in  the  papers  of  lOth 
September  signed  by  Col.  Will.  Herbert,  Lt.-Col.  Jo,  Gray,  Capt. 
Mark  Ranton  and  Rich.  Russell,  and  Lieut,  and  Adj.  Robert 
Gordon,  viz. — 

'•  Lest  the  world  may  imagine  from  the  report  of  the  surgeons  (above 
inserted),  that  the  Officers  of  the  Hon.  Col.  Herbert's  regiment  had  no  reasons 
for  their  advertisement  (above  mentioned),  they,  therefore,  pubhsh  the  follow- 
ing circumstances,  which  they  hope  the  impartial  world  will  think  were  sufficient 
grounds  for  said  advertisement,"  viz.  —  •'  It  is  notorious  that  a  most  unjust 
resentment  was  expressed  by  several  persons  in   Glasgow,  on  the  occasion  of 

1  This  gentleman  appears  to  have  been  fortunate  in  a  lottery  speculation.  Glasgmu 
Jojirjial,  3d  November  1755. — "  Last  week,  Mr.  John  Crawford,  Surgeon  in  Glasgow, 
had  a  prize  of  ;^50Q  in  the  present  lottery." 


158  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

the  execution  of  John  M'Leod,  late  a  soldier  in  the  aforesaid  regiment,  and  who 
was  shot  the  20th  of  August  last,  for  desertion  to  the  rebels  in  January  1745-6, 
which  resentment  has  manifestly  appeared ;  ist,  by  a  letter  directed  to  the  com- 
manding officer  of  said  regiment,  filled  with  scandalous  aspersions  and  threats, 
for  murdering  M'Leod,  as  the  writer  termed  it ;  2d,  by  several  soldiers  of  the 
regiment  being  knocked  down  in  the  streets  with  bludgeons,  the  evenings 
preceding  and  succeeding  the  day  on  which  Kinnelly  was  found  dead  in  a 
cornfield  near  to  the  town  ;  3d,  by  people  said  to  be  lying  in  wait  for  officers 
of  the  regiment,  and  their  lives  threatened  to  be  taken  away,  all  which  has 
appeared  by  the  oaths  of  several  persons ;  4th,  by  two  persons  that  fled  or 
absconded  upon  information  being  given  in  against  them  and  summonses 
issued  for  their  appearance  before  a  civil  magistrate  ;  lastly,  the  surgeons, 
upon  being  asked,  on  oath,  if  the  same  appearances  might  have  been  on  the 
body  of  the  deceased  if  he  had  been  murdered? — declared  that  they  might. 
And  though  none  of  these  appearances  determined  them  in  the  least  to  think 
the  man  was  murdered,  it  was  not  impossible  but  he  might  have  been  murdered 
notwithstanding.  All  which  makes  the  officers  continue  to  think  that  there  is 
great  reason  to  believe  that  Joseph  Kinnelly  was  murdered  ;  therefore  they 
repeat  the  reward  of  fifty  guineas,  as  expressed  in  the  Glasgow  Jotirnal  of  date 
the  27th  August  last." 

The  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  caused  insert  in  the  Glasgow  and 
Edinburgh  papers  the  following  answer  to  the  advertisement 
published  by  the  officers  of  Colonel  Herbert's  regiment : — 

"Glasgow,  17th  September  1750. — The  magistrates ^  are  extremely  con- 
cerned that  the  officers  of  the  Hon.  Col.  Herbert's  regiment  seemed  to  be 
impressed  with  a  belief  that  Joseph  Kinnelly,  late  soldier,  was  murdered,  and 
this  upon  evidence  which,  with  submission,  has  no  manner  of  weight.  The 
inhabitants  of  Glasgow  have  been  so  much  distinguished  for  their  attachment 
to  the  present  happy  Government  under  his  Majesty  (Geo,  H.),  and  have 
showed  such  respect  to  the  gentlemen  of  the  army,  that  they  see  with  amaze- 
ment the  necessity  they  are  under  of  justifying  themselves  in  a  public  manner, 
having  been  accused  in  a  printed  advertisement. 

"  There  rarely  happens  in  any  place  an  execution  of  criminals,  but  some 
people  are  wicked  enough  to  censure  the  justice  of  it ;  but  that  the  people  of 
Glasgow  should  express  any  resentment  that  a  deserter  to  the  rebels  should  be 
executed,  is  what  the  world  will  not  easily  believe.  They  appeal  to  the  honour 
and  consciences  of  their  accusers,  and  to  their  own  conduct  when  they  lay  at 
the  mercy  of  the  rebel  army  with  the  Pretender  at  its  head.  This  desertion 
was  a  fact  hardly  known  to  any  of  the  inhabitants  before  the  advertisement 
published  by  the  officers.     They  believe  this  is  the  first  time  that  ever  an 

^  John  Murdoch,  provost ;  Geo.  Black,  Wm.  Dunlop,  Thos.  Scott,  bailies  ;  George 
Murdoch,  dean  of  guild ;  Robert  Finlay,  convener  ;  the  latter  was  partner  of  the  Old 
Tannery  Co.,  and  when  master  of  work,  superintended  the  demolition  of  Mr.  Fleming's 
saw-mill. 


MILITARY  DISPUTE. 


59 


anonymous  letter  was  produced  as  an  evidence.  It  is  in  the  power  of  every 
person  living  to  write  such  a  letter  ;  and,  consequently,  at  that  rate,  in  the 
power  of  any  wicked  or  malicious  person  to  accuse  the  most  innocent.  Who 
is  there  that  can  be  protected  by  the  laws  of  the  land,  if  an  anonymous  letter  can 
rob  him  of  his  innocence  and  convict  him  of  the  basest  crimes  ?  The  magis- 
trates have  offered  a  reward  of  ^50  to  any  who  shall  discover  the  author  or 
accomplices  of  this  infamous  piece  of  malice. 

"  That  there  was  a  crowd  both  from  town  and  country  gathered  as  usual 
at  the  place  of  execution,  is  true  ;  some  of  whom  from  a  foolish  curiosity,  and 
the  narrowness  of  the  ground,  pressing  too  near  the  soldiers,  were  punished 
on  the  spot,  by  being  very  severely  beat  by  the  adjutant,  and  some  of  them  not 
of  the  lower  rank  of  people.  It  is  also  true,  that  there  have  been  squabbles 
between  the  soldiers  and  the  inhabitants,  which  in  populous  places  all  over  the 
kingdom  of  Great  Britain,  has  often  happened ;  and  if  the  magistrates  had  at 
that  time  had  notice  given  them  when  the  inquiry  was  made  before  the  sheriff, 
the  particulars  might  have  appeared  with  greater  clearness  and  impartiality. 
But  they  cannot  but  remark  an  affectation  of  using  the  word  bludgeon,  ^  an 
instrument  never  heard  of  by  the  inhabitants  of  Glasgow,  which  may  be  better 
known  to  the  common  soldiers,  yet  is  not  once  mentioned  in  the  precognition 
before  the  sheriffs.  If  the  magistrates  had  any  inclination  to  recriminate, 
they  could  easily  bring  proofs  of  many  insults  and  acts  of  violence  with  clubs 
and  otherwise,  committed  by  soldiers,  whose  names  are  unknown,  against  the 
inhabitants  and  even  the  constables,  whose  duty  it  is  to  make  their  rounds  at 
night  to  preserve  the  peace  ;  but  they  choose  rather  to  draw  a  veil  over  all 
circumstances  that  may  tend  to  inflame  these  unhappy  disputes. 

"  The  magistrates  are  at  a  loss  to  know  the  foundation  of  the  assertion, 
*  That  persons  were  lying  in  wait  against  officers.'  This  does  not  appear  in 
the  precognition,  though  taken  ex  parte. 

"  It  is  with  the  utmost  regret  the  magistrates  observe  that  one  Hamilton, 
said  to  be  living  in  the  country,  had  uttered  some  foolish  threatening  expres- 
sions with  the  regard  to  Col.  Herbert,  a  gentleman  of  great  honour  and  worth, 
and  for  whom  they  have  the  highest  respect.  They  never  heard  of  it  till  they 
saw  the  officers'  advertisement,  and  wish  they  had  been  acquainted  with  it 
sooner.  They  immediately  called  the  persons  said  to  be  present,  and  found  it 
was  one  Robert  Hamilton,  living  in  a  neighbouring  parish  in  the  country,  said 
to  be  very  drunk  at  the  time.  The  provost,  as  justice  of  the  peace  for  the 
shire,  instantly  issued  a  warrant  for  apprehending  and  imprisoning  him.  They 
are  told  he  left  the  country  about  three  weeks  ago.  The  strictest  inquiry  is 
making  for  him,  and  it  is  hoped  he  will  be  found,  and  punished  for  his  most 
wicked  expressions  ;  and  the  magistrates  have,  by  a  public  edict  through  the 
whole  streets  of  the  city,  offered  a  reward  of  ^50  to  any  who  shall  bring  proof 

^  Johnson  defines  the  word  "bludgeon,  a  short  stick  with  one  end  loaded."  Jamie- 
son,  in  his  Scottish  Dictionary,  has  not  the  word  bludgeon.  The  nearest  Scotch  word 
to  bludgeon  is  "cud,"  "a  strong  staff,"  a  "club";  but  a  club  is  not  a  stick  loaded  ^.i 
one  end,  but  crooked  at  one  end,  for  playing  at  the  shinty  or  golf.  The  Scotch  "  cud  " 
is  the  English  "  cudgel," 


i6o  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

of  threatening  expressions,  or  acts  of  violence  against  the  Colonel  or  any  of  his 
officers.  This  Hamilton  is  the  only  person  who  has  fled  or  absconded,  and  he 
is  not  an  inhabitant  of  the  city. 

"  As  to  the  supposed  murder  of  the  soldier,  the  magistrates  refer  to  the 
annexed  affidavits,  and  they  cannot  but  observe  that  if  the  report  of  the  sur- 
geons, viz. — '  That  it  was  not  impossible  but  that  he  might  have  been 
murdered,'  is  an  evidence  of  his  having  been  actually  murdered,  every  man  or 
woman  that  ever  died  or  shall  die  of  a  natural  death,  may  by  this  method  of 
evidence  be  proved  to  have  died  of  a  violent  one. 

"  The  magistrates  must  again  repeat  the  concern  they  are  under  on  being 
obliged  to  publish  their  opinion  of  this  whole  affair.  They  had  rather  choose 
merely  to  lay  the  case  before  his  Majesty's  servants ;  but  since  the  officers 
have  thought  fit  to  appeal  to  the  public  in  print,  the  magistrates  could  not  be 
answerable  to  the  inhabitants,  to  the  public,  or  to  themselves,  but  by  stating 
these  facts  and  observations  in  the  manner  they  have  done :  and  they  beg  leave 
to  express  as  great  a  detestation  of  disturbing  his  Majesty's  Government  as 
those  can  do  under  whose  bad  opinion  they  have  had  the  misfortune  to  fall. 
They  hope  they  have  given  no  offence — at  least  none  but  v/hat  the  laws  of 
God  and  man  have  vested  in  innocence.  They  are  so  fully  sensible  of  the  late 
favour  and  justice  they  obtained  from  his  Majesty,^  as  to  be  very  uneasy  under 
any  circumstances  tending  to  lessen  the  reputation  of  loyalty  and  zeal  for  all 
the  branches  of  his  Majesty's  authority,  which  they  flatter  themselves  they  had 
acquired,  and  which  they  will  ever  endeavour  to  deserve. 

'^Agjies  Weir's  Affidavit^  Sept.  s^/t,  1750. 

"  '  Agnes  Weir,  brewer  in  Glasgow,  examined,  declares — That  on  Thursday 
the  23d  of  August  last,  about  four  in  the  morning,  she  saw  Joseph  Kinnelly, 
soldier,  in  the  street  called  New  Vennel,  and  saw  him  knock  oftener  than  once 
at  the  door  of  John  M'Kean's  house,  where  she  was  told  he  lodged,  as  if  he 
wanted  to  get  in  ;  and  afterwards  saw  him  walk  down  the  Vennel  towards  the 
Dovehill,  where  she  heard  his  corpse  was  afterwards  found.  Declares — She 
saw  no  person  along  with  Kinnelly,  and  knows  not,  nor  did  she  observe  if  he 
was  in  liquor  or  not :  but  declares — About  five  of  the  clock  said  morning,  a 
soldier,  who  then  lodged  in  Robert  Ewing's,  and  who  was  going  to  make  brick, 
told  her  he  had  found  Kinnelly  among  the  corn,  and  that  he  was  dead  ;  and 
another  soldier,  who  lodged  in  the  same  house  with  Kinnelly,  upon  her  asking 
what  had  been  the  cause  of  Kinnelly's  death,  he  answered  that  Kinnelly  always 
tied  his  stock  too  strait,  and  that  he  had  not  been  in  his  quarters  for  two 
nights,  from  which  he  apprehended  he  (Kinnelly)  had  been  in  Hquor.  And 
this  she  declares  to  be  truth,  as  she  shall  answer  to  God;  and  depones  she 
cannot  write.'" 

^  In  1745-6  the  rebels  under  Prince  Charles  occupied  Glasgow  for  ten  days,  and 
their  exactions  in  money  and  goods  cost  the  city  upwards  of  ;i{^i5,ooo.  On  the  14th  of 
June  1749,  on  application  of  the  Magistrates  to  Parliament,  they  received  ;^  10,000  as 
remuneration  for  the  losses  they  had  sustained  during  the  Rebellion. 


MILITARY  DISPUTE.  i6i 


"  The  Surgeons'  Report^  affirmed  upon  oath. 

••♦At  Glasgow,  the  6th  day  of  September,  1750  years.  In  consequence 
of  a  petition  presented  to  the  Sheriff  of  Lanark  upon  the  3 1  st  of  August  last, 
by  James  Stewart,  surgeon  to  the  Hon.  Col.  Herbert's  regiment  of  foot,  presently 
quartered  in  Glasgow,  craving  to  the  effect  under  written  :  In  presence  of 
William  Weir,  sheriff-substitute  of  the  said  shire,  the  said  James  Stewart,  James 
Muir,  and  John  Crawfurd,  surgeons  in  Glasgow,  being  interrogated  upon  oath, 
they  each  of  them  depone  affirmative  to  a  report  made  and  signed  by  them,  and 
directed  to  the  said  sheriff-substitute,  upon  23d  of  August  last,  in  consequence  of 
an  order  directed  to  them  for  inspecting  the  corpse  of  Joseph  Kinnelly,  soldier 
in  the  forementioned  regiment,  deceased ;  and  being  interrogate,  at  the  desire 
of  Captain  Russell,  of  the  forementioned  regiment.  If  they  found  any  blotching 
about  Kinnelly's  neck,  or  under  any  of  his  ears  ?  they  depone — They  found  his 
neck,  shoulders,  and  sides  of  a  thickish  livid  colour,  and  more  remarkably  upon 
the  one  side  of  his  face  and  neck  than  on  the  other,  which  they  imagined  pro- 
ceeded from  that  being  the  most  depending  part  of  his  body  at  the  time  of  or 
soon  after  his  death.  And  depone — That  before  they  inspected  the  corpse,  the 
body  had  been  moved  out  of  the  posture  in  which  the  defunct  was  at  the  time  of 
his  death :  but  depone — They  were  told  by  a  soldier  at  the  time  they  inspected 
the  corpse  that  he  had  found  the  corpse  with  his  head  inclining  aside,  and  rather 
lower  than  the  rest  of  his  body  ;  and  being  interrogate,  at  the  desire  of  the  lord 
provost  of  Glasgow  (John  Murdoch,  Jun.,  Esq.),  Whether  in  the  course  of  their 
practice  they  have  not  seen  dead  bodies  of  a  livid  colour,  such  as  Kinnelly's  was 
at  the  time  of  their  inspection,  when  the  person  deceased  had  neither  been 
strangled  nor  murdered  t  depone  affirmative;  and  that  it  is  common  for  the  body 
to  be  most  livid  on  the  part  most  depending  at  the  person's  expiring,  or  soon 
after.  And  being  interrogate  by  Adj.  Gordon,  Whether  the  same  appearances 
might  not  have  been  on  Kinnelly's  body  if  he  had  been  murdered  ?  and  whether 
they  can  say  he  was  not  ?  they  depone — That  the  same  appearances  might  have 
been  upon  the  body  of  Kinnelly  had  he  been  murdered,  but  that  none  of  these 
appearances  in  the  least  determined  them  to  think  that  he  was  murdered ;  and 
it  is  not  impossible  but  he  might  have  been  murdered  notwithstanding  :  for 
from  the  inspection  of  any  corpse  whatsoever,  they  cannot  say  it  is  impossible 
that  they  were  murdered.  And  being  further  interrogate  by  the  lord  provost. 
Whether  in  their  opinion  Kinnelly's  death  did  not  proceed  from  some  other 
cause  than  his  being  either  strangled  or  murdered  ;  the  said  James  Muir  and 
John  Crawfurd  severally  depone — That  in  their  opinion  Kinnelly's  death  pro- 
ceeded from  some  other  cause  than  his  being  strangled  or  murdered  :  and  the 
said  James  Stewart  depones — That  when  he  first  saw  the  body  of  Kinnelly,  it 
had  the  appearance  of  a  person  that  had  been  strangled  ;  but  that  he  cannot 
say  but  the  appearance  might  proceed  from  another  cause.  And  the  premises 
they  depone  to  be  truth,  as  they  shall  answer  to  God.' " 

(^N.B. — An  order  was   soon  after   issued  for   this  regiment's 
marching  to  England.) 

VOL.  III.  M 


CHAPTER  X. 

Four  orphans  in  1 741 — M'Call's  Black  House — Prince  Charlie  in  Glasgow  in  1745 — 
His  appearance  described — Review  of  his  host — The  Glasgow  Royal  Volunteers  in 
1778 — Mutiny  at  Leith — Collision  between  Magistrates  and  J.P.'s — Recruiting  as 
practised  in  1778 — Population  and  Mortality  Bill  of  Glasgow  in  1777. 

It  is  extremely  unpleasant,  in  loose  jottings  of  the  present 
description,  to  make  any  allusion  to  family  matters  ;  but  as  the 
following  anecdotes  have  reference  to  the  ancestors  of  several 
individuals  to  whom  the  citizens  of  Glasgow  are  greatly  indebted, 
not  only  for  their  public  services,  but  also  for  the  liberal  use  of 
their  purses  on  every  occasion  when  pecuniary  assistance  has  been 
needed,  I  hope  that  my  apology  for  introducing  the  subject  will 
be  forgiven. 

When  Prince  Charles,  with  his  rebel  host,  arrived  in  Glasgow 
in  1745,  and  when  the  foregoing  dispute  between  the  Magistrates 
of  Glasgow  and  the  military  took  place  in  1750,  there  lived  by 
themselves  four  young  misses  in  their  paternal  mansion  at  the 
the  corner  of  the  Cow  Loan  and  Westergate.  This  dwelling  was 
an  old-fashioned  house  of  two  storeys  and  offices,  with  an  extensive 
back  garden,  stretching  a  considerable  way  up  the  Cow  Loan, 
now  Queen  Street,  and  embracing  a  large  portion  of  Miller  Street. 
It  was  then  a  rural  spot,  being  separated  from  the  city  by  the 
West  Port,  and  only  a  few  thatch  houses  and  malt-kilns  lay 
scattered  along  the  Westergate,  many  of  which  remained  there  to 
my  day. 

The  mother  of  these  four  misses  died  in  1739,  immediately 
after  having  given  birth  to  the  youngest  of  them,  and  their  father 
died  in  1741. 


M 'CALL'S  BLACK  HOUSE.  163 

The  eldest  of  these  four  misses  at  the  time  of  their  father's 
death  was  only  in  the  thirteenth  year  of  her  age,  and  the  youngest 
an  infant  of  two  years  old.  Many  of  our  citizens  remember  well 
the  site  of  the  dwelling  of  these  four  misses  at  the  south  corner 
of  Queen  Street.  The  trustees  of  the  said  four  misses  sold  the 
property  to  Samuel  M'Call  (bailie  in  1723),  who  built  his  large 
mansion  on  it,  commonly  known  as  "  M'Call's  Black  House " — 
one  of  the  finest  specimens  in  Glasgow  of  the  old  Virginia  lord's 
dwellings.  The  stones  of  which  it  was  built  were  dug  from  the 
Black  Quarry,  which  stones  turn  black  on  exposure  to  the  action 
of  the  atmosphere.  A  very  accurate  representation  of  Mr.  M'Call's 
Black  House,  with  its  forty  windows,  and  projecting  double  stair, 
as  the  same  stood  in  1794,  is  seen  in  Stuart's  Views  of  Glasgow,  at 
page  104.  Mr.  M'Call's  house  was  purchased  by  a  Mr.  Glen,  who 
demolished  it  to  make  room  for  the  present  south-east  corner 
tenement  of  Queen  Street ;  and  again  this  corner  tenement,  having 
been  found  insecure  by  the  Dean  of  Guild  Court,  has  just  under- 
gone a  curious  and  scientific  alteration,  by  which  the  sunk  and 
ground  floors  have  been  taken  down  and  rebuilt,  while  the  three 
upper  flats  remained  intact  during  the  whole  process  of  rebuilding 
the  lower  ones,  thus  exhibiting  a  fine  specimen  of  masonic  skill. 

The  property  in  the  Westergate,  at  the  north-west  corner  of 
Dunlop  Street,  extending  westward  to  Turner's  Court,  also  be- 
longed to  these  four  sisters,  and  was  let  to  Mr.  Miller  of  Wester- 
ton  for  his  extensive  malting  establishment.  The  trustees  of  the 
said  four  sisters  sold  the  corner  stance  to  Bailie  John  Shortridge 
about  the  middle  of  last  century,  on  which  stance  Mr.  Shortridge 
erected  the  large  corner  tenement  of  Dunlop  Street  now  known 
as  "  Shortridge's  Land." 

I  remember  about  seventy  years  ago  the  west  part  of  this 
property,  which  had  been  let  to  Mr.  Miller  of  Westerfon  for  malt 
kilns  and  barns,  still  standing  between  Shortridge's  Land  and  the 
now  Turner's  Court.  A  century  ago  it  formed  part  of  my  mater- 
nal grandfather's  estate,  which  had  descended  to  his  four  daughters 
above  mentioned. 

Our  learned  antiquarian  citizen,  John  Buchanan,  Esquire,  in 
Glasgow,  Past  and  Present,  vol.  i.,  pages  5  i  3,  5  14,  has  given  us  an 


1 64  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

interesting  account  of  this  property,  in  the  course  of  explaining 
how  the  north  entry  to  Dunlop  Street  came  to  be  formed  in  so 
narrow  and  unsightly  a  manner.  The  property,  now  87  Stock- 
well,  was  also  the  inheritance  of  these  four  misses.  It  consisted 
of  fourteen  dwelling-houses,  all  of  which  were  burned  down  in  one 
night,  and  not  insured.     They  stood  opposite  Stockwell  Place. 

But  to  return  to  the  four  misses  who,  after  the  death  of  their 
father  in  1741,  continued  to  keep  house  together,  under  the  able 
management  of  their  eldest  sister,  then  little  more  than  twelve 
years  of  age. 

When  Prince  Charles  and  his  Highland  host  came  to  Glasgow 
in  1745  the  eldest  sister,  Agnes,  was  then  sixteen  years  of  age  ; 
the  second,  Isabella,  fourteen  ;  the  third,  Elizabeth,  twelve ;  and 
the  youngest,  Janet,  seven  years  of  age.  On  the  arrival  of  the 
rebels  in  1745,  two  Highland  soldiers  were  quartered  upon  these 
four  defenceless  misses,  living  together  with  a  servant,  out  of  the 
bounds  of  the  city,  and  without  a  male  protector  residing  in  their 
dwelling  to  whose  support  they  could  have  applied  in  case  of 
insult  or  wanton  rudeness.  The  soldiers  so  quartered  on  the  said 
misses  were  two  poor  ragged  creatures  without  shoes  or  stockings, 
who  could  not  speak  a  word  of  English  ;  but  fortunately  they 
were  very  civil,  and  gave  little  trouble  to  the  misses,  who  on  their 
part  treated  them  kindly.  All  that  these  soldiers  required  was  a 
bed,  and  liberty  to  dress  their  meals  at  the  kitchen  fire,  which 
meals  consisted  almost  wholly  of  oatmeal  porridge  and  barley 
bannocks.  Many  of  the  Highland  soldiers,  however,  at  this  time 
plundered  the  citizens  of  their  effects,  without  the  lieges  being 
able  to  obtain  any  redress.  As  an  instance  of  military  violence 
in  Glasgow  at  this  time  it  may  be  stated  that  a  Highland  soldier, 
having  met  a  joiner  on  the  public  street  going  to  his  work  with 
his  hammer  in  his  hand,  took  a  fancy  to  the  joiner's  glittering 
shoe  buckles,  and  insolently  proceeded  to  take  possession  of  them 
by  force  ;  but  while  the  soldier  was  stooping  down  and  unloosing 
the  buckles  from  the  joiner's  shoes,  the  latter  resisted  the  attempt, 
and  with  a  sudden  blow  on  the  plunderer's  head  with  his  hammer, 
knocked  him  down,  and  then  instantly  fled,  without  waiting  to 
see  whether  the   blow  had  been   fatal  or  not,      Such  robberies 


FOUR  GLASGOW  YOUNG  LADIES.  165 

were  common  by  the  Highlanders  when  not  in  presence  of  their 
officers. 

As  to  the  four  misses,  Agnes  the  eldest  of  them,  and  the 
house  manager,  became  the  grandmother  of  our  late  Lord  Provost, 
Sir  Andrew  Orr,  and  his  immediate  agnates,  also  of  Mrs.  Bell, 
wife  of  David  Bell,  Esq.,  etc. 

Isabella,  the  second  of  them,  became  the  grandmother  of 
James  Smith,  Esq.,  of  Jordanhill,  of  Lord  Provost  William  Smith, 
of  Dean  of  Guild  William  Brown,  and  of  William  Euing,  Esq., 
and  the  great-grandmother  of  Sheriff  Smith,  etc.  Elizabeth,  the 
third  of  the  said  sisters,  was  my  mother,  who  has  left  a  numerous 
race  of  descendants  now  alive,  upwards  of  fifty  in  number.  Janet, 
the  youngest,  became  proprietor  of  Greenlaw,  now  the  General 
Terminus.  She  married  her  cousin,  Francis  Reid  of  Greenlaw, 
but  left  no  issue. 

All  these  four  sisters  respectively  lived  in  Glasgow  till  they 
became  matrons  of  eighty-three  to  eighty-five  years  of  age,  and 
one  of  their  daughters  reached  the  great  age  of  loi  years.  The 
rebels  entered  Glasgow  on  the  25  th  December,  and  my  mother 
informed  me  that  she  had  had  a  good  opportunity  of  seeing  the 
different  Highland  regiments  while  they  lay  in  Glasgow  during 
the  Rebellion  of  1745,  as  her  place  of  residence  was  then  situated 
at  the  south-east  corner  of  the  Cow  Loan  (now  Queen  Street), 
and  as  detachments  of  these  regiments  marched  daily  along  the 
Westergate,  and  turned  up  the  Cow  Loan,  immediately  before 
the  door  of  the  above-mentioned  four  sisters,  and  then  proceeded 
eastward  by  the  Back  Cow  Loan  (now  Ingram  Street),  thereby 
making  a  circuit  through  the  central  parts  of  the  city.  My  mother 
further  mentioned  to  me  that  one  day  when  Prince  Charles  was 
marching  at  the  head  of  one  of  these  detachments,  she  stood  so 
close  to  him  that  she  could  have  touched  him  with  her  hand. 
She  also  stated  that  he  was  a  handsome  good-looking  man,  but 
that  his  countenance  appeared  rather  sombre  and  melancholy.  I 
remember  when  a  boy  that  we  had  a  bust  of  Prince  Charles 
standing  in  our  lobby,  but  it  having  received  some  damage,  was 
laid  aside,  and  I  never  could  learn  what  became  of  it. 

While  in  Glasr^ow,  Charles  lived  in  the  house  of  John  Glassford 


i66  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

of  Dougalston,  situated  in  the  Trongate,  fronting  Stockwell  Street, 
which  splendid  seat  had  formerly  been  the  celebrated  Shawfield 
Mansion.  The  large  garden  (now  Glassford  Street)  connected 
with  it  on  the  north  had  an  entry  into  the  Back  Cow  Loan,  which 
remained  entire  down  to  my  day.  The  Chevalier  having  extorted 
from  the  citizens  a  heavy  levy  of  shirts,  shoes,  hose,  waistcoats, 
and  bonnets,  and  having  new  clothed  his  ragged  troops  with  them, 
he  treated  the  inhabitants  of  Glasgow  with  a  grand  review,  on 
the  Green  of  the  city,  of  his  newly-clothed  ragamuffins,  who 
marched  to  the  Green  by  way  of  the  Saltmarket,  in  splendid 
military  array,  with  colours  flying,  drums  beating,  and  the  skirling 
notes  of  the  Highland  piobaireachd  resounding  from  the  pipes  of 
every  clan.  On  the  next  day,  being  the  3d  of  January  1746, 
the  Prince  with  his  motley  crew  evacuated  Glasgow,  to  the  great 
joy  of  its  inhabitants,  who  almost  to  a  man  were  hostile  to  them.^ 
On  the  1st  of  July  1778,  there  was  another  grand  review  on 
the  Green  of  Glasgow  of  the  "  Glasgow  Royal  Volunteers  ;"  a 
military  display  most  gratifying  to  all  ranks  of  the  inhabitants  of 
the  city,  who  took  the  greatest  interest  in  the  welfare  of  these 
voluntary  militants. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  2d  July  1778. — "On  Tuesday  evening  Major-General 
Skene  arrived  in  town,  and  yesterday  (ist  July),  he  reviewed  in  the  Green  the 
Glasgow  Royal  Volunteers.  The  General  was  highly  pleased  with  the  appear- 
ance of  the  regiment,  and  expressed  his  warmest  acknowledgments  to  Lieut. - 
Col.  Fotheringham  and  the  other  officers  for  their  having  brought  such  a 
number  of  men  in  so  short  a  time  so  forward  in  their  exercise  as  to  be  nothing 
short  of  veteran  troops.  The  exactness  with  which  they  performed  their 
different  manoeuvres  received  the  General's  high  approbation,  and  gave  great 
satisfaction  to  a  vast  crowd  of  spectators.  The  corps  was  about  900  strong, 
and  only  one  or  two  rejected.  After  the  review  the  General  gave  an  elegant 
entertainment  to  the  magistrates  of  the  city,  and  many  other  gentlemen." 

When  we  see  the  present  lamentable  state  of  starvation  of  the 

1  The  Glasgow  Volunteers  fought  against  the  rebels  at  the  battle  of  Falkirk  on  the 
17th  January  1746,  and  suffered  greatly  that  day,  the  Highlanders  being  inveterately 
hostile  to  them  upon  old  scores.  Francis  Crawfurd,  Esq.,  afterwards  deacon  convener, 
the  grandfather  of  George  Crawfurd,  Esq.,  carried  the  colours  of  the  volunteers  at  this 
memorable  battle,  and  Henry  Monteith,  a  country  gardener,  the  grandfather  of  the  late 
Provost  Henry  Monteith  of  Carstairs,  M.P.,  joined  the  Glasgow  regiment,  and  was 
present  at  the  battle  of  Falkirk,  where  he,  along  with  every  member  of  that  loyal  regi- 
ment, behaved  most  valiantly,  though  unsuccessfully. 


THE  GLASGOW  ROYAL  VOLUNTEERS. 


167 


handloom  weavers  of  Glasgow,  it  is  curious  to  look  back  to  the 
old  times,  when  these  industrious  operatives,  in  place  of  receiving 
public  assistance,  liberally  subscribed,  of  their  own  accord,  a 
handsome  contribution  towards  the  fund  for  raising  the  regiment 
of  the  "  Glasgow  Royal  Volunteeers." 

"Glasgow,  January  8th  1778. — The  subscription  for  raising  troops  in 
support  of  Government  goes  on  with  great  alacrity,  and  the  following  letter, 
addressed  to  the  lord  provost,  from  a  few  journeymen  weavers,  will  show  the 
ardent  loyalty  of  this  place. 

'At  Glasgow,  January  5th  1778,  present, 
James  Ewing,  preses,  David  Jack,  collector, 
Robert  Miller,  John  Aitken,  James  Aitken,  James  Marshall,  John  Robertson, 
Alexander  Brown,  William  Boyle,  WiUiam  Esson,  Wm.  Hunter,  Alexander 
Provan,  James  Bell,  Thomas  Buchanan,  Daniel  M'Farlane,  and  George  Shaw, 
of  the  'Old  North  Quarter  Society'  of  journeymen  weavers  in  Glasgow,  offer 
their  compliments  to  your  lordship,  the  lord  provost  of  Glasgow,  and  hope  you 
will  accept  of  the  small  sum  of  fifty  pounds  sterling,  in  name  of  our  society,  as 
a  testimony  of  loyalty  to  Government,  and  a  hearty  concurrence  with  your 
lordship's  laudable  proposal  to  raise  a  regiment  by  the  city  of  Glasgow,  to 
serve  his  Majesty  as  the  exigency  of  the  affairs  shall  require.  We  beg  to  know 
of  your  lordship  when  the  money  will  be  called  for,  and  in  what  manner;  and 
we  will  give  it  for  the  above  purpose,  but  for  none  other  whatever. — My  lord, 
we  are  your  lordship's  humble  and  obedient  servants,  James  Ewing,  preses.'" 

The  subscription  to  raise  the  regiment  of  the  Royal  Glasgow 
Volunteers  commenced  early  in  January  1778,  and  we  find  that 
in  less  than  a  week  upwards  of  ;^50oo  had  been  subscribed  for 
that  purpose. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  8th  January  1778. — "Besides  the  generous  and  ample 
subscriptions  from  many  private  gentlemen,  for  raising  the  Glasgow  regiment, 
public  bodies  have  subscribed  the  sums  following — 


1  ne  \-uy  oi  oiabguw 
The  Trades'  House 

500 

Hammermen 

200 

Tailors 

400 

Cordiners 

300 

Maltmen 

300 

Bakers 

200 

Wrights 

200 

Coopers 

100 

Weavers 

200 

Skinners 

100 

Barbers 

100 

1 68  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Gardeners      .          .          .         .          .          .         .  ^loo 

Masons          .......  loo 

Bonnet  Makers  and  Dyers       ....  20 

Fleshers         .         .         .         .          .-         .         .  350 


Ia^to 


The  Faculty  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  100  guineas,  and 
the  Faculty  of  Procurators  1 00  guineas ;  Lord  Frederick  Campbell, 
member  for  the  district  of  boroughs,  ;^5oo  ;  and  by  the  21st  of 
January  the  sums  subscribed  amounted  to  ^9600. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  29th  January  1778. — "The  Honourable  Major-General 
Alexander  Leslie,  now  in  America,  Lieut. -Col.  of  the  64th  regiment,  and 
brother  to  the  Earl  of  Leven,  is  appointed  Colonel  of  the  Glasgow  regiment. 
Alexander  Fotheringham  Ogilvie,  Esq.,  Lieut.-Col.  by  brevet  from  the  25th 
regiment,  is  appointed  Lieut.-Col.  ;  and  Mr.  James  Butters,  Sergeant-Major 
of  the  25th,  is  appointed  Adjutant." 

"On  Friday  evening  last  (23d  January  1778),  about  eleven  o'clock,  the 
adjutant  of  the  Glasgow  Volunteers  arrived  here,  and  brought  recruiting  orders ; 
in  consequence  of  which,  the  magistrates  and  inhabitants,  actuated  by  that 
zeal  for  the  honour  and  prosperity  of  their  country,  which  has  on  many  former 
occasions  distinguished  this  loyal  city,  eminently  exerted  themselves  in  pro- 
moting the  present  business.  On  Monday,  at  noon,  the  bells  were  set  a 
ringing  ;  the  magistrates  and  town  council,  the  deacons  of  the  fourteen  incor- 
porated trades,  and  a  great  number  of  gentlemen,  convened  in  the  council 
chamber,  from  whence  the  following  procession  began. 

1.  The  city  sergeants  to  clear  the  way. 

2.  The  magistrates. 

3.  The  adjutant  of  the  regiment. 

4.  The  colours,  borne  by  two  young  gentlemen,  supported  by  other  two 

with  guns  and  fixed  bayonets. 

5.  The  sergeants  of  the  regiment. 

6.  Two  young  gentlemen  playing  on  fifes. 

7.  Two  young  gentlemen  beating  drums  (one  of  whom  was  John  Wardrop, 

Esq.,  the  uncle  of  William  Euing,  Esq.) 

8.  A  gentleman  playing  on  the  bagpipes  (James  Finlay,  the  father  of  Kirk- 

man  Finlay,  Esq.) 

9.  The  members  of  the  town  council,  the  late  deacon  convener  (John  Craig), " 

the  present  convener  (Hugh  Niven,  being  at  London),  and  the  deacons 
of  the  fourteen  corporations,  three  and  three. 
I  o.  The  sovereign  of  the  Cape  Club,  supported  by  two  of  the  members. 
1 1.  A  great  number  of  gentlemen  with  cocades  in  their  hats. 

"  When  the  procession  reached  the  guard  house  (corner  of  Candleriggs) 
where  the  first   proclamation  for  volunteers   was  made,  the   party  of  the  2d 


THE  GLASGOW  ROYAL  VOLUNTEERS. 


69 


battalion  of  Royal  Scots,  who  were  on  guard,  turned  out  and  presented  their 
arms  during  the  time  of  the  proclamation,  and  while  the  procession  passed. 
After  they  had  paraded  through  the  lower  part  of  the  town,  they  went  up  the 
High  Street  as  far  as  the  College,  and  returned  and  continued  the  procession 
to  the  Saracen's  Head  Inn,  in  the  Gallowgate,  where  an  elegant  entertainment 
was  prepared  for  them.  After  regaling  themselves  for  some  time,  and  having 
ordered  several  casks  of  porter  to  be  given  to  the  populace,  who  were  assembled 
about  a  large  bonfire,  kindled  upon  the  occasion,  the  procession  again  began 
with  torch  light,  and  an  additional  band  of  music.  The  whole  windows  of  the 
city  were  immediately  lighted,  the  great  bells  set  a  ringing,  and  thousands  of 
loyal  people  enjoyed  the  military  parade  with  great  satisfaction.  A  consider- 
able number  of  recruits  were  enlisted  for  the  regiment  that  evening.  Miss 
Mary  Ann  Leslie,  only  child  of  General  Leslie,  (Col.  of  the  volunteers),  has 
ordered  ^200  stg.  to  be  subscribed  in  her  name  towards'  completing  of  that 
regiment.  Above  ^10,000  are  subscribed,  and  the  subscription  is  still  going 
forward. 

Contributions  from  Individuals. 


Lord  Fred.  Campbel 

,  M.P. 

;^5oo 

0 

0 

William  Clark 

£S2 

10 

0 

Hon.  Miss  Leslie 

200 

0 

0 

Richard  Marshall       . 

50 

0 

0 

Robert  Donald,  lord 

provost 

105 

0 

0 

Ronald  Crawford 

50 

0 

0 

Peter  Murdoch 

105 

0 

0 

William  Donald 

50 

0 

0 

Robert  Findlay,  jr. 

105 

0 

0 

Jonathan  Anderson    . 

50 

0 

0 

James  Brown,  sen. 

105 

0 

0 

James  Jackson 

50 

0 

0 

George  Crawford 

100 

0 

0 

Peter  Blackburn 

50 

0 

0 

William  French 

100 

0 

0 

John  Robertson 

50 

0 

0 

Patrick  Colquhoun 

100 

0 

0 

John  Laurie 

50 

0 

0 

George  Miln     . 

100 

0 

0 

John  Duguid     , 

50 

0 

0 

John  Clark        . 

100 

0 

0 

Andrew  and  John  Stirling 

50 

0 

0 

George  Miller,  sen. 

100 

0 

0 

James  M'Dowall 

50 

0 

0 

John  Orr 

52 

10 

0 

Dugald  Thomson 

50 

0 

0 

James  Findlay  &  Co 

52 

10 

0 

John  Wardrop  . 

so 

0 

0 

Andrew  Houston 

52 

10 

0 

James  M'Gregor 

50 

0 

0 

The  oth 

ers  under  ^50. 

Total 

sums  subscribed,  ;(flo,2l2 

15s." 

The  regiment  was  fully  equipped  in  the  spring  of  1778,  and 
in  April  1779  they  were  ordered  on  foreign  service.  Upon  the 
occasion  of  a  mutiny  of  the  Fraser  Fencibles,  the  Glasgow  regiment 
volunteered  to  march  to  Leith  to  suppress  this  mutiny  by  force, 
although  they  knew  that  they  would  have  to  contend  against  a 
well-disciplined  Highland  regiment,  and  that  the  Glasgow  regiment 
had  received  only  a  year's  drill.  Their  services,  fortunately,  were 
not  required,  as  the  following  extract  shows  : — 

•'Glasgow,  April  1779.— The  first  division  of  the  Glasgow  regiment 
marched  from   Dundee  on  Monday,  and  the  last  division   on  Tuesday,   for 


170  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Burntisland,  in  order  to  embark  on  board  the  transports  lying  there  ready  to 
receive  them." 

Ruddimafi's  Weekly  Mercury,  Edinburgh,  2ist  April  1779. — "Friday, 
arrived  in  Leith  Road,  his  Majesty's  ship,  Hydra,  of  20  guns,  Captain  Lloyd, 
with  five  transports,  for  the  Glasgow  regiment. 

«'  A  most  tragical  affair  happened  yesterday,  at  Leith,  In  the  forenoon, 
about  50  Highlanders,  enlisted  as  recruits  for  the  42d  and  71st  regiments, 
now  in  America,  arrived  at  Leith  in  order  to  be  put  on  board  one  of  the 
transports  lying  in  the  road.  Being  impressed  with  an  opinion  that  they  were 
destined  for  Minorca,  along  with  the  Glasgow  regiment,  and  that  they  were 
not  obliged  to  serve  in  any  other  corps  than  those  for  which  they  were  enlisted, 
they  refused  to  go  on  board.  Notwithstanding  every  attempt  was  made  to 
convince  them  of  their  mistake,  they  persisted.  It  was  then  thought  necessary 
to  apply  force  in  place  of  expostulations,  and,  accordingly,  five  companies  of 
the  Duke  of  Buccleuch's  Fencibles  marched  down  to  Leith,  a  little  before  five 
o'clock,  headed  by  their  proper  officers.  The  Highlanders  were  formed  in  a 
line  along  the  houses  opposite  to  the  ferry-boat  stairs,  and  the  Fencibles  very 
cautiously  divided  into  three  parties.  One  marched  by  the  sands  and  came 
to  the  pier  to  the  northward  of  the  windmill ;  another  entered  the  street  by  the 
timber  bush,  and  the  third  marched  along  the  pier  opposite  to  the  Highlanders. 
Seeing  themselves  thus  hemmed  in,  they  presented  their  pieces  with  fixed 
bayonets.  Captain  Mansfield  advanced  to  them,  and  taking  one  of  them  by 
the  shoulder,  began  to  expostulate  with  him,  drawing  him  a  little  out  of  the 
line,  when  the  rascal  stabbed  him ;  another  fired  immediately,  and  the  ball 
lodging  in  his  head,  he  instantly  dropped  down  dead.  Upon  seeing  Captain 
Mansfield  fall,  the  Fencibles  were  enraged,  and  immediately  fired  on  the 
mutineers,  on  which  a  dismal  carnage  ensued.  About  23  of  the  Highlanders 
fell,  of  which  8  were  killed  outright,  and  the  wounded  were  brought  up  in  carts 
and  sent  to  the  Infirmary,  two  of  whom  died  by  the  way,  four  have  died  since, 
and  most  of  the  wounded  are  despaired  of.  Of  the  Fencibles,  one  sergeant 
and  two  private  men  of  the  grenadiers  were  killed,  and  several  desperately 
wounded.  The  remainder  of  the  mutineers  were  directly  brought  up  to  the 
Castle,  under  a  guard.  The  worthy  Captain  Mansfield  is  greatly  regretted, 
especially  as  he  has  left  an  amiable  widow,  and  five  or  six  children.  (He  was 
the  son  of  Mansfield  the  banker.)" 

The  Highlanders  were  intended  to  be  incorporated  with  the 
Glasgow  regiment,  which  regiment  afterwards  became  the  83d  of 
the  line. 

At  the  time  when  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  were  using  their 
utmost  endeavours  to  raise  recruits  for  the  Glasgow  regiment,  the 
following  curious  case  of  disputed  jurisdiction  between  them  and 
the  justices  of  the  peace  for  Lanarkshire  occurred,  which  ended  in 
the  discomfiture  of  the  city  authorities  : — 


MILITARY  DISPUTE.  171 

Glasgow  Mercury^  2d  July  1778. — "  Edinburgh,  June  30th. — Thursday 
last,  came  to  be  determined  before  the  Court  of  Session  a  cause  at  the  instance 
of  William  M'Indoe,  barber  and  hair-dresser  in  Glasgow,  against  Major  William 
Cowley  and  Ensign  Hugh  Wallace,  of  the  2 2d  regiment  of  foot.  As  every 
cause  regarding  the  recruiting  service  is  at  all  times  interesting,  and  as  it  must 
appear  peculiarly  so  at  a  period  like  the  present,  we  shall  endeavour  to  collect 
all  the  particulars  with  respect  to  this,  and  lay  them  before  our  readers,  with 
as  much  brevity  as  possible. 

"Upon  the  21st  of  February  1777,  M'Indoe,  being  much  intoxicated  with 
liquor,  met  with  Ensign  Wallace  at  a  puppet  show  in  Glasgow,  where  he  asked 
him  the  loan  of  a  shilling.  This  Mr.  Wallace  refused.  From  the  puppet  show, 
Mr.  Wallace,  with  some  of  his  companions,  went  to  a  mason  lodge ;  and 
M'Indoe  followed  them  through  the  streets,  still  insisting  for  the  loan  of  a 
shilling.  He  even  followed  them  into  the  mason  lodge,  though  not  a  mason, 
and  persisted  in  his  demand.  Mr.  Wallace,  being  thus  teazed  with  him,  said 
that  if  he  would  take  the  shilling  in  the  King's  name,  he  should  have  it.  This 
at  first  M'Indoe  refused  ;  but  at  last  told  him  he  would  take  it  in  the  King  and 
Queen's  name,  and  took  the  shilling.  It  appears  he  was  at  this  time  so  very 
drunk,  that  those  who  were  appointed  to  examine  him  in  another  room  could 
not  discover  whether  he  was  a  mason  or  not.  He  soon,  however,  became  so 
very  riotous  and  offensive,  that  he  was  by  force,  and  with  a  good  deal  of 
indignity,  turned  out  of  doors.  From  this  time  M'Indoe  continued  going  every 
day  about  his  business  as  usual,  without  receiving  any  trouble  or  molestation, 
till  Wednesday  the  1 9th  of  March,  that  he  was  apprehended  by  a  sergeant  and 
a  party  of  soldiers,  who,  alleging  that  he  had  some  weeks  before  enlisted  with 
Ensign  Wallace,  immediately  carried  him  before  one  of  the  bailies  of  Glasgow. 
Having  been  brought  there,  and  asked  the  usual  questions  with  regard  to 
enlisting  and  attesting,  he  denied  that  he  ever  had  done  the  one,  and  would 
never  do  the  other.  He  was,  notwithstanding,  immediately  committed  to 
prison.  In  this  situation  he  remained  till  the  21st,  when  he  was  brought  from 
prison  to  the  council  chamber,  before  another  of  the  bailies.  Ensign  Wallace 
being  also  present.  The  same  questions  were  put  to  him  on  this  occasion  as 
the  former,  and  the  same  answers  returned.  The  taking  the  shilling  at  the 
mason  lodge  was  then  mentioned ;  but  he  answered  that  he  was  drunk  at  the 
time,  that  he  took  it  in  a  joke,  and  that  he  did  not  expect  any  gentleman  would 
put  a  bite  on  him.  The  bailie  observed,  he  would  answer  very  well  for  a 
soldier,  and  immediately  ordered  him  back  to  prison.  Here  he  lay  till  about 
nine  at  night,  when  the  ensign,  with  a  sergeant  and  corporal,  came  and  desired 
the  jailer  to  deliver  him  over  to  them  ;  but  the  jailer  refused,  ui'til  he  should 
have  a  warrant  from  a  magistrate  for  that  purpose.  Upon  this  Mr.  Wallace 
went  to  the  bailie,  who  sent  for  the  jailer,  and  ordered  him  to  deliver  over 
M'Indoe  ;  but  having  desired  a  written  warrant,  the  bailie  answered,  that  he 
having  been  verbally  imprisoned,  he  ordered  him  verbally  to  be  delivered  over 
to  the  ensign.  The  jailer  returned  and  communicated  the  bailie's  order  to 
M'Indoe,  who  refused  to  go ;  upon  which  the  sergeant  and  corporal  having 
seized  him,  carried  him  forcibly  out  of  prison,  the  ensign  having  given  a  receipt 


172  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

for  him  to  the  jailer.  He  was  accordingly  carried  from  the  prison  to  the 
military  guard -house  (corner  of  Candleriggs),  where  he  was  kept  in  close 
confinement  till  next  morning,  and  carried  off  by  the  same  kind  of  violence  to 
the  town  of  Hamilton,  in  order  to  be  passed  by  Colonel  Hugonine,  a  field- 
officer.  Next  day  he  was  carried  back  to  Glasgow,  set  at  liberty,  and  allowed 
to  return  to  his  own  house. 

"  Upon  the  morning  of  the  24th  M'Indoe  applied  by  petition  to  the  justices 
of  the  peace  of  the  county  of  Lanark,  praying  for  redress  ;  which  having  been 
presented  to  James  Ritchie,  Esq.,  of  Craigton,^  one  of  their  number,  he  granted 
warrant  for  bringing  before  him  the  sergeant  and  corporal  complained  upon,  in 
order  to  be  examined  ;  and  appointed  the  petition  to  be  intimated  to  Ensign 
Wallace,  requiring  him  to  give  answers  thereto  within  twenty-four  hours  of  the 
service :  and  in  the  meantime  prohibited  and  discharged  Ensign  Wallace  and 
all  other  officers,  civil  and  military,  from  confining  the  person  of  M'Indoe,  or 
any  way  molesting  him  on  account  of  the  pretended  enlistment,  until  the  issue 
of  the  cause. 

"  A  great  deal  of  procedure  was  had  before  the  justice  of  the  peace,  after 
which  a  proof  was  allowed,  and  taken  for  both  parties  ;  and  upon  advising  the 
whole,  Mr.  Ritchie  pronounced  a  most  distinct  and  pointed  interlocutor,  finding 
M'Indoe  was  not  an  enlisted  soldier,  and  prohibiting  and  discharging  all 
officers,  civil  and  military,  from  molesting  or  troubling  him  on  account  of  the 
pretended  enlistment  alleged  against  him.  Upon  the  i  5th  of  April,  however, 
while  the  parties  were  assembled  before  the  justice  to  hear  ■  his  sentence 
pronounced,  the  house  was  surrounded  by  town  officers  and  soldiers  ;  and  no 
sooner  had  M'Indoe  been  discharged,  and  come  out  to  go  to  his  own  house, 
than  he  was  seized  by  a  party  of  town  officers^  in  virtue,  as  they  said,  of  a 
warrant  or  order  granted  by  Bailie  French,"^  upon  a  petition  or  application  of 
Capt.  Cowley,  setting  forth  M'Indoe  to  be  a  deserter.  He  was  immediately 
carried  to  the  town  clerks'  ^  chamber  of  Glasgow,  where  he  was  told  he  must 
remain  till  further  orders.  While  in  this  situation  he  formally  required  the 
town  officers,  in  presence  of  a  notary  and  witnesses,  to  acquaint  him  by  what 
authority  he  was  a  prisoner ;  and  they  having  thereupon  produced  Capt. 
Cowley's  petition,  with  the  order  or  warrant  thereon  by  Bailie  French,  he 
required  them  to  give  him  a  copy  thereof.  This  the  officers  refused  to  do. 
M'Indoe  then  required  them  to  imprison  him  in  terms  of  the  warrant ;  but 
they  likewise  refused  :  and  notwithstanding  every  effort  to  the  contrary,  he  was 
forcibly  carried  to  the  Castle  of  Stirling,  where  he  was  committed  as  a  prisoner. 
Thus  deprived  of  liberty,  and  confined  by  military  force  in  a  fortress,  M'Indoe 
applied  for  redress  to  the  Court  of  Session,  by  bill  of  suspension  and  liberation. 
The  bill,  with  answers,  came  to  be  advised  by  two  of  the  Lords  on  the  6th  of 


1  In  1775  Mr.  Ritchie  built  the  large  mansion  in  Queen  Street  which  was  purchased 
for  ^5000  by  Mr.  Kirkman  Finlay  for  his  town  residence ;  and  its  site  is  now  occupied 
by  the  National  Bank. 

2  William  French  was  Provost  of  Glasgow  in  1778  and  1779.  He  was  ruined  by 
the  American  War  of  Independence,  and  his  estates  sequestrated  in  1787. 

3  The  town-clerks  were  Archibald  M 'Gilchrist  and  John  Wilson  senior. 


MILITARY  DISPUTE.  173 

May  1777,  who  passed  the  same,  upon  M'Indoe  finding  caution  to  the  extent 
of  ^50  sterling  to  sist  himself  in  Court  at  any  time  during  the  dependence  of 
discussing  the  suspension  ;  and  of  consent  of  Major-General  Skene,  for  Captain 
Cowley  and  Ensign  Wallace,  appointed  M'Indoe  to  be  set  at  liberty.  He  was 
accordingly  set  at  liberty  upon  the  9th  of  that  month,  caution  having  been 
found. 

"  M'Indoe  likewise  brought  an  action  before  the  Court  of  Session  con- 
cluding against  Ensign  Hugh  Wallace,  Captain  William  Cowley,  Bailie  George 
Crawford,^  and  Bailie  William  French,  conjunctly  and  severally,  for  damages 
and  expenses. 

"  Both  actions  came  before  Lord  Gardenston,  as  Ordinary,  in  July  last, 
who,  upon  the  5th  of  August  following,  conjoined  them.  His  lordship  at  the 
same  time  found  that  there  was  no  sufficient  evidence  that  M'Indoe  was  either 
fairly  enlisted  or  duly  attested,  and  therefore  suspended  the  letters  simpHciter, 
and  decerned:  but  with  respect  to  M'Indoe's  claim  of  damages,  made  avis- 
andum  therewith  to  the  whole  Lords,  in  order  to  be  reported :  and  appointed 
informations  to  be  given  in  to  the  Lords  by  the  respective  parties. 

"  Two  representations  were  offered  on  the  part  of  Captain  Cowley  and 
Ensign  Wallace  to  the  Lord  Ordinary,  both  of  which  were  refused  without 
answers  ;  after  which  a  reclaiming  petition  was  preferred  to  the  whole  Lords, 
and  it  was  upon  this  petition  and  answers  for  M'Indoe  that  the  Lords  came  to 
pronounce  judgment  on  Thursday  last. 

"  Few  of  their  Lordships  delivered  any  opinion  upon  the  matter,  but  those 
who  did,  coincided  entirely  with  the  sentiments  of  the  Lord  Ordinary,  and 
expressed  a  proper  detestation  of  the  idea  of  enlisting  of  a  man  who  was 
totally  deprived  of  his  senses,  which  it  plainly  came  out  in  proof  was  the  case 
of  this  pursuer.  They  did  not  enter  into  the  question  whether  the  twenty-four 
hours  mentioned  in  the  Mutiny  Act,  in  which  a  man  was  to  declare  his  dissent 
and  lodge  the  smart  money,  commenced  from  the  time  within  the  four  days  in 
which  they  are  to  be  carried  before  a  justice  of  peace  or  magistrate.  There 
was  no  occasion  for  such  a  disquisition  in  the  present  case.  The  law  requires 
that  the  person  enlisted  shall  be  carried  before  the  justice  or  magistrates,  un- 
less he  absconds.  M'Indoe,  it  was  evident  from  the  proof,  did  not  abscond  ; 
he  every  day  went  about  his  ordinary  business  ;  and  he  was  so  far  from  hav- 
ing been  carried  before  a  justice,  that  he  never  received  the  smallest  intima- 
tion to  the  purpose  till  the  afternoon  oi  Xho.  fourth  day,  when  a  most  indistinct 
message  was  left  with  his  apprentice  boy,  and  he  never  heard  more  about  the 
matter  for  the  space  of  three  weeks  thereafter.  They  were  unanimous  in 
affirming  the  interlocutor  of  the  Lord  Ordinary,  and  likewise  in  allowing 
M'Indoe  expenses,  an  account  of  which  they  allowed  him  to  give  in. 

*'  (The  action  of  damages  has  not  yet  come  before  the  court.)" 

I  have  not  been  able  to  learn  anything  further  regarding  this 

1  Mr.  George  Crawford  built  the  large  mansion  at  the  head  of  Queen  Street,  which 
was  purchased  by  James  Ewing  of  Strathleven  for  ,^5000.  It  is  now  the  site  of  the 
Edinburgh  and  Glasgow  Railway  depot. 


174 


OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 


action  of  damages,  and  therefore  suppose  that  it  had  been  com- 
promised ;  but  had  it  taken  place  in  modern  times  it  would  have 
afforded  a  fine  opportunity  of  showing  the  workings  of  jury  trial. 
In  1777  Glasgow  contained  a  population  of  38,000  inhabit- 
ants ;  and  if  we  calculate  by  the  returns  of  the  mortality  bills  of 
the  times,  it  had  been  gradually  decreasing  during  the  previous 
five  years.  This  decrease  was  probably  caused  by  the  dispute 
with  our  American  colonies,  which  contest  at  this  period  had 
nearly  annihilated  the  foreign  commerce  of  the  city,  and  ruined  a 
great  portion  of  her  enterprising  merchants. 


Bill  of  Mortality  for  the  City  of  Glasgow  and 

Suburbs 

FOR  THE  Year  1777. 

Men  .     .     202  ^ 

(  Males, 

548) 

Children       581  j 

J            and 
f  Females, 

V  Decrease  this  year,  37. 
576J 

Interred  in  the  year  1772,     . 

.     1579. 

^77Z,     . 

•      1319.— 

Decreased, 

.     260 

»             »             1774,     ■ 

1200. — 

M 

.     119 

»             1775.     . 

.     1173.— 

,, 

.       27 

1776,     . 

.      ii6i. — 

» 

12 

^777,     ' 

1124. — 

j> 

.       37 

Last  five  years  decreased, 
Gorbals — Males,  81  ;  Females,  83  ;  in  all,  164 
Anderston  — „       29;         „         45;       „        88 
In  Glasgow,       11 24 


Total  of  Glasgow  and  Subm-bs, 


1376 


55 


In  these  calamitous  circumstances  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow, 
on  the  17th  of  January  1778,  forwarded  a  loyal  address  to  his 
Majesty,  in  which  they  state  that  "  the  constitutional  liberty  and 
the  rights  of  mankind  being  still  trampled  upon  by  your  rebel- 
lious subjects  in  America,  we  beg  leave  in  the  most  humble  manner 
to  represent  to  your  Majesty,  that  we  think  vigorous  and  speedy 
efforts  ought  to  be  made  in  order  to  restore  peace  to  your  American 
colonies  ;  and  that  for  this  end  we  are  ready  to  raise  a  regiment 
of  men,  to  be  employed  in  such  a  manner  as  your  Majesty  shall 
be  pleased  to  direct,"  etc. 


CONSTITUTIONAL  LIBERTY.  175 

The  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  at  this  time  seem  to  have  been 
very  touchy  about  the  constitutional  liberty  and  rights  of  man 
having  been  trampled  upon  by  the  Americans,  but  they  appear 
to  have  lost  sight  of  such  high-flown  phrases  when  they  them- 
selves wished  to  secure  a  good  recruit  in  the  person  of  M'Indoe 
the  barber. 

There  can  be  little  doubt  but  the  Magistrates  and  citizens  of 
Glasgow  were  induced  to  raise  the  Glasgow  regiment  for  the  ex- 
press purpose  of  its  being  sent  to  America  to  assist  in  quelling 
the  revolt  of  the  colonists,  whose  mutiny  had  caused  such  disas- 
trous consequences  to  the  commercial  and  manufacturing  interests 
of  the  city. 


CHAPTER  XI. 

Injury  to  the  trade  of  Glasgow  by  the  American  War — Sale  of  Merkdailly  Lands — 
Opening  of  Charlotte  Street — St,  James's  Square — Barrowfield — Bowling  Green 
and  the  Archers'  Butts — Struther's  Brewery — First  brewing  of  porter  in  Glasgow 
— Lawsuit  in  regard  to  it — List  of  Brewers  summoned  before  the  Justices  in  1777 
— Printfield  at  Fleshers'  Haugh — Favourite  bathing-place — First  person  baptized 
by  immersion  in  Clyde. 

At  this  time  some  important  changes  occurred  in  the  history  of 
Glasgow,  which,  as  they  took  place  in  my  day,  may  be  briefly 
alluded  to.      Denholm,  at  page  407,  thus  writes  : — 

"  The  American  War  was  a  dreadful  stroke  to  Glasgow.  All  commercial 
intercourse  was  put  a  stop  to  betwixt  it  and  that  country  ;  and  as  the  fortunes 
of  many  of  the  merchants  were  embarked  in  that  trade,  and  America  deeply 
indebted  to  them,  it  proved  the  ruin  of  great  numbers  who  before  reckoned 
themselves  possessed  of  independent  fortunes." 

At  page  423  he  adds  : — 

"  From  the  American  War,  which  for  a  time  diminished,  and  it  was  feared 
would  ruin  the  trade  of  Glasgow,  the  most  solid  advantages  have  arisen  to  its 
inhabitants,  by  their  industry  being  more  especially  directed  than  before  to  the 
prosecution  of  manufactures." 

Kincaid,  who  published  his  History  in  1787,  alluding  to  the 
Popery  riots  of  1779  and  1780,  says  : — 

"The  year  1779  must  be  for  ever  remarked  in  the  annals  of  Scotland,  on 
account  of  disturbances  the  most  extraordinary  that  could  be  imagined  to 
have  taken  place  in  this  country  at  such  a  period,"  etc. 

As  I  have  taken  notice  of  these  riots  in  Glasgow,  in  Glasgoiv, 
Past  arid  Present,  vol.  ii.  p.  263,  I  need  not  here  repeat  them. 
It  was  also  at  this  time  that  the  lands  of  Merkdailly  and  St. 


THE  MERKDAILLY  LANDS.  177 

Andrew's  Square,  in  the  environs  of  the  Low  Green  of  Glasgow, 
came  into  the  market  for  sale,  which  was  followed  by  the  Magis- 
trates and  Town  Council  of  Glasgow  feuing  the  grounds  of  the 
Ramshorn  for  a  new  town.  These  progressive  steps  soon  made 
the  city  to  put  on  quite  a  new  face. 

When  the  Plan  which  accompanies  the  present  jottings  was 
drawn  up  in  1760  the  lands  of  Merkdailly  were  garden  grounds, 
for  the  sale  of  vegetable  produce,  and  let  at  the  rent  of  365 
merks  Scots  (i^20  :  5  :  5  sterling)  per  annum  ;  hence  arose  the 
name  of  Merkdailly.  These  lands  came  into  the  market  for  sale 
in  the  year  1777  : — 

Glasgow  Journal.,  14th  August  1777. — "  Merkdailly  Yard  building  ground. 
— To  be  sold,  in  lots,  for  house  steadings,  the  grounds  lying  on  the  south 
side  of  the  Gallowgate  of  Glasgow,  known  by  the  name  of  '  Merkdailly.'  As 
this  ground  fronts  the  Green,  and  lyes  so  near  the  Cross  of  Glasgow,  it  is  a 
most  convenient  as  well  as  pleasant  situation  for  houses.  The  purchase 
money  will  be  converted  into  a  ground  annual  rent,  if  any  of  the  purchasers 
find  it  inconvenient  to  pay  the  price. — For  further  particulars,  apply  to  Patrick 
Robertson,  writer  in  Glasgow." 

No  sale  appears  to  have  taken  place  at  this  time,  as  we  find 
the  said  lands  again  advertised  for  sale  in  1780  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury.,  17th  February  1780. — "  Ground  for  building  to  be  sold. 
— That,  upon  Wednesday,  ist  of  March,  1780,  there  is  to  be  sold,  by  public 
roup,  within  the  house  of  Mr.  Buchanan,  vintner,  Saracen's  Head,  Glasgow, 
that  piece  of  ground  in  Merkdailly,  in  the  Gallowgate  of  Glasgow,  which 
belonged  to  the  deceased  Robert  Cullen,  Esq.,  of  Parkhead,  and  now  to 
William  Cullen,  Esq.,  his  son.  The  progress  of  writs  and  conditions  of  sale 
will  be  seen  in  the  hand  of  Thomas  Buchanan  of  Boquhan,  writer  in 
Glasgow." 

Mr.  Archibald  Paterson,  then  a  partner  with  David  Dale, 
became  the  purchaser  of  the  Merkdailly  lands,  and  immediately 
proceeded  to  open  a  street  through  their  whole  extent,  from  the 
Gallowgate  to  the  Low  Green  of  Glasgow,  which  street  he  named 
'  Charlotte  Street,"  in  honour  of  her  then  Majesty,  Queen  Charlotte. 

Our  learned  antiquarian  citizen,  John  Buchanan,  Esq.,  has 
given  us  the  following  interesting  particulars  regarding  the  former 
state  of  the  said  Merkdailly  lands  : — 

"In  a  curious  old  MS.  plan,  dated    1771,  Merkdailly  is  there  stated  to 
VOL.  III.  N 


178  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

measure  4  acres,  2  roods,  and  7  ells,  and  represented  as  covered  with  trees. 
On  its  westmost  boundary  there  were  three  small  properties,  belonging  re- 
spectively to  Mr.  Moodie,  Miss  Wallace,  and  Mr.  Hutcheson,  all  lying  at  the 
back  of  what  was  then  St.  Andrew's  Kirk-yard.  [These  may  be  seen  in  the 
Plan  now  annexed.]  A  substantial  stone  wall  enclosed  the  orchard  on  the 
east  and  south,  but  on  the  west  and  north,  hedges  separated  it  from  several 
small  adjoining  subjects.  One  of  the  properties  bounding  Merkdailly  on  the 
north  was  the  back  yard  of  the  East  Sugar  House  ;i  another,  the  garden 
behind  the  tenement  of  Mr.  Peter  of  Crossbasket,  which  faced  Gallowgate, 
and  had  a  large  brass  knocker  on  the  street  door ;  and  a  third  was  the  green 
at  the  back  of  the  town  house  of  Mr.  Aitcheson  of  Roughsolloch.  What  is 
now  called  Green  Street  was  then  an  old  lone  running  outside  the  orchard 
dyke,  and  is  marked  on  the  map  as  'the  back  of  the  dykes  road.' " 

This  old  road  passed  the  Episcopal  Chapel  of  St.  Andrew's, 
facing  the  Green,  the  first  edifice  of  that  kind  erected  in  Glasgow 
(in  Scotland)  after  the  Revolution,  and  long  known  by  the  some- 
what contemptuous  epithet  of  the  "  Whistlin'  Kirk." 

It  seems  worth  while  to  note  some  further  particulars  about 
the  property  of  Merkdailly.      In  ancient  times  it  formed  part  of 

^  This  building  still  exists,  and  exhibits  a  curious  relic  of  Glasgow  architecture  in 
olden  time.  There  is  a  representation  of  it  in  Stuart's  Views  of  Glasgow,  at  page  98, 
and  its  delineation  on  the  Plan  herewith  annexed  is  shown  as  bounding  the  Merkdailly 
lands  on  the  north.  M'Ure,  at  page  282,  informs  us  that  the  Easter  Sugar-work  was 
built  about  the  year  1669,  and  the  business  successfully  carried  on  by  Provost  Peadie, 
Bailie  George  Bogle,  Bailie  John  Luke,  goldsmith,  John  Graham,  Esq.,  of  Dougalston, 
and  Robert  Cross,  treasurer  of  the  burgh.  All  the  great  manufactories  of  Glasgow  at 
this  time  were  carried  on  by  joint -stock  companies,  consisting  of  the  wealthiest  mer- 
chants of  the  city.  Robert  M'Nair,  a  grocer  in  King  Street,  in  order  to  be  on  a  par 
with  those  great  aristocratic  concerns,  assumed  his  wife  as  his  partner,  and  transacted  his 
business  under  the  firm  of  Robert  M'Nair,  Jean  Holmes,  and  Co.      (M'Ure,  210.) 

The  Easter  Sugar-house  having  come  into  the  market  for  sale,  it  was  with  no  little 
astonishment  that  the  public  heard  of  plain  Robert  M  'Nair,  Jean  Holmes,  and  Co.  buy- 
ing up  the  great  concern  of  the  Easter  Sugar-house,  which  had  required  the  joint  stock 
of  five  of  our  wealthiest  merchants  to  carry  on.  On  the  occasion  of  Mr.  M'Nair  making 
the  purchase,  some  satirical  saws  and  ludicrous  songs  were  composed,  and  freely  cir- 
culated amongst  all  ranks  of  the  city,  such  as — 

"  Wha  would  have  thocht  it. 

That  M'Nair  could  have  bocht  it?" 
"You're  welcome  to  the  Sugar  House, 
Robin  M'Nair, 
You're  welcome  to  the  Sugar  House, 

Robin  M'Nair. 
How  is  your  sister  Bell? 
And  how  is  Jean  Holmes  hersel', 
Robin  M'Nair?"  etc. 

Robert  M'Nair  died  at  Glasgow  in  June  1779,  aged  seventy-six. 


THE  MERKDAILLY  LANDS  179 

an  almost  forgotten  croft,  the  name  of  which  is  rarely  seen  in  old 
papers.  It  was  called  "  Eaglesholm  Croft,"  and  extended  from  the 
Saltmarket  eastward  to  Burnt  Barns,  and  from  the  Gallowgate 
south  to  the  Green,  including,  of  course,  the  area  of  what  is  now 
St  Andrew's  Square. 

As  far  back  as  the  reign  of  Charles  II.,  Merkdailly  belonged 
to  John  Luke  of  Claythorn,  goldsmith,  and  at  the  union  was  the 
property  of  his  son,  who  in  old  deeds  is  described  by  the  soubri- 
quet of  "  Bristol  John." 

After  passing  through  a  variety  of  intermediate  owners  it 
became  vested,  about  1780,  in  the  person  of  Archibald  Paterson, 
merchant.  Some  years  previous  to  his  purchase  an  attempt  had 
been  made  to  open  up  a  street  from  the  Gallowgate  to  the  Low 
Green  of  Glasgow,  by  agreements  among  the  small  proprietors  on 
the  north  side  of  Merkdailly,  as  well  as  the  owners  of  that  large 
space  of  ground,  whereby  each  proprietor  should  contribute  a 
certain  breadth  of  ground  for  the  said  purpose.  It  was  then 
intended  to  have  formed  a  square  on  the  Merkdailly  lands,  with  a 
street  leading  to  it  from  the  Gallowgate  ;  the  former  was  to  have 
been  named  "  St  James's  Square,"  after  the  King's  palace  in  Lon- 
don. The  plan  of  this  projected  improvement  is  shown  in  the 
old  map  appended  to  Gibson's  History  of  Glasgow ;  but  the 
scheme  was  not  successful ;  some  of  the  parties,  indeed,  went  the 
length  of  commencing  to  build  houses  at  certain  points  on  the 
line,  but  had  to  abandon  them  on  account  of  pecuniary  difficulties 
and  otherwise.  After  Mr.  Paterson  purchased  the  Merkdailly 
lands  he  entered  into  arrangements  with  proprietors  to  the  north 
for  the  proper  formation  of  the  new  street,  to  be  called  Charlotte 
Street ;  but  in  order  to  complete  his  plan  he  was  obliged  to  pur- 
chase two  properties  at  the  Gallowgate  Mouth. 

Had  Mr.  Paterson  laid  off  his  purchase  in  a  manner  the  most 
suitable  for  his  own  pecuniary  advantage,  he  might  have  made  a 
fortune  by  parcelling  out  the  Merkdailly  lands  into  various  streets, 
leading  from  the  north  to  the  south,  and  from  the  east  to  the 
west,  and  crossing  each  other  with  as  little  loss  of  building  ground 
as  possible.  On  the  contrary,  however,  to  such  an  arrangement, 
every  house  at  the  south  end  of  Charlotte  Street  was  laid  off  with 


i8o  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

an  extensive  garden  attached  to  it,  by  which  a  large  portion  of 
the  said  lands  became  back  ground  of  Httle  value  for  building 
purposes.  Besides  which,  Mr.  Paterson  had  introduced  into  the 
conveyances  of  the  building  stances  a  variety  of  very  stringent 
rules  and  conditions,  relating  to  the  shape,  size,  and  position  of 
the  houses,  and  even  to  the  style  of  their  external  ornaments. 
The  gardens  also  were  guarded,  for  preservation,  by  a  variety  of 
strictly  prohibitive  clauses, 

I  remember  of  having  gone  into  the  garden  of  Mr.  Paterson's 
own  house,  situated  next  to  that  of  Mr.  David  Dale,  and  was 
amused  to  find  that  Mr.  Paterson  had  formed  a  number  of  recesses 
in  his  garden  wall,  for  the  purpose  of  enticing  birds  to  build  their 
nests  in  them,  and  in  one  of  these  recesses  I  saw  the  nest  of  a 
robin  redbreast,  with  eggs  in  It ;  and  the  old  gentleman  was  more 
proud  of  the  robin's  nest  than  of  all  the  fine  aristocratic  houses 
which  adorned  his  lands. 

In  consequence  of  the  great  loss  of  building  ground  caused 
by  the  annexation  of  such  large  gardens  to  the  houses  at  the  south 
portion  of  Charlotte  Street,  Mr.  Paterson  derived  little  or  no  profit 
from  his  purchase  of  the  Merkdallly  lands.  This,  however,  gave 
him  no  concern,  as  It  was  not  the  expectation  of  realising  large 
gains  that  had  induced  him  to  enter  into  the  speculation  ;  but  an 
earnest  desire  to  Improve  the  eastern  district  of  Glasgow,  which  so 
greatly  required  amelioration.  Mr.  Patferson  consulted  his  then 
partner,  Mr.  David  Dale,  regarding  the  purchase  and  laying  out 
of  the  Merkdallly  lands,  and  had  the  approval  of  that  gentleman 
to  all  the  measures  which  he  adopted  on  the  occasion  in  question.^ 

^  Mr.  Archibald  Paterson  was  a  modest  unassuming  man,  of  primitive  manners,  and 
of  great  piety.  He  held  strict  orthodox  views  in  religious  matters,  and,  along  with  Mr. 
David  Dale  and  a  few  others,  was  the  founder  in  Glasgow  of  the  congregation  called 
"The  Old  Independents."  Mr.  Paterson,  at  his  own  expense,  built,  in  the  Grammar 
School  Wynd,  a  church  for  this  associated  body  of  dissenters,  and  charged  them  only 
£io  of  rent  for  the  said  church,  which  contained  500  seats.  This  rent  barely  paid  for 
the  necessary  annual  repairs  of  the  building. 

Mr.  Paterson  occasionally  spoke  in  this  church,  by  way  of  exhortation,  to  his  brethren 
and  hearers  ;  but  Mr.  David  Dale  was  the  original  pastor  or  minister  of  the  congregation. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Smith  of  Newburn,  and  the  Rev.  Mr.  Ferrier  of  Largo,  in  Fifeshire, 

secessionists  from  the  Established  Church  of  Scotland,  having  come  to  Glasgow  on  a 

visit,  preached  for  several  Sundays,  while  in  Glasgow,  in  the  above-mentioned  church  of 

Old  Independents,  on  which  occasions  some  wag  posted  a  placard  on  the  church  door — 

««  Preaching  here,  by  David  Dale,  Smith,  and  Ferrier  !  !  !" 


THE  BARROWFIELD  BOWLING  GREEN  AND  LANDS.   i8i 

The  lands  lying  to  the  north-east  of  Merkdailly  appear 
anciently  to  have  been  a  croft  consisting  of  about  2-|-  acres,  and 
came  to  form  part  of  the  Barrowfield  estate,  possessed  formerly  by 
the  Walkinshaws  of  that  ilk.  On  the  east  of  this  croft  there  was 
a  narrow  road  called  "  St.  Mungo's  Lone"  or  the  "  Burnt  Barns," 
which  led  into  the  Low  Green  of  Glasgow.     (See  Plan.) 

The  Barrowfield  estate  having  been  purchased  by  the  first 
John  Orr  (grandfather  of  Town-Clerk  John  Orr),  he  formed  a 
bowling-green  as  an  appendage  to  his  dwelling,  situated  in  the 
immediate  neighbourhood. 

M'Ure,  at  page  323,  thus  describes  Mr.  Orr's  mansion  and  his 
bowling-green  : — 

"  Barrowfield  Bowling  Green  and  Butts  for  Archers.  There  is  a  beautiful 
lodging  and  pertinents  thereof,  and  a  curious  bowling  green  at  the  back  there- 
of, for  the  diversion  of  gamsters  at  bowling  hereintill,  and  a  stately  pair  of 
butts  for  accommodating  the  archers  of  our  city  thereat,  and  other  gentlemen 
adjacent ;  all  well  fenced  and  inclosed  by  John  Orr  of  Barrowfield,  Esq.,  lying 
betwixt  his  village  of  Calton  and  the  east  part  of  Glasgow." 

The  BarroAvfield  estates  having  descended  to  John  Orr,  the 
town-clerk,  on  the  death  of  his  father,  William  Orr,  on  the  4th  of 
May  1775/  and  the  affairs  of  the  former,  having  become  em- 
barrassed, were  placed  under  the  management  of  trustees,  in 
consequence  of  which  the  property  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
bowling  green  came  into  the  market  for  sale. 

Glasgow  Journal,  8th  December  1763. — "To  be  sold,  by  voluntary  roup, 
all  and  whole  that  slated  tenement  in  Calton  of  Glasgow,  with  yeard,  waste 
ground,  malt  kiln,  barn,  and  other  houses  at  the  back  thereof,  together  with  a 
brewerie  and  sundry  dwelling  houses  to  the  south  of  said  yeard,  some  of  which 
houses  front  the  new  street  of  Calton  ;  and  the  said  subjects  and  waste  ground 
reach  all  the  way  from  the  old  toll  house,  southward  to  the  said  new  street, 
and  may  be  profitably  converted  into  a  lane,  from  the  toll-bar  to  the  new  street 
aforesaid,  with  buildings  on  either  side  of  the  same.  As  also,  three  tenements 
of  dwelling  houses  in  the  wide  closs,  in  the  Calton,  lying  near  to  the  above 
subjects  in  the  east,  with  the  half  of  the  foulzie  of  that  closs,  and  the  whole  of 
other.  N.B. — Almost  all  the  said  subjects  are  held  by  old  feu  charters, 
subject  to  no  burdens  excepting  a  small  feu-duty,  and  being  free  from  all  cess, 

1  The  first  John  Orr  died  in  1 744,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  William  Orr, 
whose  death  is  thus  no\:\z(i^.—Scots Magazuie,  1755.— "4th  ^^^y-  ^'^^^  ^^  Barrowfield, 
near  Glasgow,  William  Orr  of  Barrowfield,  Esq. " 


1 82  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

ladles,  multers,  two  pennies  on  the  pint  duty,  and  all  other  taxations,  and 
burdens  whatever ;  sundry  kinds  of  business  may  be  undertaken  on  the 
premises  with  uncommon  advantage. 

"  Apply  to  William  Wilson,  writer  to  the  signet,  or  to  Js.  Buchanan,  jr., 
writer." 

Glasgozv  Journal  30th  October  1766. — "To  be  sold,  by  public  roup, 
within  the  house  of  John  Barron,  vintner  in  Glasgow,  on  the  4th  of  November 
next,  The  Inn,  with  stables  and  pertinents,  possest  by  said  John  Barron,  lying 
upon  the  south  side  of  the  Gallovvgate  Street  in  Glasgow,  with  a  brewerie  and 
malt  loft  adjoining  thereto,  and  a  tenement  of  houses  adjoining  to  the  said 
Inn,  upon  the  east  side  thereof.  Together  with  a  large  garden  and  bowling 
green  at  the  jback  of  the  same,  containing  about  two  acres  of  ground,  or 
thereby,  very  fit  for  steadings  of  houses  fronting  to  the  west,  south,  and  north. 
The  rental,  progress,  and  a  plan  of  the  grounds  to  be  seen  in  the  hands  of 
Robert  Barclay,  or  James  Graham,  writers  in  Glasgow,  with  whom  or  with  the 
proprietor  proposals  may  be  made  for  bargains  by  private  sale." 

The  mansion-house  of  Barrowfield,  situated  in  this  neighbour- 
hood consisted  of  a  large  tenement,  having  a  garden  attached  to 
it  of  an  acre  and  a  half,  and  three  acres  of  pasture  ground. 
Besides,  there  were  above  twenty  acres  of  lands,  in  tillage,  around 
the  mansion  and  connected  therewith. 

The  property  advertised  for  sale  as  above  (30th  October 
1766)  was  purchased  in  June  1767  by  Mr.  John  Struthers,  who 
was  visitor  of  the  maltmen  in  1764  and  1765.  He  greatly 
enlarged  the  brew-house  works  and  pertinents  on  the  south  parts 
of  his  purchase,  and  occupied  the  tenement  which  fronted  the 
Gallowgate  as  his  dwelling-house.  It  was  here  that  Mrs. 
Kirkman  Finlay  and  Mrs.  M'llquham  or  Meiklem,  his  daughters, 
were  born.  Alexander  Struthers  Finlay,  Esq.,  M.P.  for  Argyll- 
shire, is  the  grandson  of  Mr.  Struthers,  and  was  named  for  his 
uncle,  Alexander  Struthers,  visitor  of  the  maltmen  in  1803  and 
1804,  whose  brewery  (now  in  dwelling-houses)  was  situated  near 
to  Anderston. 

After  the  death  of  Mr.  Struthers,^  his  eldest  son,  John 
succeeded  to  the  brewery  and  its  pertinents  ;  but  he,  having 
fallen  into  bad  health,  left  this  country,  under  the  medical  charge 

^  Glasgow  Mcrciny,  4th  January  17S1. — "As  John  Struthers,  late  brewer  in  Glas- 
gow, is  now  deceased,  the  business  continues  to  be  carried  on  as  formerly,  in  all  its 
l^ranches,  by  his  son.  All  orders  addressed  to  his  son,  John  Struthers,  brewer,  shall  be 
carefully  attended  to." 


GLASGOW  BREWERIES.  183 

of  Dr.  James  Alexander,  to  try  the  effect  of  a  residence  in  a 
warmer  climate,  but,  unfortunately,  died  soon  after  leaving  Scot- 
land. 

The  late  Robert  Struthers,  Esq.,  succeeded  to  the  brewery  and 
its  pertinents  on  the  death  of  his  brother  John,  and  immediately 
thereafter  made  extensive  alterations  and  new  erections  on  the 
premises,  with  all  the  modern  improvements  of  the  times,  so  that 
the  Gallowgate  brewery  soon  became  one  of  the  largest  breweries 
in  Scotland. 

When  Mr.  John  Struthers  purchased  the  Gallowgate  brewery 
in  1767  he  had  not  as  yet  attempted  to  brew  porter;  but 
Murdoch,  Warroch,  and  Company,  of  the  Anderston  brewery, 
having  just  at  this  time  successfully  introduced  the  brewing  of 
porter  into  Glasgow,  Mr.  Struthers,  being  less  skilled  in  porter- 
brewing  than  in  ale  and  beer  brewing,  engaged  one  of  Murdoch, 
Warroch,  and  Company's  workmen  into  his  service,  by  whose 
instructions  he  was  enabled  to  brew  porter  of  a  like  quality  with 
the  porter  brewed  by  the  Anderston  Company.  All  the  porter, 
however,  which  was  brewed  in  Glasgow  at  this  time  was  of  a  very 
inferior  quality,  being  extremely  dark  in  its  colour  and  coarse  in 
its  flavour.  It  contained  a  strong  infusion  of  brown  liquorice,  or 
"  sugar-allie,"  which  rendered  it  saccharine  and  muddy ;  the 
consequence  of  these  imperfections  was  that  Glasgow  ale  and 
beer,  being  of  first-rate  quality,  was  preferred  by  all  classes  in  the 
city  to  Scotch  porter,  and  the  sale  of  Glasgow  porter  came  to  be 
confined  almost  entirely  to  the  export  trade.  It  was  at  a  con- 
siderably later  date  than  this  that  Messrs.  John  and  Robert 
Tennent  of  Wellpark  commenced  the  brewing  of  porter. 

Murdoch,  Warroch,  and  Company,  being  conscious  of  the  great 
inferiority  of  their  porter,  both  as  to  taste  and  flavour,  when  com- 
pared with  the  porter  brewed  in  London,  or  even  in  Dublin, 
engaged  a  Mr.  Chivers,  who  had  been  bred  to  porter-brewing  in 
London,  to  come  to  Glasgow  to  instruct  them  in  the  London 
method  of  brewing  porter,  for  which  services  the  company  were 
to  pay  to  him  one  hundred  guineas,  and  also  all  his  travelling 
expenses  coming  and  returning.  As  Mr.  Chivers  was  kept  longer 
than  was  expected  in  the  employment  of  Murdoch,  Warroch,  and 


i84  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Company,  he  ultimately  received  about  ;£^300  in  all  from  the 
said  company.  In  the  original  contract  or  agreement  which  the 
Anderston  Brewery  Company  made  with  Mr.  Chivers  it  was 
expressly  stipulated  that  Mr.  Chivers  should  not  communicate  his 
art  of  brewing  to  any  other  brewers  in  Glasgow  or  its  neighbour- 
hood ;  but  the  Anderston  Company  forgot  to  bind  him  not  to 
commence  or  carry  on  the  brewing  of  porter  in  Glasgow  for  his 
own  behoof.  In  consequence  of  this  oversight  in  the  contract  of 
the  parties,  Mr.  Chivers,  considering  himself  at  full  liberty  to  brew 
porter  in  Glasgow  on  his  own  private  account,  engaged  part  of  Mr. 
Struthers'  brewery  for  brewing  of  porter  agreeably  to  the  London 
method,  and  Mr.  Struthers,  being  a  sharp  clever  man,  soon  got 
hold  of  the  whole  arcana  of  brewing  porter  as  practised  in  the 
capital.  This  state  of  matters  immediately  led  to  a  long  lawsuit, 
in  which  the  Anderston  Company  alleged  that  the  whole  matter 
in  question  resolved  itself  into  a  concerted  scheme  between  Mr. 
Chivers  and  Mr.  Struthers  to  get  the  better  of  the  prohibitive 
clause  in  the  contract  made  with  Mr.  Chivers,  by  the  said 
Anderston  Company.  The  Court  of  Session  interdicted  Mr. 
Chivers  from  teaching  Mr.  Struthers  the  art  of  brewing  London 
porter ;  but  in  the  meantime  Mr.  Struthers  had  acquired  a 
sufificient  knowledge  of  the  whole  London  process  so  as  success- 
fully to  compete  with  the  Anderston  Brewery  Company  in  the 
manufacture  of  Glasgow  London  porter.  The  late  Robert 
Struthers,  Esq.,  the  second  son  of  Mr.  John  Struthers,  continued 
to  carry  on  the  brewing  business  in  the  Gallowgate  for  a  number 
of  years  after  the  death  of  his  father  ;  but  finding  the  Gallowgate 
premises  too  small  for  his  increasing  trade,  he  removed  his 
establishment,  including  his  dwelling-house,  to  the  Greenhead, 
where  he  erected  a  larger  and  more  suitable  brewery.^  Both  old 
Mr.  Struthers  and  Mr.  Robert  Struthers  let  the  bowling-green  in 
the  Gallowgate  to  tacksmen,  and  took  no  other  charge  of  it  but 
as  landlords  of  the  same.  I  have  played  at  bowls  in  this  green  ; 
the  butts  for  archers,  however,  had  then  disappeared,  and  it  had 
become  unfashionable  as  a  place  of  amusement,  being  eclipsed  by 

^  When  the  Calton  was  erected  into  a  burgh  of  barony,  Mr.  Robert  Struthers  was 
elected  chief  magistrate  of  it. 


BREWING  IN  GLASGOW.  185 

its  opponent  in  the  west,  viz.  the  bowHng-green  in  the  Candle- 
riggs,  now  converted  into  the  Bazaar  or  public  market.  I  have 
also  had  my  game  at  bowls  in  the  Candleriggs  bowling-green. 
The  admittance  to  each  of  these  bowling-greens  was  one  penny 
per  visit  to  non-subscribers.  About  the  beginning  of  the  present 
century  Mr.  Robert  Struthers  commenced  to  lay  off  the  grounds 
for  building  on  which  the  Calton  brewery  and  bowling-green 
stood,  and  accordingly  opened  up  the  present  Kent  Street,  and 
Suffolk  Street,  etc.  etc.,  through  said  lands. 

"15th  June  1693. — (Fourth  session,  first  parliament  of  William  and 
Mary.) — This  year  an  act  of  parliament  was  obtained  in  favour  of  the  city  of 
Glasgow  disponing  to  the  magistrates  and  council,  for  their  behoof,  an  im- 
position of  two  pennies  Scots  (a  Scots  penny  is  one-eleventh  of  an  English 
penny)  upon  the  pint  of  all  ale  and  beer  to  be  either  brewed  or  inbrought  and 
vended,  hopped,  or  sold  within  the  said  town,  suburbs,  and  liberties  thereof, 
for  any  space  their  majesties  shall  please,  not  exceeding  thirteen  years,  for  the 
purpose  of  paying  the  town's  debt ;  excepting  ale  and  beer  brewed  by  heritors 
in  the  countiy,  and  consumed  by  them  and  their  families  in  town  ;  also  excepting 
ale  and  beer  brewed  and  vended  in  Gorbals." 

This  Act  was  several  times  renewed,  but  the  tax  is  now  abol- 
ished. From  the  above  quotation  it  is  evident  that  at  this  time 
porter  had  not  been  brewed  in  Glasgow,  and  that  the  Calton  was 
then  considered  a  country  or  rural  district,  and  not  even  men- 
tioned in  the  Act. 

Referring  to  the  N.B.  at  the  conclusion  of  the  advertisement 
quoted,  8th  December  1763,  we  find  that  property  in  the  Calton 
was  then  free  from  all  cess,  ladles,  multures,  two  pennies  on  the 
pint  duty,  and  all  taxations  and  burdens  whatever  chargeable 
upon  the  inhabitants  of  the  city  of  Glasgow  as  borough  dues.  In 
consequence  of  this  exemption  a  great  number  of  petty  breweries 
came  to  be  erected  in  the  Calton  district,  where  a  flourishing 
trade  in  malt  liquor  arose  ;  and  breweries,  malt-kilns,  and  malt- 
barns  might  then  have  been  seen  in  every  quarter  of  the  said 
district.  But  amongst  the  revenue  laws  which  were  made  ap- 
plicable to  Scotland,  the  following  one  proved  a  great  check  to 
the  flourishing  trade  of  ale  and  beer  brewing  in  the  Calton  : — 

Act  1 2th,  Charles  II.,  chap.  23d,  enacts — "That  all  common  brewers  of 
beer  and  ale  shall  once  in  every  week  ;  and  all  innkeepers,  alehouse  keepers, 


:86 


OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 


victuallers,  and  other  retailers  of  beer,  ale,  cyder,  perry,  metheglin  or  strong 
water,!  brewing,  making,  or  retailing  the  same,  shall  once  in  every  week  make 
true  and  particular  entries  at  the  office  of  excise  within  the  limits  of  which  the 
said  commodities  and  manufactures  are  made." 

And  it  is  further  declared  by  the  said  Act  that  those  "  who 
do  not  once  a  week  make  due  and  particular  entries  at  the  office 
of  excise,  shall  forfeit  £^r 

There  is  no  mention  made  in  this  Act  of  porter,  which  was 
not  manufactured  in  London  in  the  days  of  Charles  II. 

On  the  8th  of  April  1777  Alexander  Stuart,  collector  of 
excise,  exhibited  an  information  to  two  justices  of  the  peace  for 
the  county  of  Lanark,  setting  forth  that  various  persons  in 
Glasgow  and  its  neighbourhood  had,  betwixt  the  8th  of  January 
and  2d  of  April  last,  made,  brewed,  or  distilled  several  great 
quantities  of  low  wines  and  strong  waters,  and  have  not  paid 
duties  for  the  same,  as  by  the  law  and  statutes  of  excise  they 
were  required  and  appointed  to  do :  judgment,  therefore,  was 
prayed  against  various  persons  after-named  for  forfeiture  of 
double  duty,  and  expenses,  etc. 

List  of  brewers  ^  and  distillers  in  the  Calton  district  who  were 
pursued  before  the  justices  of  the  peace  on  the  8th  of  April, 
1777:— 


Single  Duty. 

Double  Duty. 

Archibald  Graham,  Calton 

■  ^19      5 

7j 

^38 

II      3 

William  Kidd 

■     IS  17 

6 

31 

15     0 

William  Innes 

.        26        I 

lol 

52 

3     9 

William  M'Nair 

5   II 

3 

1  I 

2     6 

James  Bachop 

.        12     16 

i°J 

25 

13     9 

Alexander  Granger      . 

.        13       0 

0 

26 

0     0 

John  Dunn     . 

.        23     18 

4 

47 

16     3 

William  Lang 

■       6     5 

0 

12 

10     0 

Robert  Murray 

.     26     I 

lol 

52 

3     9 

Robert  Buchanan 

.      13     3 

^i 

26 

6     3 

Willaim  M'llquham    . 

.     21     3 

I* 

42 

6     3 

William  Bayle 

.     25     I 

-1 

50 

3     9 

1  "  Metheglin — Drink  made  of  honey,  boiled  with  water,  and  fermented. " — Johnson. 
"  Metheglin— Dr'm^i  made  of  water,  herbs,  honey,  spice,  etc." — Bailey. 

-  On  the  1st  of  January  1784  the  brewers  advertised  as  follows  : — "Notice. — The 
brewers  in  and  about  Glasgow  having  hitherto  found  much  inconvenience  from  the  prac- 
tice of  giving  presents  to  their  customers  at  New-year's  day,  are  therefore  resolved  to 
discontinue  that  practice  in  future. — 25th  December  1783." 


GLASGOW  BREWERS. 


187 


Single  Duty. 

Double  Duty. 

Archibald  Jamieson     . 

^27 

5 

7| 

;^54   II     3 

Duncan  Murray 

25 

19 

4i 
4i 

51    18     9 

Mary  Stuart   . 

II 

19 

23   18     9 

Andrew  Miller 

12 

5 

72 

24   II     3 

Thomas  M'llquham 

8 

9 

4* 

16   18     9 

Matthew  Steven 

16 

6 

loi 

32   13     9 

Moses  Drew  . 

19 

13 

9 

39     7     6 

Thomas  Smith 

5 

8 

4 

10  16     3 

John  Arrol 

4 

16 

3 

9   12     6 

John  Harvey  . 

.     20 

5 

7i 

40  II     3 

James  Hamilton 

16 

18 

9 

33   17     6 

Katherine  Simpson 

13 

11 

3 

27     2     6 

John  M'Innes 

18 

13 

4 

37     6     3 

Margaret  Ferguson 

13 

II 

3 

27     2     6 

Christian  Aitken 

25 

10 

7^ 

51      I      3 

Ann  Nielson  . 

.     II 

4 

4| 

22     8     9 

Duncan  M 'Arthur,  White  Houses 

17 

6 

io| 

34   13     9 

Henry  M'Indoe,  Fleshers'  Haugh 

4 

13 

9 

976 

John  Clyde,  Craignest 

ock 

15 

8 

9 

30  17     6 

To  this  information  defences  were  given  in  for  the  whole  per- 
sons complained  on,  stating  some  objections  to  the  form  of  the 
citation,  which  defences  the  justices  repelled,  and  allowed  the 
collector  to  prove  his  information  ;  thereafter,  upon  advising  the 
proof,  they  pronounced  the  following  judgment :  Having  consi- 
dered the  information  and  oaths  of  parties,  "  the  justices  find  the 
information  relevant,  and  proved  against  the  whole  defenders,  and 
decern  against  each  of  them  for  the  forfeiture  of  double  duty  re- 
spectively charged  against  them  in  the  information,  conditionally, 
for  thirty  days  ;  but  if  the  defenders  pay  to  the  informant,  Mr. 
Alexander  Stuart,  the  single  duties,  with  sixpence  sterling  per 
pound  of  charges,  within  the  said  thirty  days  from  the  date  hereof, 
then  the  justices  assoilzie  from  the  double  duties,  and  decern  ac- 
cordingly, and  ordain  execution  to  pass  hereon,  in  terms  of  the 
laws  of  excise." 

This  judgment  having  been  brought  before  the  Court  of 
Session,  by  bill  of  advocation,  the  bill  was  refused  by  Lord  Kaimes, 
Ordinary. 

The  advocate  for  the  collector  of  excise  was  Henry  Dundas, 
then  Lord  Advocate,  and  afterwards  the  celebrated  Lord  Melville. 


1 88  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Amongst  those  who  were  prosecuted  as  above  by  the  collector 
of  excise  for  double  duties  we  see  the  name  of  John  M'Indoe, 
residing  in  the  "  Fleshers'  Haugh."  It  was  in  consequence  of  the 
"  Provost  Haugh  "  having  been  rented  for  some  time  by  several 
members  of  the  incorporation  of  fleshers,  for  pasturing  cattle,  that 
the  name  came  to  be  changed  from  "  Provost  Haugh  "  to  "  Fleshers' 
Haugh  ;"  and  by  the  following  advertisement  it  will  be  seen  that 
the  inhabitants  of  the  city  were  in  the  practice  of  freely  walking 
on  it,  and  of  making  roads  through  it  at  their  pleasure  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  30  March  1780. — "Notice — Whereas  several  per- 
sons take  the  hberty'to  walk  and  make  roads  through  John  King's  grass  in  the 
High  Green  of  Glasgow,  to  his  hurt  and  prejudice,  the  said  John  King  begs  of 
the  inhabitants  and  others  that  they  will  refrain  that  practice,  seeing  there  is  a 
sufficient  road  and  very  pleasant  walks  without  injuring  his  property,  for  which 
he  pays  a  high  rent.  And  (in  order  to  prevent  his  grass  being  treaded  and 
abused  in  time  coming)  he  hereby  certifies  all  trespassers,  that  they  will  be 
prosecuted  as  law  directs  ;  and  further  offers  a  handsome  reward  to  any  person 
who  will  inform  upon  trespassers,  so  as  he  or  they  may  be  convicted." 

John  King,  above  mentioned,  was  the  deacon  of  the  fleshers 
in  the  years  1768,  1769,  and  1775. 

It  appears  from  the  annexed  advertisement  that  Robert 
Dalglish,  Esq.,  the  father  of  our  active  M.P.,  Robert  Dalglish, 
Esq.,  had  his  printfield  on  the  Fleshers'  Haugh  shortly  before  the 
city  of  Glasgow  purchased  the  said  haugh. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  16th  November  1790. — "To  be  set,  for  one  year,  that 
piece  of  ground  and  houses  lying  at  the  head  of  the  Green  of  Glasgow,  com- 
monly called  "  Fleshers'  Haugh,"  which  has  been  occupied  for  some  years  past 
by  Dalglish  and  Hutcheson  as  a  printfield.  Any  person  wishing  to  take  the 
same  may  apply  as  above." 

I  remember  the  above  printfield,  situated  at  the  east  end  of 
the  Fleshers'  Haugh,  which  I  think  was  subsequently  rented  by 
Mrs.  Currie,  of  the  Black  Boy  Tavern  in  the  Gallowgate  (afterwards 
Mrs.  Jardine,  of  the  Buck's  Head  Inn),  for  w'ashing  and  bleaching 
purposes.  Mrs.  Currie  attended  her  washings  herself,  amidst 
groups  of  bathers,  with  whom  she  delighted  to  give  and  take  jokes. 
She  paid  little  attention  to  the  nudity  of  the  bathers,  who  paid  as 
little  attention  to  the  modesty  of  Mrs.  Currie. 

The  Fleshers'  Haugh  at  this  time  was  the  favourite  bathing- 


THE  FLESHER'S  HAUGH.  189 

place  for  the  citizens  of  Glasgow,  as  at  its  eastern  extremity  the 
river  was  sufficiently  deep  on  its  north  bank  to  permit  a  good 
swimmer  to  plunge  headlong  into  the  stream  without  danger  ;  while 
toward  the  west  the  river  gradually  deepened  from  its  shore  to  its 
centre,  thereby  giving  a  learner  or  a  timid  person  an  opportunity 
to  select  a  place  of  the  depth  most  agreeable  to  his  wishes.  There 
were,  however,  one  or  two  places  in  this  part  of  the  Clyde  which 
went  by  the  name  o{ pln7nbs  or  holes,  where  several  accidents  have 
occurred.  I  remember  when  a  boy  of  diving  down  into  one  of  these 
plumbs,  and  bringing  up  the  body  of  a  poor  man  who  had  just  then 
been  drowned.  After  the  unfortunate  individual's  corpse  had  been 
brought  on  shore,  the  persons  who  took  the  charge  of  it,  in  place 
of  quickly  taking  it  into  an  adjacent  house,  or  into  Messrs.  Dalglish 
and  Hutcheson's  printfield  works,  and  there  endeavouring  by  the 
usual  means  to  resuscitate  it,  hurried  away  to  the  Calton,  where 
the  poor  man  had  resided,  and  deposited  the  body  with  the 
members  of  his  family.  So  much  time  was  thereby  lost  that  all 
attempts  to  revive  animality  proved  unsuccessful.  I  afterwards 
learned  that  he  was  an  operative  shoemaker.  One  of  the  plumbs 
was  known  by  the  name  of  the  Dominie's  Hole. 

Towards  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  century  the  Fleshers' 
Haugh  appears  to  have  been  the  property  of  Sir  John  Bell,  who 
was  Lord  Provost  of  Glasgow  in  1681  ;  and  it  came  to  be  called 
Provost  Haugh  in  honour  of  his  lordship  the  Provost.  This  haugh 
was  purchased  by  the  Magistrates  and  Town  Council  of  Glasgow 
in  1792,  from  Patrick  Bell,  Esq.,  of  Cowcaddens,  and  was  then 
added  to  the  Green  of  the  city. 

Glasgow  Jourfial,  ist  May  1792. — "The  Provost  Haugh  has  just  been 
purchased  at  private  sale  for  no  less  than  four  thousand ;poiinds.  It  consists 
of  about  twenty-four  acres. 

"  This,  added  to  the  other  pleasure  ground  along  the  river,  belonging  to 
the  city,  is  a  valuable  acquisition.  The  philanthropic  Mr.  Howard,  when 
surveying  this  tract  of  ground,  declared  it  to  be  of  inestimable  value  for 
preserving  the  health  of  the  inhabitants. 

"  An  acre  of  ground  down  the  river,  where  the  coal  key  stood,  and  bounded 
by  the  Kinning  House  burn,  was  sold  by  public  roup,  last  week,  for  £1^0 
sterling.      It  was  let  for  £^  yearly  for  sixteen  years  past." 

In  the  year    1770   Mr.   M'Lean,  a  Baptist  elder  or  minister, 


I90  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

came  to  Glasgow,  and  baptized  Mary  Monro,  wife  of  Neil  Stewart, 
a  wright,  in  the  River  Clyde,  at  the  Fleshers'  Haugh.  She  was  the 
first  person  in  Glasgow  who  received  baptism  by  immersion  in  the 
River  Clyde. 

In  1776  a  small  congregation  of  Baptists  was  formed  in 
Glasgow,  the  entrants  to  which  religious  society  were  also  usually 
baptized  in  the  river,  at  the  west  end  of  the  Fleshers'  Haugh, 
where  there  was  a  fine  shallow  sandy  shore  gradually  deepening  to 
the  centre  of  the  stream.  This  place  was  very  seldom  used  by 
bathers,  who  preferred  the  east  end  of  the  haugh  as  more  suitable 
for  natation  ;  they  never  disturbed  or  gave  offence  to  the  Baptists 
during  the  performance  of  their  religious  rites  in  the  River  Clyde. 

At  this  time  the  eastern  portion  of  the  Green  or  Kings'  Park 
was  bounded  by  a  stone  wall,  along  the  west  side  of  which  there 
ran  a  carriage  road  leading  from  Bridgeton  and  Barrowfield  to  the 
Fleshers'  Haugh  ;  this  road,  however,  was  merely  a  country  high- 
way, and  was  little  used. 


CHAPTER    XII. 

Opening  up  of  Duke  Street — Glasgow  Police  in  1788,  and  measures  of  the  Magistrates 
for  regulation  of  the  city — Improvements  in  the  city — St.  Andrew's  Church — Eagles- 
holm  Croft — Dispute  about  electing  a  seventh  minister  for  Glasgow — Dr.  Porteous 
— The  "Long  Stairs" — The  "hanging  stair"  in  the  Tontine — Weavers'  riots — 
Town  herds. 

In  the  year  1792,  when  the  Magistrates  and  Town  Council  of 
Glasgow  purchased  the  Fleshers'  Haugh,  they  also  in  the  same 
year  projected  a  great  improvement  to  the  eastern  parts  of 
Glasgow,  by  issuing  proposals  for  opening  up  and  constructing  a 
splendid  approach  to  the  city  from  the  east,  which  came  to  be 
called  "  Duke  Street,"  in  honour  of  His  Royal  Highness  the  Duke 
of  York,  then  Commander-in-chief  of  the  British  Army. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  6th  November  1792. — "  By  authority  of  the  Sheriff  of 
Lanarkshire,  the  magistrates  and  town  council  of  Glasgow  having,  in  virtue  of 
an  Act  passed  in  the  last  session  of  Parliament  for  opening  and  making  certain 
streets  in  and  near  the  city  of  Glasgow,  preferred  a  petition  to  the  said  sheriff 
against  the  persons  after-named,  viz. — William  Anderson,  tanner  and  merchant 
in  Glasgow ;  David  Perston,  manufacturer,  there ;  James  Brown,  merchant, 
there,  trustee  on  the  sequestrated  estate  of  the  late  William  Brown,  glover,  there  ; 
Miss  Janet  Boreland,  residing  in  Charlotte  Street,  there  ;  Misses  Janet  and 

Grizel  Pettigrews  in  High  Street,  there ;  Murray,  widow  of  the  late  Mr. 

Hercules  Lindsay,  professor  of  law  in  the  College  of  Glasgow  ;  James  Kerr, 
son  and  heir  of  the  deceased  Mr.  John  Kerr,  late  minister  of  the  Gospel  at 

Belziehill ;  the  Rev.  Mr. Jameson,  minister  of  the  Associated  congregation 

in  Havannah  Street,  as  representing  the  said  congregation,  and  residing  in 
Anderston,  and  tenant  of  the  said  James  Kerr's  property ;  William  Dunn, 
wheel- wright  in  Glasgow ;  George  Woodburn,  wright  in  High  Street,  there ; 
Marion  Miller,  widow  of  John  Freeland,  late  huntsman,  there ;  John  Taylor, 
son  of  the  deceased  William  Taylor,  residing  at  Barrowfield  Bridge ;  John 
Colquhoun,  son  of  the  deceased  John  Colquhoun,  residing  in  St.  Enoch's  Wynd 


192  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

of  Glasgow;  Alexander  Stewart,  son  and  heir  of  the  deceased  William  Stewart, 
gardener  in  Glasgow — proprietors  or  reputed  proprietors  or  occupiers  of  certain 
lands  and  tenements  the  areas  of  which  will  be  occupied  by  an  intended  street 
mentioned  in  the  said  Act,  to  run  from  the  road  which  leads  from  Carntyne 
road  to  the  Drygate  Bridge,  at  or  near  the  house  belonging  to  the  late  John 
Anderson,  butcher,  till  it  join  the  High  Street  of  the  said  city,  at  or  near 
the  tenement  on  the  east  side  belonging  to  or  reputed  to  belong  to  William 
Robertson,  farmer  and  meal  dealer,  and  Robert  Kay  of  Glins,  or  at  or  near  the 
tenement  belonging  to  Alexander  Baird,  farmer  ;  and  also  by  another  intended 
street  from  the  west  side  of  the  said  High  Street,  at  or  near  the  tenement 
belonging  to  the  heirs  of  James  Millar,  late  visitor  of  the  maltmen  in  Glasgow, 
or  at  or  near  the  tenement  formerly  belonging  to  John  Maitland,  now  in  the 
possession  of  Michael  Bogle  and  Alexander  Gardner,  to  run  in  a  straight 
line  till  it  join  Duke  Street  in  the  said  city,  on  account  of  the  said  persons 
having  refused  or  neglected  to  treat,  or  contract  for  the  purchase  of  the  said 
lands  after  previous  due  requisition  as  prescribed  by  the  said  Act ;  and, 
therefore,  praying  his  lordship  to  fix  and  ascertain  the  just  amount  and  value 
of  the  said  lands  by  a  jury  in  terms  of  the  statute.  His  lordship,  the  sheriff- 
substitute,  upon  receiving  the  said  petition  upon  the  29th  day  of  October  last, 
ordered  notice  thereof  to  be  given  by  proper  advertisements  in  all  the  Glas- 
gow newspapers,  which  is  now  accordingly  given,  and  to  which  all  parties  having 
interest  are  hereby  required  to  attend. — Glasgow,  ist  November,  1792." 

At  this  time  (1792)  the  affairs  of  police,  including  the  forming 
and  causewaying  of  the  public  streets  of  the  city,  were  under  the 
sole'  management  of  the  Magistrates  and  Council,  and  supported 
from  the  funds  of  the  corporation. 

In  1788  the  Magistrates  and  Council,  being  anxious  to  have  an 
established  police  in  Glasgow,  but  at  the  same  time  being  unwilling 
to  relinquish  any  portion  of  their  control  or  power  of  management 
of  city  affairs,  appointed  Richard  Marshall,  one  of  their  own 
clique,  to  the  office  of  intendant  of  police,  with  a  large  salary,  and 
then  applied  for  an  Act  of  Parliament  to  assess  the  inhabitants  to 
defray  the  necessary  expenses  of  the  establishment  ;  but  as  the 
public  were  to  have  had  no  voice  in  the  election  of  the  police 
master,  or  in  the  choice  of  the  ward  commissioners,  a  general  out- 
cry of  the  citizens  arose  against  the  scheme,  and  a  powerful  opposi- 
tion was  formed  to  defeat  the  measure  in  Parliament,  in  consequence 
of  which  the  bill  was  lost.  The  general  watchword  then  passed 
from  mouth  to  mouth  in  Glasgow  was  that  the  whole  affair  in 
reality  was  merely  a  sly  scheme  of  the  Magistrates  to  provide  a 
snug  situation  for  their  friend  "  Dickie  Marshall,"  as  he  was  called. 


POLICE  REGULATIONS.  193 

Although  Richard  Marshall  thus  lost  the  situation  of  police-master, 
he  was  soon  after  comforted  as  to  dignity  by  being  elected  a  bailie 
of  Glasgow,  and  when  the  barracks  were  built  in  1795  he  found 
a  pecuniary  compensation  for  his  disappointment  by  obtaining 
the  situation  of  barrack -master,  which  office  the  public  generally 
believed  was  gotten  through  city  influence. 

There  can  be  no  doubt,  however,  that  from  the  great  increase 
of  the  city  a  regular  police  establishment  had  then  become  neces- 
sary to  preserve  the  safety  and  comfort  of  the  inhabitants.  This 
is  shown  by  the  following  advertisement  of  the  Magistrates  and 
Town  Council,  which  clearly  exhibits  the  loose  manner  in  which 
the  town  regulations  and  government  of  the  city  were  then  kept  ; 
a  few  redcoat  officers  acting  as  the  only  police  guardians  of  the 
city,  which  at  that  time  contained  a  population  of  upwards  of 
60,000  inhabitants  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury.,  22d  March  1781. — "  By  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow. 
— -Whereas  it  is  of  great  consequence  that  every  regulation  calculated  to 
improve  the  police  of  the  city  should  be  adopted,  and  that  at  the  same  time 
every  irregularity  injurious  to  the  inhabitants  should  be  suppressed  and  pre- 
vented. The  magistrates  hereby  give  notice,  recommend,  and  enjoin  what 
follows,  viz. — 

''  That  all  proprietors  of  houses  in  this  city  shall,  as  soon  as  the  season 
will  admit,  remove  all  water-barges,  and  fix  and  erect  rones  and  pipes  for 
the  purpose  of  conveying  the  water  from  the  eaves  of  their  respective  build- 
ings, so  constructed  as  to  prevent  loose  slates  from  falling  upon  the  streets  ; 
and  it  is  recommended  to  those  of  the  inhabitants  who  have  already  conveyed 
down  their  water  in  this  manner  that  they  will  cause  their  pipes  to  be  lengthened 
so  as  to  prevent  inconvenience  to  the  pubhc  in  rainy  weather. 

"That  all  proprietors  of  houses  or  lands  do  give  strict  orders  that  the 
flags  opposite  to  their  respective  properties  be  regularly  cleaned  every  morn- 
ing, that  so  this  valuable  improvement  may  not  be  rendered  useless  to  the 
inhabitants.^ 

"  That  all  persons  using  ladders  for  repairing  houses  shall  remove  the 
same  every  evening  before  sunset,  and  no  mason  or  slater,  or  any  person 
working  on  the  roofs  of  the  houses  in  this  city,  shall  throw  over  rubbish  of 
any  kind  without  keeping  a  person  as  a  watch  to  prevent  danger  to  the  in- 
habitants. 

^  In  1778  Mr.  John  Wilsone,  who  kept  an  ironmonger's  shop  under  Hutcheson's 
Hospital  in  the  Trongate,  laid  a  flagstone  pavement  in  front  of  his  shop,  which  was  the 
first  improvement  of  the  kind  in  the  Trongate.  (Mr.  Wilsone  was  a  brother  of  Dr. 
Charles  Wilsone.) 

VOL.  Ill,  O 


194  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

"  That  the  person  or  persons  having  property  in  dunghills  in  the  closes 
opposite  to  which  the  dung  of  the  street  is  laid  down,  shall  remove  the  same 
in  twelve  hours  after  it  is  collected  by  the  scavengers,  and  no  dung  going  to 
the  country  will  be  suffered  to  remain  on  the  street  after  sunset  on  any  pre- 
tence whatever. 

"  That  all  boys  shall  be  discharged  by  their  parents  and  masters  from 
playing  tops,  shinty,  or  using  any  diversion  whatever  upon  the  flags  that  may 
be  incommodious  to  the  inhabitants ;  they  are  likewise  discharged  from  play- 
ing shinty  in  the  Green. 

"  That  no  person  shall  shake  carpets,  or  throw  water  or  nastiness  over 
any  of  the  windows  of  this  city. 

"  That  all  boys,  or  others,  who  shall  be  detected,  at  any  time,  throwing 
stones,  making  bonfires,  crying  for  illuminations,  or  attempting  to  make  any 
disturbance  on  the  streets  of  this  city,  calculated  to  endanger  the  public  peace, 
shall  be  punished  with  the  utmost  severity.  On  all  such  occasions  parents 
and  masters  are  to  be  accountable  for  their  children  or  apprentices,  and  a 
reward  is  hereby  offered  of  Five  Pounds  sterling  to  any  person  who  shall 
detect  or  discover  boys,  or  others,  guilty  of  these  practices,  to  be  paid  on 
conviction  of  the  offenders. 

"That  all  parents  and  masters  shall  do  their  utmost  to  prevent  their 
children  and  apprentices  from  going  about  in  an  idle  manner  on  Sunday,  and 
particularly  from  appearing  in  the  streets  or  closes  during  Divine  service,  the 
magistrates  being  determined  to  punish  all  such  offenders  in  the  most  exem- 
plary manner. 

"  That  as  the  poor  who  have  a  right  to  the  charity  of  the  city  are  amply 
provided  for,  it  is  earnestly  recommended  to  the  inhabitants  to  give  their 
assistance  in  suppressing  and  discouraging  vagrant  and  public  beggars. 

"  That  no  carter  shall,  on  any  pretence,  presume  to  ride  upon  his  cart, 
or  to  drive  hard  through  the  avenues  or  streets  of  this  city.  And  as  many 
accidents  have  happened  through  the  carelessness  of  carters,  particularly  on 
the  road  leading  from  the  canal,  the  magistrates  hereby  order  and  direct  all 
carters  to  lead  their  horses  short  by  the  head,  and  it  is  earnestly  recommended 
to  the  inhabitants  to  give  information  of  the  names  of  all  who  shall  offend  in 
this  particular ;  that  practices  so  dangerous  to  the  public  may  be  prevented, 
by  punishing  the  guilty  in  an  exemplary  manner." 

*'  That  all  carters  employed  in  carrying  goods  to  and  from  the  canal ' 
shall  not  load  above  one  ton  weight  of  grain,  or  any  other  goods  upon  the 
cart,  unless  the  wheels  are  six  inches  broad ;  and  the  magistrates  recommend 
it  to  the  inhabitants  to  pay  only  according  to  this  regulation,  and  to  inform 
against  all  offenders. 

"  That  all  horses  going  to  water  shall  on  no  pretence  be  rode  hard,  nor 
shall  any  person  be  permitted  to  gallop  through  the  streets  or  avenues  of  this 
city." 

'  It  is  curious  to  observe  that  no  mention  is  here  made  of  any  traffic  being  carried 
on  from  the  Broomielaw  to  the  city,  now  the  most  extensive  carriage-way  of  Glasgow. 


POLICE  REGULATIONS.  195 

"  That  no  persons  having  charge  of  buildings  shall  lay  down  stones  upon 
the  pavement  at  the  side  of  the  street  allotted  for  the  inhabitants,  nor  shall 
any  person  be  permitted  to  slack  lime  upon  any  of  the  streets  of  this  city. 

"  That  in  all  time  coming,  the  practice  of  selling  salmon  by  the  hand  shall 
be  discontinued,  and  no  person  shall  be  permitted  to  sell  in  any  other  manner 
than  by  weight. 

"  Notice  is  hereby  given,  that  there  is  lodged  in  the  clerk's  chamber,  a 
quantity  of  stolen  goods  not  yet  claimed.  If  no  person  or  persons  appear  to 
claim  their  property,  on  or  before  the  first  day  of  April,  the  whole  will  be  sold 
for  the  use  of  the  poor  of  the  Town's  Hospital." 

In  May  1785  the  Magistrates  advertised  that — 

"  They  had  got  an  offer  made  to  them  for  keeping  the  streets  of  the  city 
clean,  and  to  gather,  and  carry  off  the  whole  dung  and  rubbish  lying  upon  the 
said  streets,  provided  the  offerer  should  have  the  property  of  the  dung." 

The  Magistrates  accordingly  advertised  that  they  were  ready 
to  make  an  agreement  of  the  kind,  and — 

"  Will  prefer  the  person  who  shall  undertake  to  perform  the  work  upon 
the  most  reasonable  terms,  and  find  security  for  performing  his  part  of  the 
agreement." 

In  the  year  1768  the  Magistrates  and  Town  Council  of  Glas- 
gow obtained  an  Act  of  Parliament  to  make  certain  improvements 
in  the  city,  the  preamble  to  which  states  as  follows  : — 

Anno  Octavo,  Geo.  IIL  Regis.  —  "Whereas,  by  the  great  increase  of 
inhabitants  in  the  city  of  Glasgow,  an  additional  church  became  necessary, 
which  the  magistrates  and  council  of  the  said  city  have,  at  a  considerable 
expense,  erected  and  built  accordingly,  and  it  is  called,  or  known  by  the  name 
of  St.  Andrew's  Church.  And  whereas,  it  is  further  necessary,  for  the  use 
and  benefit  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  said  city,  and  of  others  resorting  to  the 
said  church,  that  there  should  not  only  be  a  proper  and  commodious  passage 
to  the  same,  by  and  from  the  street  called  the  Saltmarket  Street,  but  also  that 
the  area  or  church -yard,  of  the  said  church,  should  be  free  and  open.  And, 
whereas,  the  said  magistrates  and  city  council,  have  also,  at  a  considerable 
expense,  erected  and  built  a  Town  Hall,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Tolbooth, 
near  the  Cross  of  Glasgow,  and  it  would  be  of  great  advantage  to  the  said 
city  to  have  an  Exchange  or  Square,  near  the  said  Town  Hall,  for  the  use 
and  resort  of  merchants  and  others.  For  which  purpose  the  said  magistrates 
have  purchased  several  old  houses  and  areas,  on  the  north  side  of  the  said 
Town  Hall  and  Tolbooth  ;  but  the  premises  so  purchased  are  not  sufficient 
for  building  the  said  exchange  or  square.  And,  whereas,  those  works  so 
necessary  for  the  convcniency  and  advantage  of  the  said   city,  and  of  all 


196  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  LPS  ENVIRONS. 

persons  resorting  thereto,  cannot  be  carried  out  into  execution  without  the  aid 
of  Parliament.  Therefore,  upon  the  petition  of  the  magistrates  and  council  of 
the  said  city  of  Glasgow,  on  behalf  of  themselves  and  the  community  of  the 
said  city.  Be  it  enacted,  by  the  King's  most  excellent  Majesty,  by  and  with 
the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Lords  Spiritual  and  Temporal,  and  Commons 
in  this  present  Parliament  assembled,  and  by  the  authority  of  the  same,  that 
it  shall  and  maybe  lawful  for  the  magistrates  and  city  council  of  Glasgow,  and 
their  successors,  by  themselves,  their  deputies,  agents,  workmen,  and  servants, 
and  they  are  hereby  empowered  and  authorised  to  make  and  complete  a  con- 
venient passage  or  street,  from  the  said  street  called  the  Saltmarket  Street, 
to  the  said  new  church  called  St.  Andrew's  Church,  not  exceeding  seventy  feet 
in  breadth,  as  also  to  open  and  complete  the  area  or  church-yard  of  the  said 
church ;  and  likewise  to  make,  erect,  build  and  complete  a  commodious 
Exchange  or  Square  upon  the  north  side  of  the  said  Town  Hall  and  Tol- 
booth. 

"And  be  it  further  enacted,  that  the  said  magistrates  and  council  and 
their  successors,  shall  also  have  full  power  and  authority  to  treat  and  agree 
with  the  owners  and  occupiers  of  the  small  slip  of  land  belonging  to,  or 
reported  to  belong  to  Janet  Smith,  daughter  of  the  deceased  Thomas  Smith, 
late  writer  in  Edinburgh,  containing  3  roods,  24  falls,  and  16  yards  of  ground 
or  thereabout,  in  measure,  on  the  south  side  of  the  said  St.  Andrew's  Church, 
and  bounded  by  the  town  of  Glasgow's  ground  on  the  north,  of  the  said  Janet 
Smith  on  the  south  and  east,  and  by  the  Molendinar  burn  on  the  west  parts  ; 
as  also  that  little  yard  belonging  to  or  reported  to  belong  to  Alexander  Spiers, 
Peter  Murdoch,  Thomas  Buchanan,  James   Dougal,  and  partners  of  the  hat 

factory  in  Glasgow,  and  to  John  Blair,  merchant  there, Alexander,  widow 

of  George  Blackwell,  late  minister  of  Bathgate,  measuring  1 6  falls,  and  24  yards, 
or  thereabout,  bounded  by  the  ground  belonging  to  the  town  of  Glasgow  on  the 
south  and  east,  and  by  the  Molendinar  burn  on  the  north  and  west  parts  ;  and 
after  payment  of  such  sum  or  sums  of  money,  as  shall  be  agreed  on  between 
the  said  magistrates  and  city  council,  and  the  owners  or  occupiers  respec- 
tively, for  the  purchase  of  the  said  respective  premises,  to  lay  out  and  include 
the  same  or  so  much  thereof  as  shall  be  thought  necessary,  into  the  said  area 
or  church-yard,  in  such  manner  as  they  shall  think  fit." 

By  referring  to  the  Plan  annexed  to  the  present  jottings  the 
different  properties  adjoining  St.  Andrew's  Church,  which  the 
Magistrates  sought  to  obtain  by  the  above  Act  of  ParHament, 
will  be  seen.  The  Plan  was  drawn  up  in  1760,  and  the  Act  was 
passed  in  1768,  From  the  following  notices  it  appears  that  an 
alteration  had  taken  place  in  the  entry  from  Saltmarket  Street 
to  St.  Andrew's  Church,  shortly  before  the  above  dates,  by  the 
demolishment  of  several  old  houses,  which  appear  to  have  stood 
upon  the  vacant  space  (shown  in  the  Plan)  in  the  "  Weel  Close." 


EAGLESHOLM  CROFT.  197 

Glasgow  Journal,  28th  Februaiy  1757. — "To  be  sold,  a  parcel  of  stones, 
timber,  and  slates,  being  the  materials  of  some  old  houses,  belonging  to  the 
heirs  of  the  deceased  Bailie  James  Glen,  as  they  lie  in  the  new  street  leading 
to  the  new  church  in  Saltmarket.  Any  who  inclines  to  purchase  them,  may 
apply  to  George  Anderson,  merchant  in  Glasgow."^ 

.  It  appears  from  the  Plan  that  the  ancient  entry  to  the  land 
around  St.  Andrew's  Square  was  called  the  "  Weel  Closs."  At  the 
eastern  extremity  of  this  close  there  was  a  bridge  over  the  Mo- 
lendinar  Burn,  apparently  wider  than  the  Gallowgate  Bridge ;  so 
that  this  place  was  probably  at  one  time  resorted  to  by  the  citizens 
for  the  purpose  of  drawing  water  from  the  Molendinar  Burn,  or 
for  washings — the  waste  ground  in  front  of  St.  Andrew's  Church 
being  very  suitable  for  bleaching  and  drying  clothes,  and,  judging 
from  the  Plan,  quite  open  to  the  public. 

I  must  leave  it  to  our  antiquarian  denizens  to  give  us  the 
derivation  of  the  word  "  w^<r/."  Jamieson  and  Bailey  say:  "  Wed, 
wele,  wiel — a  small  whirlpool  or  eddy;"  and  it  is  probable  that 
there  was  a  small  whirlpool  or  eddy  at  the  spot  where  the  bridge 
crossed  the  Molendinar. 

The  following  advertisement,  I  presume,  refers  to  the  oblong 
(or  long  square)  tenement  shown  in  the  Plan,  as  situated  near 
the  bottom  of  the  present  Charlotte  Street ;  but  I  can  give  no 
account  of  the  extent  of  Eaglesholm  Croft : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  3d  May  1781. — "To  be  sold,  that  large  garden,  and 
house  and  byre  built  thereupon,  lying  in  the  territory  of  the  burgh  of  Glasgow, 
in  that  part  thereof  called  Eaglesholm  Croft,  containing  about  an  acre  and 
three  roods  of  ground,  as  presently  possessed  by  Duncan  M'Arthur,  gardener. 
The  above  garden  adjoins  the  St.  Andrew's  Church  and  Merkdailly  grounds, 
fronts  the  Green  of  Glasgow,  and  is  pleasantly  situated  for  building  upon.  To 
accommodate  purchasers,  the  price  will  be  allowed  to  remain  in  their  hands 
for  some  time. — For  further  particulars,  apply  to  Patrick  Robertson,  writer  in 
Glasgow,  who  will  show  a  plan  of  the  ground." 

1  Glasgmu Journal,  iith  October  1756. — "Notice — That  the  stone,  timber,  lead, 
glasswork,  iron,  and  whole  other  materials  of  the  old  guard  house,  and  of  the  old  houses 
and  lands,  or  Well  Close,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Saltmarket,  belonging  to  the  town  of 
Glasgow,  are  to  be  sold,  by  public  roup,  within  the  court  hall  of  the  Tolbooth  of  Glasgow, 
upon  the  last  Wednesday  of  October,  inst.,  between  the  hours  of  12  and  2  afternoon. 
As  also  the  whole  small  yearly  feu-duties,  within  and  belonging  to  the  town,  under  forty 
shillings  steg.,  are  to  be  sold,  by  public  roup,  within  the  said  time  and  place.  Those  who 
incline  to  purchase  may  inquire  at  William  Weir,  writer,  or  Artluir  Koljertson,  chamber- 
lain." 


198  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

I  am  inclined  to  think  that  the  garden  of  the  late  David  Dale, 
Esq.,  formed  part  of  Eaglcsholm  Croft  above  alluded  to,  but  I  can- 
not speak  on  the  subject  with  any  degree  of  certainty. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  24th  February  1780. — "To  be  sold,  a  house  lying  at 
the  head  of  the  first  close  east  from  the  Gallowgate  Bridge,  on  the  south  side 
of  the  street,  consisting  of  two  storeys  and  a  garret,  with  a  cellar,  and  a  large 
fruit  garden  on  the  south  side  of  the  said  house  ;  with  two  small  brick  houses 
adjacent  thereto,  and  a  piece  of  waste  ground  on  both  sides  of  the  same,  as 
the  said  subjects  were  lately  possessed  by  the  deceased  Alexander  Hutcheson 
and  his  sub-tenants.  This  lot  is  pleasantly  situated  between  Merkdailly's  yard 
and  St.  Andrew's  church-yard.  Also,  another  house  lying  near  to  the  said 
house,  with  a  bakehouse  and  oven  thereto  belonging,  as  at  present  possessed  by 
William  Fleming,  baker,  and  others. — Apply  to  Charles  Hutcheson,  bookseller 
in  Glasgow."  1 

The  building  of  St.  Andrew's  Square  was  commenced  in  1787, 
as  is  shown  in  the  following  notice,  and  in  a  short  space  of  time 
thereafter  it  was  completed  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  14th  February  1787. — "To  be  sold,  sundry  steadings 
for  houses  in  St.  Andrew's  Square.  The  plan  of  the  Square  and  the  regula- 
tions for  building  are  to  be  seen  in  the  hands  of  the  town  clerks  of  Glasgow, 
to  whom  persons  intending  to  purchase  are  desired  to  apply." 

On  the  23d  of  April  1739  the  Magistrates  and  Town  Council 
of  Glasgow  agreed  to  build  St.  Andrew's  Church  upon  the  yeard 
purchased  from  Patrick  Bell  and  others,  which  yeard  is  represented 
as  having  been  a  church  yeard  ;  but  I  doubt  if  it  ever  was  used 
as  a  public  cemetery,  although  it  may  have  been  a  yeard  attached 
to  some  religious  institution. 

I  am  not  aware  of  there  having  been  discovered  any  graves  or 
relics  of  the  dead  whilst  the  foundations  of  the  church  or  of  those 
of  the  buildings  which  now  form  the  square  were  excavating. 
.  There  formerly  stood  a  religious  institution  in  the  Gallowgate, 

1  At  this  time  the  ground  around  St.  Andrew's  Church  had  been  shut  up  from  public 
access  by  the  erection  of  a  high  iron  gate  across  the  whole  breadth  of  the  Weel  Close,  at 
its  eastern  extremity,  next  the  bridge ;  and  the'  Weel  Close  then  received  the  name  of 
St.  Andrew's  Street.  When  divine  service  came  to  be  performed  in  St.  Andrew's 
Church  on  Sundays  and  other  pubhc  occasions,  this  gate  was  allowed  to  remain  open  ; 
but  it  was  carefelly  kept  locked  on  ordinary  week  days.  When  St.  Andrew's  Square 
was  advertised  to  be  formed,  the  iron  gate  was  removed  ;  and  al)out  the  year  1800  the 
post-office  was  brought  to  St.  Andrew's  Street.  (M'Ure,  in  1736,  calls  the  Weel  Close 
Baker's  Wynd,  at  page  155.) 


ST.  ANDREW'S  CHURCH.  199 

and  the  said  yeard  possibly  might  have  been  the  property  of  that 
institution  ;  but  I  can  give  no  authority  on  the  subject.^ 

The  erection  of  St.  Andrew's  Church  was  begun  in  the  year 
1740,  but  was  not  finished  till  1762.  This  long  delay  in  execut- 
ing the  completion  of  the  church  was  said  to  have  been  caused  by 
the  want  of  funds  ;  and  I  have  heard  it  said  in  my  younger  days 
that  it  ultimately  became  necessary  for  the  city  of  Glasgow  to  sell 
the  feus  of  the  Barony  of  Provan,  and  the  superiority  thereof,  in 
order  to  liquidate  the  debts  incurred  for  building  the  said  church.^ 
The  public  have  never  been  informed  of  the  exact  cost  of  building 
St.  Andrew's  Church,  but  it  has  been  generally  estimated  to  have 
been  upwards  of  ;^2 0,000  ;  and  some  allege  that  it  has  caused  an 
expense  to  the  city  of  ;^30,ooo. 

On  the  23d  of  March  1762 — 

"  The  magistrates  and  town  council  of  Glasgow  having  thought  proper  to 
build  a  new  church,  which  is  now  finished,  whereby  there  are  now  seven 
churches  and  only  six  ministers  in  the  city,  and  consequently  a  seventh  minis- 
ter is  wanted  for  one  or  other  of  the  churches  ;  and  further  considering  that 
the  settling  of  a  seventh  minister,  and  endowing  him  with  a  suitable  stipend 
out  of  the  town's  revenue,  will  be  a  public  benefit,  they  resolve  accordingly." — 
Council  Records. 

This  resolution  of  the  Magistrates  and  Council  caused  a  great 
ferment  among  the  city  clergymen,  who  claimed  a  right  to  have  a 
voice  in  the  election  of  the  seventh  minister,  according  to  what 
they  said  was  use  and  wont ;  and  for  gaining  their  end  they 
agitated  among  all  ranks  of  the  citizens  to  oppose  the  alleged 
prerogative  of  the  city  authorities. 

1  I  have  seen  no  written  authority  of  there  ever  having  been  any  church  in  St. 
Andrew's  Square  before  the  present  church  was  built.  The  ground  there  formed  part 
of  the  Eaglesholm  (or  Eagleshoam)^  Croft,  and  was  called  of  old  "Luke's  Ayle,"  and 
then  "Bell's  Park,"  the  Magistrates  having  purchased  the  said  ground  from  Patrick 
Bell.  Had  this  "church-yard,"  as  it  was  called,  been  formerly  occupied  as  a  cemetery, 
some  remains  of  the  dead  would  certainly  have  been  found  in  the  course  of  erecting  the 
houses  of  the  square.? 

2  G  las  genu  Journal,  25th  December  1766. — "To  be  sold,  the  feu-duties  and  superi- 
orities of  the  twenty  pound  land,  of  old  extent,  of  Provan,  lying  in  the  Barronry  parish 
of  Glasgow  and  sheriffdom  of  Lanark,  held  feu  by  the  magistrates  and  town  council  of 
Glasgow  off  the  Crown.  Four  of  the  lots  are  each  of  them  above  ;[{i'400  of  valuation,  as 
now  divided  in  the  cess  books.  Progress  of  writs,  rental,  and  condition  of  roup  to  be 
seen  in  the  hands  of  the  town  clerks.     25th  Dec.  1766." 

3  "Holm,  or  Hoam—xh^  level  low  ground  on  the  banks  of  a  river."— Jamieson. 


2  00  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

The  following  pretty  sharp  notice  appeared  in  the  Glasgow 
Journal  oi  17th  February  1763  : — 

"  Glasgow.  The  general  session  being  met  and  constitute  ;  the  moderator 
having  informed  the  general  session  that  he  had  called  them  together  at  the 
desire  of  their  committee,  who  had  prepared  a  report  to  be  laid  before  them  : 
the  session  approve  of  their  being  called  for  this  purpose,  and  the  committee 
gave  in  their  report  in  writing.      The  tenor  whereof  follows  : — 

"  We  understand  that  our  business  as  a  committee  to  transact  with  the 
council  committee  is  now  at  an  end,  therefore  think  it  our  duty  without  delay 
to  report  to  the  general  session  that  there  has  been  a  meeting  of  the  town 
council  the  loth  current,  at  which  were  produced  the  opinions  of  a  numerous 
subscription  of  trades  and  burgesses  and  inhabitants  of  this  place,  as  also  the 
opinion  of  ten  of  the  incorporations,  relating  to  the  two  plans  published  by 
order  of  the  council  on  the  one  hand  and  of  the  general  session  on  the  other, 
for  the  information  of  the  inhabitants,  which  papers  by  the  ten  incorporations 
were  not  suffered  to  be  read,  although  no  other  cause  can  be  assigned  why  the 
council  published  their  plan,  and  allowed  ten  days  to  intervene,  but  that  the 
sentiments  of  the  inhabitants  might  be  gathered  and  laid  before  them  ;  and  we 
are  sorry  that  we  can  also  report,  that  at  said  meeting  of  council  the  following 
two  votes  were  carried. 

"  1st.  That  they  approve  of  the  aforesaid  plan,  which  entirely  excludes  the 
general  session  from  any  share  in  the  election  and  calling  of  ministers  to  this 
city,  and  ordered  it  to  be  inserted  in  their  books  as  the  rule  for  calling  ministers, 
in  room  of  the  model  1721  years. 

"  2d.  They  ordered  the  process  to  be  insisted  in  for  obtaining  a  declarator 
of  patronage  for  the  seventh  kirk,  and  that  the  clerk  should  write  the  town's 
agent  at  Edinburgh  first  post  to  that  effect,  even  before  any  plan  for  settling 
it  is  agreed  upon. 

"  And  we  have  further  to  report,  that  a  prevailing  party  in  the  council 
urged  the  above  precipitate  and  arbitrary  steps  in  opposition  to  the  chief 
magistrate  (Provost  Ingram),  who  protested  against  them,  and  was  adhered 
to  by  another  of  the  present  magistrates,  and  five  more  of  the  town 
council. 

"  The  general  session  having  heard  with  great  concern  the  above  report, 
cannot  help  expressing  their  surprise  at  such  unprecedented  and  arbitrary 
measures,  by  which  an  attempt  is  made  wholly  to  deprive  the  session  of  this 
burgh  of  the  right  which  they  have  in  the  calling  of  ministers,  which  is  con- 
firmed to  them  by  the  law  of  the  land,  and  which  they  have  hitherto  enjoyed 
without  molestation  ever  since  presbytery  was  established  in  Scotland  ;  by 
which  also  the  religious  liberties  of  the  inhabitants  have  been  trampled  upon, 
their  ancient  model  for  settling  ministers  abolished,  and  an  utter  contempt 
shown  to  their  judgment  in  the  whole  matter  of  calling  their  ministers. 

"  The  session  do  not  choose  to  enlarge  upon  the  provocation  which  they 
and  the  inhabitants  in  general  have  received  from  the  imprudence  and  violence 
of  a  certain  party  in  the  council ;  at  the  same  time,  they  have  a  most  grateful 


THE  WYND  CHURCH.  201 

sense  of  the  noble  stand  which  has  been  made  for  the  Hberty  and  peace  of  this 
city  by  the  chief  magistrate  and  those  who  adhered  to  him. 

"  The  general  session  having  done  what  they  could  to  preserve  peace,  and 
having  made  many  concessions  for  that  purpose  in  vain,  find  they  are  now 
obliged  to  defend  themselves  at  law. 

"  And  the  general  session  hereby  retract  all  the  concessions  which  they 
have  made  formerly  for  peace  sake,  by  themselves  or  their  committee,  and 
declare  their  adherence  to  the  model  1721. 

"  They  also  appoint  that  extracts  of  this  resolution  be  transmitted  to  the 
Merchants'  House,  and  to  the  several  incorporations  of  the  city,  and  to  be 
inserted  in  the  newspapers. 

"  Extracted  out  of  the  General  Session  books  by 

"  Matthew  Bogle,  session  clerk." 

Shortly  after  this  pithy  remonstrance  had  issued  from  the 
press — viz.  on  the  1 6th  of  March  1763 — the  Magistrates  and  Town 
Council  elected  Dr.  William  Craig  (father  of  Lord  Craig),  then 
officiating  as  minister  in  the  Wynd  Church  of  Glasgow,  to  be 
minister  of  St.  Andrew's  Church.  At  this  time  Dr.  Craig  had 
been  pastor  of  the  congregation  of  the  Wynd  Church  for  twenty- 
five  years,  having  been  admitted  to  that  charge  in  1738.  Most 
of  Dr.  Craig's  congregation  followed  him  to  St.  Andrew's  Church. 

The  Wynd  Church  appears  to  have  stood  vacant  for  some 
time  after  the  translation  of  Dr.  Craig  to  St.  Andrew's  Church, 
and  again  a  contest  arose  between  the  Glasgow  Session  and  the 
city  authorities,  when  the  election  of  a  minister  for  the  charge  of 
the  Wynd  Church  came  to  be  made  by  the  Magistrates  and  Town 
Council,  as  the  following  extract  shows  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  2d  February  1764. — "Yesterday  (ist  February),  the 
Presbytery  of  Glasgow  met  here,  and  had  under  consideration  the  settlement 
of  the  Wynd  Church,  when,  after  long  reasonings,  the  question  was  put  — 
'  Sustain  the  magistrates  and  council  of  Glasgow's  presentation  or  not .'' '  it 
carried  not ;  on  which  the  magistrates  entered  an  appeal  to  next  Synod." 

It  was  not  till  1766  that  the  Rev.  George  Bannatyne,  the 
nominee  of  the  Magistrates  and  Council,  was  admitted  to  the 
pastoral  charge  of  the  Wynd  Church. 

The  next  minister  of  the  Wynd  Church  was  the  celebrated 
Dr.  William  Porteous.  He  was  ordained  at  Whitburn  loth  of 
June  1760,  and  admitted  in  Glasgow  28th  June  1770  ;  for  forty 


202  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

years  he  was  the  great  clerical  leader  of  the  West.  The  Wynd 
Church  congregation  was  translated  to  St.  George's  Church  in 
1807,  aJid  the  church,  which  was  built  in  1687,  was  then 
abandoned.  (Dr.  Porteous  lived  in  Hoodie's  Wynd,  in  a  house 
of  ten  apartments.) 

The  architrave  in  front  of  St.  Andrew's  Church  has  been 
spoken  of  as  one  of  the  wonders  of  architecture,  and  has  been 
represented  as  a  long  flat  arch  spanning  the  whole  breadth  of  the 
church  ;  but  this  architrave  consists  of  five  separate  flat  arches, 
with  a  key-stone  in  the  centre  of  each.  These  arches  are  placed 
between  the  columns,  and,  in  fact,  make  a  stronger  support  than 
one  formed  from  a  single  stone.  A  fine  specimen  of  this  style  of 
building  may  be  seen  in  the  lintels  of  the  shop  windows  of  the 
tenement  at  the  corner  of  the  Cross,  which  are  so  formed  as  to  be 
quite  explanatory  of  the  mystery  of  the  so-called  flat  arch.  Mr. 
David  Hamilton  was  the  architect  of  this  tenement,  which  was 
built  by  Dr.  Cleland  on  the  site  of  the  Gaol. 

There  was  a  curious  old  building  in  the  Gallowgate,  near  the 
Cross,  which  stood  as  next  tenement  to  the  Trades'  Land,  head 
of  the  Saltmarket ;  it  was  called  the  "  Long  Stairs,"  on  account 
of  its  having  two  outside  stairs  to  the  floor  above  the  street,  one 
of  them  on  the  east,  and  the  other  on  the  west,  with  a  wooden 
platform  or  open  gallery  between  the  said  stairs.  From  this 
gallery  there  were  entrances  to  the  upper  flats  of  the  tenement. 

It  was  a  favourite  frolic  for  boys  to  make  this  place  a  sort  of 
racecourse  or  play-ground  by  chasing  one  another  up  one  stair, 
then  along  the  gallery,  and  down  the  other  stair.  There  were  no 
police  officers  in  those  days  to  interrupt  these  amusements,  and 
the  place  itself  was  the  lounging  resort  of  all  idle  blackguards. 
Behind  the  said  "  Long  Stairs "  there  was  an  extensive  close, 
running  directly  down  to  the  Molendinar  Burn.  (See  the  Plan.) 
This  close  was  the  Tontine  Close  of  olden  time,  and  was  the  den 
of  thieves  and  prostitutes  ;  luckily  for  the  public  it  was  accident- 
ally consumed  by  fire,  although  many  persons  believed  that  the 
fire  was  occasioned  by  an  act  of  wanton  mischief 

Glasgow  Merctiry,  30th  October  1792. — "Yesterday  (29th)  evening,  about 
six  o'clock,  an  alarming  fire  broke  out  in  that  land  near  the  Cross,  called  the 


FIRE  IN  "THE  LONG  STAIRS."  203 

'  Long  Stairs.'  It  raged  with  alarming  rapidity,  and  threatened  destruction 
to  the  Trades'  Land  and  a  number  of  houses  backwards.  The  fire  for  some 
time  baffled  every  effort  used  for  extinguishing  it,  and  spread  terror  and  dismay 
among  the  people  who  inhabited  the  houses  adjoining ;  but  by  a  steady  per- 
severance of  the  people  who  had  the  direction  of  the  water  engines  it  was  got 
under  by  ten  o'clock  at  night,  but  the  rubbish  continued  burning,  and  the 
engines,  with  a  proper  guard,  remained  all  night.  About  seven  this  morning 
it  appeared  to  be  gaining  head,  and  the  alarm  was  given,  bat  no  bad  conse- 
quences ensued.  This  alarming  fire  was  occasioned  by  one  of  the  bravoes, 
who  frequent  houses  of  bad  fame,  throwing  a  bottle  of  rum  into  the  chimney 
of  a  bawdy-house,  which  set  fire  to  some  linens  that  were  drying  at  the  fire. 
The  tenement  is  rendered  untenantable,  with  an  adjoining  back  land.  Little 
of  the  furniture  was  saved.  The  premises  were  insured  in  the  Sun  Fire 
Office." 

In  1768  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  obtained  on  Act  of 
Parliament  (8th  Geo.  IIL)  in  which  they  state — 

"  That  it  would  be  of  great  advantage  to  the  city  to  have  an  Exchange  or 
Square  near  the  Town  Hall,  for  which  purpose  the  magistrates  have  purchased 
several  old  houses  and  areas  on  the  north  side  of  the  said  hall  and  Tolbooth, 
but  the  premises  are  not  sufficient  for  building  the  said  Exchange  or  Square." 

They  therefore  sought  Parhamentary  powers  to  make  addi- 
tional purchases,  and  the  following  property  appears  to  have  been 
one  of  them  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  17th  March  1785. — "Sale  of  houses. — To  be  sold,  by 
public  roup,  &c.,  these  two  back  tenements  of  land,  lying  behind  the  Tontine 
Coffee  House  of  Glasgow,  and  upon  the  common  passage  between  the  Tron- 
gate  Street  and  Bell's  Wynd  to  the  east  of  the  Exchange,  to  which  there  is 
also  an  entr>'  from  the  High  Street  above  the  Cross,  as  the  said  subjects  are 
possessed  by  Mrs.  Reid,  change  keeper,  James  Cullen,  silversmith,  and  others. 
— Apply  to  John  Wilson,  jun.,  writer,  Glasgow." 

To  which  shortly  afterwards  was  added  as  follows : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  26th  September  1787. — "Notice, — That  the  stones, 
timber,  and  slates,  and  whole  other  materials  of  that  tenement  of  land  called 
'  Legat's  Back  Tenement,'  lying  at  the  back  of  the  clerk's  chamber  of  Glasgow, 
and  on  the  east  side  of  the  Tontine,  are  to  be  sold  by  public  roup  within  the 
Laigh  Council  Chamber  of  Glasgow,  upon  Wednesday,  the  3d  of  October 
next,  between  the  hours  of  i  and  2  of  that  day. — Apply  to  the  town  clerks  of 
Glasgow." 

These  properties  came  to  form  a  principal  part  of  the  back 
court  behind  the  Tontine  Plotel,  and  likewise  on  their  site  were 


204  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

built  the  sugar  sample  room,  and  the  large  back  tenement  at 
present  occupied  by  the  Messrs.  Cross  and  others.  The  back 
tenement  was  originally  built  for  the  greater  accommodation  and 
extension  of  the  Tontine  Hotel,  and  was  used  by  the  late  Mr. 
Smart  as  a  suite  of  bedrooms  in  addition  to  those  of  the  hotel 
itself. 

In  the  Glasgow  Merairy  oi  12th  September  1787  we  find 
the  following  passage  regarding  the  Tontine  : — 

"  About  two  o'clock  on  Wednesday  morning  the  upper  flight  of  steps  of  the 
hanging  stairs  leading  to  the  Assembly  room  in  the  Tontine  Buildings  fell  and 
broke  the  under  flight.  The  goodness  of  Providence  was  very  conspicuous  on 
that  occasion.  One  of  the  patroles  was  just  returned  from  going  their  round, 
and  about  taking  the  stair  to  go  up  to  the  hall  where  the  citizens  of  the  guard 
staid,  when  the  captain  of  patrole  ordered  the  roll  to  be  called,  during  which 
the  stair  fell,  and  struck  them  with  astonishment,  and  with  gratitude  to  their 
omnipotent  preserver ;  for  had  they  been  on  the  stair  they  could  not  have 
escaped  being  crushed  to  death." 

It  was  at  this  time  that  a  riot  had  taken  place  in  Glasgow 
among  the  weavers,  in  consequence  of  the  prices  of  weaving 
having  been  lowered,  and  three  men  had  been  shot  by  the 
military  in  the  course  of  quelling  the  said  riot,  on  the  Monday 
before  the  stairs  fell.  A  company  of  the  56th  regiment  had 
arrived  from  Ayr  to  assist  the  39th  regiment  in  preserving  the 
peace  of  the  city,  and  there  happening  to  be  a  want  of  bed 
accommodation  at  the  time  in  Glasgow  for  the  military  party  so 
suddenly  arrived,  temporary  bedding  had  been  laid  underneath 
the  hanging  stair  two  nights  before  the  accident  happened,  and 
some  of  the  soldiers  of  the  56th  regiment  had  slept  there  on  the 
Monday  night  unconscious  of  the  danger  which  had  been  pending 
over  them.  The  hanging  stair  which  fell  was  a  remarkably  fine 
structure,  and  was  greatly  admired  for  its  architectural  beauty  ; 
it  was  immediately  replaced  by  the  present  stair  which  leads  up 
to  the  Tontine  Hotel  from  the  court  under  the  piazzas. 

The  herd's  house  shown  on  the  Plan  was  situated  near  the 
site  of  the  present  Nelson's  Monument ;  but  in  my  early  days  it 
was  not  in  the  occupation  or  under  the  charge  of  a  herd,  but  was 
used  by  the  golfers  as  a  depot  for  holding  their  clubs  and  balls 
when  no  play  was  going  on.      There  was  an  attendant,  however, 


THE  TOWN  HERD'S  FEES.  205 

who  took  charge  of  the  said  golfers'  clubs  and  balls,  and  received 
a  perquisite  from  them  for  his  care  and  attention  in  so  doing  ;  a 
great  proportion  of  the  players,  nevertheless,  preferred  carrying 
their  clubs  and  balls  to  their  own  homes,  after  having  finished 
their  sport,  thereby  saving  the  payment  of  a  fee  to  the  attendant 
of  the  place. 

Of  old  the  fees  of  the  herds  of  the  Green  appear  to  have  been 
very  trifling,  as  the  following  notice  shows  : — 

Burgh  Records^  14th  October  1578, — "Item,  eodem  gevin  to  Thomas 
Tempilltoun  and  Petir  Aikin,  hirdis,  for  pouertie  and  almous  because  yai  gat 
na  fee,  xll" 

The  herds  of  the  Green  must  have  been  old  decrepit  men,  quite 
unfit  for  ordinary  manual  labour,  as  the  fees  of  the  office  amounted 
to  no  more  than  the  pittance  of  a  mere  charitable  offering. 

Burgh  Records,  26th  May  1579. — "  Matho  Wilson  is  maid  and  constitut 
calfhird,  quha  hes  fund  Patrik  Bell  cautione  for  administratioun  in  his  office, 
and  is  ordanit  to  have  vi^  for  ilk  calf,  and  his  melt  daylie  about  or  ellis  yX\^.  for 
melte.'.i  gif  yai  failye  and  to  be  poyndit  y'  for." 

It  may  be  here  remarked  that  a  Scotch  penny  is  one-eleventh 
of  an  English  penny,  so  that  the  herd  received  only  about  one 
halfpenny  English  for  each  calf,  and  about  one  penny  for  each 
meltel.  Supposing  the  word  melte.*.  above  used  to  mean  a  meal, 
we  learn  by  it  that  in  the  reign  of  James  VI.  (1579)  a  meal  for 
a  working  man  was  valued  at  or  about  one  penny  English. 

^  Jamieson  says,  "Melteth,"  ist,  "The  quantity  of  milk  yielded  by  a  cow  at  one 
time;"  2d,  "A  meal." 


CHAPTER  XIII. 

Humane  Society  House  founded  in  1790 — Nelson's  Monument — The  great  stonn  of 
1 8 10 — Ams  Well — The  Slaughter-House  and  regulations  thereanent — Markets  in 
1744  —Queen  Mary  in  Glasgow  with  Darnley — Lamplighting  in  1792 — The  Glasgow 
Streets  in  1560 — Saracen's  Head  Inn — Causewaying  in  Glasgow  in  1578. 

The  Humane  Society  House  is  situated  in  the  High  Green,  a 
little  to  the  east  of  the  Arns  Well.  It  was  founded  in  1790. 
Mr.  Coulter,  a  merchant  in  Glasgow,  commenced  this  institution 
by  a  donation  of  ;^5oo,  and  the  residue  of  the  funds  was  raised 
by  subscription.  The  following  is  a  notice  of  the  first  meeting  of 
its  members  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  17th  August  1790. — <' The  Humane  Society  of  Glasgow 
met  yesterday  (i6th)  in  the  Tontine  Tavern,  for  the  first  time,  and  elected  the 
following  gentlemen,  viz.,  Gilbert  Hamilton,  Esq.,  president,  Dr.  Robert  Cleg- 
horn,  secretary,  Mr.  Robert  Simpson,  treasurer.  Dr.  Thomas  Reid,  Messrs. 
William  Craig,  David  Dale,  and  Gilbert  Shearer,  annual  directors,  and  Mr. 
Lawrence  Coulter  (to  whose  brother  the  society  owes  its  origin)  extraordinary 
director.  The  society  adopted  a  number  of  regulations  calculated  to  ensure 
success  to  their  exertions,  and  agreed  to  meet  four  times  a  year.  Although 
out  of  fifty  subscription  papers,  only  eight  were  returned,  yet  the  sums  sub- 
scribed in  these  eight  amounted  to  £Zz  12s  6d.  That  much  more  will  be 
procured  we  have  no  doubt." 

Nelson's  Monument,  situated  in  the  High  Green  of  Glasgow, 
was  erected  in  1 806,  by  public  subscription,  at  an  expense  of  up- 
wards of  ;^2000.  The  foundations  of  this  towering  obelisk  were 
laid  on  the  ist  of  August  1806,  being  the  anniversary  of  the 
battle  of  Aboukir.  It  is  144  feet  in  height,  including  the  pedestal, 
and  is  fenced  in  by  a  handsome  iron  railing,  to  protect  it  from  the 
mischievous  depredations  of  boys  and  idlers. 

This  elegant  structure  is,  unfortunately,  situated  too  near  the 


NELSON'S  MONUMENT  STRUCK  BY  LIGHTNING.     207 

numerous  smoking  brick  stalks  of  our  widespread  factories,  which, 
from  their  near  resemblance  of  form  to  an  obelisk,  tend  greatly 
to  lessen  the  effect  of  this  graceful  cenotaph,  erected  by  our 
citizens  to  the  greatest  naval  hero  of  Britain. 

In  1 8 1  o  Glasgow  was  visited  with  one  of  the  most  tremen- 
dous storms  of  lightning,  thunder,  and  rain  that  ever  was  known 
to  have  taken  place  there  in  the  memory  of  the  oldest  inhabitants. 
I  remember  this  storm  very  well,  and  remained  at  home  on  the 
Sunday  when  it  occurred,  watching  with  great  interest  the  effects 
of  every  vivid  flash  of  lightning,  and  the  instant  thunder-peal 
which  succeeded  each  electric  stream  of  light ;  in  particular,  just 
before  sitting  down  to  dinner,  a  little  after  four  o'clock,  while  I 
was  standing  with  my  face  to  the  window,  observing  the  scene, 
there  occurred  the  most  vivid  flash  and  instant  tremendous 
thunder-clap  of  the  storm.  It  was  this  thunder-bolt  which 
struck  Nelson's  Monument  and  rent  it  nearly  from  top  to  bottom, 
as  the  following  account  shows  : — 

Scots  Magazine,  August  1 8 10,  page  S^Z- — "Glasgow  6th  August  1810. — 
On  Sunday  afternoon  (5th)  we  had  a  most  violent  storm  of  thunder  and 
lightning,  accompanied  by  excessively  heavy  rain.  About  a  quarter  past  four 
the  lightning  struck  the  top  of  Lord  Nelson's  Monument,  and  we  regret  to 
say  that  it  has  most  materially  injured  that  elegant  structure.  On  the  north 
side,  the  column  is  torn  open  for  more  than  twenty  feet  from  the  top,  and 
several  of  the  stones  have  been  thrown  down.  On  the  west  side  the  effects  of 
the  destructive  fluid  are  visible  in  more  than  one  place ;  and  on  the  south 
side  there  is  a  rent  in  the  column,  as  far  down  as  the  head  of  the  pedestal. 
A  number  of  the  stones  are  hanging  in  such  a  threatening  posture  that  a 
military'  guard  has  very  properly  been  placed  around  the  monument  to  keep, 
at  a  distance  the  thoughtless  or  too  daring  spectators." 

Shortly  before  this  happened  the  Royal  Infirmary  had  been 
struck  by  the  lightning  of  the  same  storm. 

"Glasgow,  5th  August,  Royal  Infirmary.  —  Sunday,  near  two  o'clock, 
while  the  physicians  were  going  their  rounds,  there  was  a  violent  thunder 
clap,  without  any  perceptible  interval  between  the  flash  and  the  stroke,  which 
seemed  to  shake  the  Infirmary.  All  the  chimneys  were  affected,  but  par- 
ticularly the  western.  The  lowest  of  the  women's  wards,  where  the  writer  of 
this  was,  exhibited  a  very  awful  appearance.  During  four  or  six  seconds  all 
the  flame  was  suddenly  drawn  into  the  wards  with  a  rustling  noise,  together 
with   a  dense   column  of  soot   and  smoke,  which   instantly  filled  the  ward. 


2o8  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Fortunately,  no  person  was  hurt ;  but  the  patients  screamed  aloud,  and 
such  as  could  rise  ran  from  their  beds.  Similar  appearances,  though  in 
different  degrees,  took  place  through  the  whole  house,  which  seems  to  have 
been  enveloped  in  a  thunder  cloud,  and  which  may  probably  have  owed  its 
preservation  to  the  quantity  of  rain  flowing  from  its  roof.  This  occurrence, 
and  the  injury  of  Nelson's  Monument,  suggests  the  propriety  of  guarding 
every  building  much  exposed,  by  thunder  rods,  which,  when  properly  con- 
structed, have  never  failed  to  prove  a  safeguard.  The  lightning  also,  a  little 
past  four  o'clock,  struck  a  house  of  three  storeys  high,  in  Rottenrow  Street. 
In  the  upper  floor  a  window  was  shivered  to  pieces  ;  in  the  second  floor  a 
kettle,  which  was  on  the  fire,  had  its  spout  melted  off;  in  the  ground  floor 
several  children  and  their  mother  were  sitting  at  the  fire  ;  the  children's  hair 
was  much  singed,  and  the  mother  was  thrown  a  considerable  distance  ;  a 
hole,  about  an  inch  diameter,  was  made  through  the  bottom  of  an  oil  lamp, 
which  was  standing  on  the  chimney  piece.  The  electric  matter  then  went 
through  a  stone  wall  about  nine  inches  thick,  and  struck  a  tin  flagon  on  the 
opposite  side  of  the  room." 

This  storm  extended  throughout  the  whole  south  parts  of 
Scotland  and  north  of  England.  At  Ayr,  Dumfries,  Kilwinning, 
Carlisle,  Newcastle,  Whitehaven,  and  their  respective  neighbour- 
hoods, it  damaged  various  houses  and  public  edifices,  but  fortu- 
nately no  lives  were  lost,  although  several  persons  were  slightly 
injured.  At  London,  in  the  house  of  Mr.  Fraser,  at  Chelsea,  the 
hailstones  had  fallen  in  such  quantities  into  a  back  cellar,  the 
door  of  which  happened  to  be  open,  as  to  become  a  complete 
piece  of  solid  ice,  about  eight  feet  in  circumference  and  two  feet 
in  depth.  In  Westminster  and  Lambeth  several  houses  were 
struck  and  injured  ;  an  old  lady  received  a  considerable  shock, 
but  was  not  severely  hurt. 

This  was  the  most  severe  thunderstorm  that  has  happened  in 
Glasgow  within  my  remembrance,  and  was  more  appalling  than  the 
great  storm  of  the  9th  of  August  1787.  The  Glasgow  papers 
of  the  time  thus  commenced  their  reports  of  this  great  storm  : 
"  On  the  evening  of  Thursday,  the  9th  current,  we  had  one  of 
the  most  tremendous  storms  of  thunder  and  lightning  that  has 
been  known  in  this  place."  One  of  the  strongest  flashes  struck  a 
house  in  Finnieston  ;  the  lightning  fell  upon  the  middle  chimney- 
top,  the  stones  of  which  broke  through  the  roof  of  the  house. 
It  struck  a  woman  to  the  floor,  where  she  lay  insensible  for  a 
considerable  time.     The  stream  appeared  to  have  passed  along 


THE  ARNS  WELL.  209 

the  surface  of  her  body  ;  her  skin  and  some  of  her  clothes  were 
burned.  The  lightning-  passed  through  her  right  leg,  and  tore 
her  shoe  to  pieces.  The  joists  were  split,  the  furniture  scattered 
here  and  there  ;  and  after  killing  a  rabbit  in  its  passage  the  fluid 
burst  through  the  outer  wall  of  the  house  and  sank  into  the  earth. 

The  Arns  Well,  situated  on  the  "  brae-face  "  of  that  part  of 
the  Green  which  lies  between  the  Humane  Society  House  and 
Nelson's  Monument,  has  been  celebrated  for  ages  as  containing 
the  finest  spring  water  of  any  well  in  the  city  or  suburbs,  and 
its  superior  quality  has  again  and  again  been  tested  by  the 
analyser,  and  proved  to  be  one  of  the  purest  springs  to  be  found 
anywhere. 

In  my  early  days  the  Arns  Well  water  was  looked  upon  as 
a  sort  of  dainty,  and  I  have  often  heard  a  landlord  of  a  feast, 
upon  making  the  celebrated  Glasgow  cold  rum  punch,  inform 
his  guests,  by  way  of  commendation  of  his  nectar,  that  it  was 
made  from  Arns  Well  water.  In  like  manner  old  ladies,  in 
order  to  puff  up  the  fine  flavour  of  their  tea,  used  to  inform  the 
company  that  the  water  had  just  been  drawn  from  the  Arns 
Well. 

I  remember  this  well  when  it  was  merely  an  open  running 
stream  ;  but  it  afterwards  was  built  into  a  neat  drinking  fountain, 
and  access  to  it  made  commodious  to  the  public,  which  had  be- 
come necessary,  as  the  road  to  it  was  through  a  spongy  morass, 
well  known  to  this  day  by  the  name  of  the  "  Peat  Bog." 

As  to  the  Gaol  and  public  offices,  which  were  erected  in  18 10, 
at  the  western  extremity  of  the  Low  Green  of  Glasgow,  our  local 
historians  have  given  us  so  full  an  account  of  them  that  I  have 
little  to  add  to  the  information  which  they  have  handed  down  to 
us  on  the  subject ;  but  it  may  be  here  stated  that  these  extensive 
buildings  have  been  erected  upon  the  site  of  the  Skinners'  Green 
(see  Plan),  between  the  Molendinar  Burn  and  the  Slaughter- 
House,  a  local  position  certainly  not  very  favourable  to  the  idea 
of  our  public  offices  resting  on  the  land  of  Arabia  the  blessed. 

Previous  to  the  year    1744   there  was  no  public  slaughter- 
house  in    Glasgow,  every  butcher   having   a   slaughter-house   of 
his  own  ;  but  in  the  course  of  the  above  year  the  Magistrates 
VOL.  III.  p 


2  10  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

and  Council  of  the  city  built  the  slaughter-houses  on  the  side 
of  the  River  Clyde,  as  shown  in  the  two  Plans  hereto  annexed, 
The  stalls  in  these  were  let  from  time  to  time  to  the  Incorporation 
of  Fleshers  for  about  ten  years  afterwards.  It  so  happened,  how- 
ever, that  at  the  expiry  of  the  said  ten  years  some  demur  had 
taken  place  in  the  incorporation  as  to  the  expediency  of  continu- 
ing to  rent  these  slaughter-houses  ;  in  consequence  of  which  the 
Magistrates,  as  guardians  of  the  public,  threatened  to  prohibit 
slaughtering  within  burgh  as  a  nuisance  to  the  inhabitants.  The 
fleshers,  not  choosing  to  slaughter  without  burgh,  which  they 
might  have  done,  came  into  the  terms  of  the  Magistrates  ;  and 
upon  this  footing  matters  remained  till  the  year  1755.  The 
whole  of  this  arrangement  was  reduced  to  form,  and  legal  validity 
was  given  to  it  by  an  Act  of  Council,  passed  on  the  8th  December 
1755.  Previous  to  this  time  the  rent  of  the  Slaughter-House 
appears  to  have  been  ;^40  per  annum. 

Council  Records,  29th  April  1755. — «' Accompt. — To  rent  of  Slaughter- 
House  from  Candlemas  1752,  to  Candlemas  1753,  ^40  os  od." 

By  the  arrangement  of  1755  it  was  agreed  that — 
*'  In  case  any  butcher  or  butchers  shall  presume  to  kill  or  slaughter  their 
cattle  in  anywhere  else  than  their  Slaughter-Houses  at  the  river  side,  they  shall 
be  liable  to  a  forfeiture  of  the  carcases  of  the  beast  so  killed  or  slaughtered  in 
any  other  place  than  the  said  Slaughter-House  appointed  for  that  purpose." 

And  by  another  clause  of  the  said  arrangement  it  was 
stipulated  that — 

"  The  butchers  and  fleshers  shall  pay  the  rents  and  duties  therefore  to  the 
town  of  Glasgow  for  the  use  of  said  markets  and  slaughter-houses  at  the  rates 
following,  viz. — For  each  head  of  black  cattle,  6d  sterling  ;  for  every  dozen  of 
calves,  sheep,  or  goats,  I2d  sterling;  for  every  dozen  of  lambs  or  kids,  6d 
sterlino-  ;  and  for  hogs  or  pigs  in  proportion  ;  and  that  all  country  fleshers 
shall,  for  the  use  of  the  market  allotted  to  them,  pay  the  double  of  the  above 
rates  ;  and  ordered  that  the  said  rents  be  exacted  and  levied  weekly  from  the 
town  and  country  butchers,  viz.,  from  the  town  fleshers  upon  Saturday,  'weekly,' 
and  from  the  country  fleshers  upon  the  market  days  upon  which  they  use  and 
occupy  the  markets  appointed  for  them." 

All  questions  between  the  Magistrates  and  fleshers  having 
been  settled  by  the  agreement  of  1755,  matters  continued  to  go 
on  with  the  utmost  harmony  between  them  until  the  year  1799, 


CATTLE  REGULATIONS.  211 

when  the  Magistrates,  by  an  Act  of  Council,  assumed  to  them- 
selves the  power  of  augmenting  the  duties  fixed  in  1755,  and  this 
against  the  consent  of  the  Incorporation  of  Fleshers.  The  fleshers 
opposed  the  said  augmentation,  in  consequence  of  which  a 
lengthened  lawsuit  took  place  between  the  parties  before  the 
Court  of  Session,  which  ended  in  their  Lordships  of  the  Court 
unanimously  finding  "  that  the  Magistrates  were  positively  barred 
by  the  agreement  of  1755,  which  was  to  be  considered  a  definite 
settlement  for  regulating  the  mutual  rights  of  the  parties." 

Ever  since  there  have  been  constant  bickerings  between  the 
Incorporation  of  Fleshers  and  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  about 
some  point  or  another  relative  to  the  Slaughter-House  and  stalls 
in  the  public  markets,  which  it  is  unnecessary  and  would  be 
tedious  to  discuss. 

In  the  Glasgow  Mercmy  of  nth  November  1799  the  follow- 
ing notice  from  the  Magistrates  was  published  : — 

"  By  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow. — Whereas  the  following  regulations  are 
necessary  for  the  police  of  the  town,  the  magistrates  ordain  intimation  to  be 
made  in  the  public  newspapers,  and  injoin  all  concerned  to  give  obedience 
thereto  as  they  will  be  answerable.  Regulations — All  cattle  for  slaughter 
brought  into  this  city  must  be  driven  agreeable  to  the  following  direction — 

"  The  cattle  that  come  in  by  the  Stable  Green  Port  must  be  driven  down 
the  Drygate,  go  from  that  by  the  old  Gallowgate  Toll-bar  and  Burnt  Barns  by 
the  back  of  the  Greendyke  to  the  Slaughter-House.  Cattle  coming  from  the 
eastward  and  by  Rutherglen  Bridge,  to  go  also  by  the  back  of  the  Greendyke 
to  the  Slaughter-House. 

"  Cattle  coming  by  both  bridges  to  be  driven  the  shortest  road  to  the 
Slaughter-House. 

"  Cattle  coming  from  the  westward  and  by  Cowcaddens  Toll,  to  be  driven 
down  Jamaica  Street  and  along  Clyde  Street  to  the  Slaughter-House. 

"  No  cattle  of  any  kind,  upon  any  account  whatever,  to  be  driven  through 
any  part  of  the  Town's  royalty  on  Sunday  ;  and  if  any  cattle  are  hunted 
through  the  streets  at  any  time,  the  owners  as  well  as  the  drivers  will  be 
punished  with  the  utmost  rigour  of  law. 

"  No  cattle  of  any  kind,  upon  any  account  whatever,  to  be  hung  in  any  of 
the  entries  to  the  markets. 

"  Every  master  butcher  must  give  in  to  the  magistrates,  between  and 
Wednesday  next,  an  exact  list  of  the  number  and  names  of  their  servants,  and 
of  the  exact  number  of  dogs  belonging  to  each  of  them  ;  and  they  must 
depone  to  the  verity  of  this  report. 

"  The    magistrates   of  this   city   having   fitted    up   a   market  for   country 


212  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

butchers  in  Bell's  Wynd,  the  following  regulations  are  to  be  observed  :  The 
market  is  to  open  on  Wednesdays  and  Saturdays,  and  no  other  day  ;  and  no 
butchers,  residing  in  town,  to  be  allowed  to  sell  meat  in  it. 

"  Every  person  intending  to  have  the  benefit  of  this  market,  to  apply  for 
leave  to  the  bispector  of  Police,  and  subscribe  the  regulations.  The  market 
dues  must  be  paid  regularly  to  the  tacksman.  No  dogs  are  to  be  allowed  in 
this  market.  Any  butcher  who  attempts  to  bring  bad  or  unwholesome  meat, 
or  to  blow,  or  put  webs  on  his  meat,  will  have  it  confiscated,  and  be  turned 
out  of  the  market. 

"  No  carcases  of  beef  to  be  allowed  in  the  market ;  and,  therefore,  it  must 
be  cut  into  quarters  before  it  is  brought  there. 

"  All  unsold  meat  to  be  removed  at  night,  and  the  stalls  left  clean  by  the 
butchers  who  occupied  them  through  the  day. 

"  This  market  will  be  opened  on  Wednesday  next,  the  i  oth  current,  after 
which  no  butcher  meat  will  be  suffered  to  be  sold  in  the  Candleriggs  market. 

"  The  Candleriggs  market,  after  Tuesday  next,  is  to  be  kept  entirely  for  a 
potato  market,  after  which  day  all  potatoes  are  required  to  be  carried  there, 
as  none  will  be  allowed  in  the  Fish  market  in  King  Street. — Glasgow,  4th 
November  1779." 

Previous  to  the  notification  of  the  above  regulations — viz.  on 
the  22d  of  April  1799 — the  Magistrates  had  advertised  that  they 
had  appointed  the  old  Fish  Market  in  the  Candleriggs  for  country 
butchers,  and  ordained  them  to  sell  their  meat  there,  and  pro- 
hibited and  discharged  all  persons  from  selling  meat  in  the  entry 
to  the  Wynd  Church. 

As  the  eastern  portion  of  the  Police  Buildings  in  Bell  Street 
now  occupies  the  site  of  the  ancient  Bell  Street  Flesh  Market,  of 
old  appropriated  for  the  use  of  country  fleshers,  the  following 
declaration  of  a  witness  who  was  examined  in  a  process  relative 
to  the  said  market  in  181 1,  may  perhaps  prove  interesting  to 
many  of  our  old  citizens  : — 

"Glasgow,  9th  January  181 1. — Agnes  Reid,  widow  of  John  Haines, 
labourer  in  Glasgow,  aged  about  80  (say  born  about  173O.  who  being 
solemnly  sworn  and  interrogated,  depones — That  she  was  born  in  Bell's 
Wynd,  and  her  father  was  a  butcher  in  Glasgow,  and  the  deponent  has 
resided  constantly  there.  That  her  father  had  a  stall  in  the  Bell's  Wynd 
market  when  the  rebels  were  in  Glasgow.  That  at  this  period  it  was  open 
every  lawful  day ;  but  on  Wednesdays,  the  butchers  who  had  stalls  in  it  sold 
their  meat  on  stands  in  the  Trongate.  That  she  recollects  the  building  of  the 
King  Street  market  (in  1 744) ;  and  after  they  were  built,  her  father  removed 
his  stall  to  them ;  and  he  also  removed  to  a  dwelling-house  near  to  them. 
And  being  interrogated,  depones — That  the  Bell  Street  market  was  built  at  a 


QUEEN  MARY  IN  GLASGOW.  213 

period  beyond  her  recollection.  That  after  the  King  Street  markets  were 
built,  the  market  in  Bell  Street  was  locked  up,  and  made  a  repository  for 
lumber,  etc. ;  and  after  this  was  again  opened  for  country  butchers.  That 
before  the  King  Street  markets  were  built,  it  was  the  butchers  who  sold 
mutton  who  occupied  the  Bell  Street  market  ;  and  at  that  time  the  butchers 
who  sold  beef  had  their  stands  in  the  Candleriggs  ;  and  when  the  fleshers  went 
to  the  King  Street  markets,  those  who  sold  mutton  went  chiefly  to  the  market 
on  the  west  side  of  the  street,  and  those  who  sold  beef  to  the  market  on  the 
east  side  ;  and  before  the  King  Street  markets  were  built,  there  were,  to  the 
best  of  the  deponent's  knowledge,  no  country  butchers  who  sold  meat  publicly 
in  Glasgow.  That  at  the  period  before  mentioned,  when  the  Bell  Street 
market  came  to  be  occupied  by  country  butchers,  it  was  only  open  to  them  on 
market  days.     And  this  is  truth,"  etc. 

Before  Candleriggs  was  opened  in  1724  the  public  markets 
were  probably  situated  in  the  High  Street ;  but  country  fleshers 
seem  to  have  had  full  liberty  to  sell  butcher  meat  in  the  town 
without  payment  of  any  dues  for  the  liberty  of  so  doing. 

Council  Records,  6th  October  1610. — "Item:  It  is  statute  and  ordainit  yt 
it  sail  be  leisum  to  owt  in  towne  flescheours  ilk  day  in  the  ouk  to  mak  mercate 
of  flesche  wt  this  hurt,  and  to  sell  the  samin  in  leg,  bouk,  and  sydes,  and  yt 
na  impediment  be  maid  to  yame,  nor  na  nane  of  yame  be  frie  men  fleschers, 
and  yt  they  bring  wt  yame  hyde,  held,  skin,  and  tallow,  and  yt  na  frie  men 
fleschers  by  flesche  in  the  land  mercat,  nor  yair  wyfes,  bairns,  or  handis  to 
sell  ovir  again  under  cullor  to  furnish  nobillmen,  gentile  men,  or  countrie 
men,  and  yt  under  the  payne  of  xty,  to  be  tain  of  ilk  veill,  sheip,  and  lamb 
yey  by,  and  xxxb.  of  ilk  mart  and  yey  happen  to  by." 

Glasgow  at  this  time  contained  only  7644  inhabitants. — 
Chapman. 

During  the  time  when  Queen  Mary  visited  her  husband, 
Darnley,  in  Glasgow,  the  markets  and  streets  of  the  city  appear 
to  have  been  usually  allowed  to  remain  in  a  state  of  great  filth 
and  nastiness,  every  one  using  the  same  at  his  or  her  pleasure,  as 
receptacles  for  depositing  thereon  all  manner  of  nuisances  and 
family  off-scourings.  Her  Majesty  never  appears  to  have  ventured 
during  her  sojourn  in  Glasgow  to  have  taken  a  pleasure-stroll 
along  the  streets  of  the  city,  no  doubt  remembering  the  well-known 
cry  of  her  capital — "  Carder:  vous  !" 

Council  Records,  ist  October  1577. — "Item:  It  is  statut  and  ordanit  yat 
yair  be  na  middynis  laid  vpone  ye  foirgait,  on  ye  greyne,  nor  zit  on  meill  nor 
fische  mercats,  nor  yat  na  flesch"?  teyme  yair  vschawis  vpone  ye  foirgate,  undir 


2  14  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

ye  pane  of  audit  schillings  ilk  fait  vnforgevin,  and  yat  na  stanes  nor  tymmer 
ly  on  ye  hie  gait  langar  nor  zeir  and  daye,  undir  ye  pane  of  escheting  yairof." 
{ALB. — Aucht  schillings  Scots  is  about  7|d.  English.) 

Agnes  Reid,  in  her  deposition  before  mentioned,  stated  that 
the  Bell  Street  Market  was  for  some  time  locked  up,  and  made  a 
repository  for  lumber,  etc.  I  remember  when  it  was  so  closed  for 
several  years  as  a  public  market,  and  then  again  opened  as  the 
Bell  Street  Market  During  the  time  that  it  was  closed  as  a 
market  it  was  occupied  as  a  cellar  by  a  Mr.  Drummond,  for 
storing  his  oil-casks,  he  being  then  the  contractor  for  lighting  the 
city  lamps,  which  at  this  time  appear  to  have  been  pretty 
numerous,  and  required  a  large  stock  of  oil  to  be  held  in  reserve. 

Mr.  Drummond  became  contractor  in  consequence  of  the 
following  advertisement : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  17th  July  1792. — "Wanted,  by  the  lord  provost  and 
magistrates  of  Glasgow,  a  person  to  contract  for  lighting  the  lamps  on  the 
streets,  squares,  and  lanes  of  that  city,  for  such  a  number  of  years  as  can  be 
agreed  upon.  The  number  of  lamps,  including  those  belonging  to  private 
persons,  which  are  usually  lighted  by  the  public  contractor,  are  supposed  to 
be  about  eight  hundred.     For  particular  information,  apply  to  the  city  clerks." 

Immediately  previous  to  the  union  of  the  crowns  in  lyoy, 
when  Glasgow,  according  to  Chapman,  contained  12,766  inha- 
bitants, there  were  no  street  lamps  throughout  the  city ;  but  it 
appears  that  soon  afterwards,  about  the  year  1 7 1 8,  a  few  street 
lamps,  of  a  conical  shape,  were  erected  in  some  of  the  most  public 
thoroughfares  of  the  city.  They  must,  however,  have  been  very 
few  in  number,  and  not  particularly  conspicuous  for  their  brilliancy, 
as  M'Ure,  who  wrote  in  1736,  makes  no  mention  of  street  lamps 
then  illuminating  the  public  places  of  Glasgow. 

Queen  Mary,  on  her  visit  to  Darnley,  arrived  in  Glasgow  on 
the  2  2d  of  January  1567,  and  remained  a  week  there,  returning 
to  Edinburgh  with  her  husband  by  easy  journeys,  and  arriving  in 
the  capital  on  the  31st  of  the  said  month,  when  the  unfortunate 
Darnley,  just  recovering  from  the  small-pox,  was,  at  the  Queen's 
desire,  lodged  in  an  outhouse  of  the  suburbs  called  the  "  Kirk  of 
Field,"  where  the  well-known  gunpowder  catastrophe  took  place 
on  the  9th  of  February    1567.       It  appears  by  a  MS.  letter  in 


DARNLEY  IN  GLASGOW.  215 

the  State  Paper  Office,  that  the  evening  before  Darnley  was 
hurried  into  eternity  he  repeated  to  those  around  him  the 
following  words  from  the  fifty-fifth  Psalm  : 

"  Oh  Lord  !  on  them  destruction  bring, 

And  do  their  tongues  divide  ; 
For  in  the  city  violence 

And  strife  I  have  espied. 
They,  day  and  night,  upon  the  walls 

Do  go  about  it  round: 
There  mischief  is,  and  sorrow  there 

In  midst  of  it  is  found. 
Abundant  wickedness  there  is 

Within  her  inward  part, 
And  from  her  streets  deceitfulness 

And  guile  do  not  depart." 

Many  of  our  historians  have  alleged  that  Darnley,  while  in 
Glasgow,  lodged  in  the  Drygate,  and  even  the  site  of  the  house 
where  he  then  resided  has  been  pointed  out ;  but  Tytler  (vol.  v. 
p.  372)  says  that  Darnley,  being  offended,  "abruptly  left  the 
Court,  and  took  up  his  residence  with  his  father,  Lennox,  in  Glas- 
gow." Now  the  house  and  garden  belonging  to  the  Earl  of 
Lennox  in  Glasgow  was  situated  in  the  High  Street,  and  occupied 
the  site  of  the  present  College  Street.  It  no  doubt  was  then  a 
mansion-house  standing  quite  in  the  country,  for  we  find  that 
Queen  Mary,  a  few  years  before  this  time — viz.  in  1560 — had 
executed  a  grant  to  the  University  of  thirteen  Scots  acres  of  land 
immediately  adjoining  to  it,  which  shows  that  the  neighbourhood 
was  then  rural,  although  in  the  vicinity  of  the  monastery  of  Black 
Friars. 

As  there  were  no  such  conveniences  in  Glasgow  at  the  time  in 
question  as  covered  shores  for  drainage,  the  whole  filth  of  the 
upper  parts  of  the  city  of  course  found  its  way  down  the  High 
Street  by  deep  gotes  and  miry  gutters,  which  seem  to  have  been 
little  attended  to  by  the  public  authorities  of  the  city.  Even  in 
my  day  there  was  a  deep  and  nauseous  slough  in  the  Candleriggs 
(in  front  of  the  present  Bazaar),  full  of  maggots,  which  was  never 
cleaned,  but  was  allowed  to  evaporate  and  filtrate  its  contents 
awav  without  restraint. 


2i6  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

It  has  already  been  stated  that  at  this  time  the  streets  of 
Glasgow  were  permitted  to  remain  in  a  condition  of  great  filth 
and  nastiness,  every  one  making  the  street  before  his  door  his 
common  midden-stead  ;  but  shortly  after  the  Queen's  visit,  the 
subject  seems  to  have  been  attended  to  by  the  Magistrates  and 
crafts  of  the  city,  and  an  assessment  for  causewaying  the  said 
streets  was  appointed  to  be  levied  on  the  inhabitants.  This  was 
the  first  assessment  levied  for  making  and  repairing  the  public 
streets  of  Glasgow. 

It  may  be  here  remarked  that  the  levying  of  an  assessment 
on  the  inhabitants  of  the  city  seems  to  have  been  of  so  unusual 
an  occurrence,  that  it  was  found  necessary  for  the  Magistrates  to 
obtain  the  concurrence  of  the  deacons  of  the  crafts  as  consenting 
parties  to  the  levy.  Acts  of  Parliament  for  granting  such  powers 
were  not  thought  of  in  those  days. 

Burgh  Records,  19th  November  1577. — "The  quhilk  day  it  wes  con- 
discendit  be  ye  prouest,  baillies,  and  consale,  witht  ye  dekynis  of  ye  craftis, 
yat  in  respect  yair  is  nocht  to  be  gotten  of  comowne  guddis  to  big  ye  calsayis, 
and  yat  yai  halve  appayntit  witht  a  calsaye  maker,  for  twa  zeirs  to  cum. 
Thai,  yairfoir,  halve  consentit  to  rais  ane  taxatiown  of  twa  hundretht  pundis 
money,  to  be  tane  of  ye  haill  inhabitantis  yairof,  worthie  yairto,  and  namit  yir 
personis  to  be  stentares  yairto,  viz.,  Johne  Flemyng,  Robert  M'George  Herbert- 
soun,  Robert  Adame,  Johne  Tempill,  Matho  Wilsoun,  and  sundry  others,  to  be 
tane  at  twa  termes,  viz.,  ye  first  of  Januare  nixt,  and  ye  secund  at  Beltane 
nixt,  and  to  convene  on  Furisdaye  nixt,  befoir  none,  at  viij  hor!.,  in  ye  counsal- 
hous."     (;^2oo  Scots  is  ;!^i6  :  13  :  4  English.) 

It  appears  that  at  this  time  there  was  no  person  in  Glasgow 
who  possessed  the  skill  of  causewaying  streets  ;  in  consequence 
of  which  it  became  necessary  to  get  an  accomplished  pavier  from 
Dundee  to  perform  the  work. 

Burgh  Records^  28th  October  1578. — "  Item  :  To  Walter  Brown,  calsaye 
maker,  for  his  expenss  in  cuming  fra  Dundey,  and  gang  and  yairto  agane, 
quhen  he  wes  fcit,  conform  to  rolmont,  xl.^ — Item:  To  Johne  Houstoun  for 
ane  owlks  laubo.";  at  ye  calsay  to  ane  compt. — xx.^  Item  :  To  Robert  Scott 
for  leding  of  thre  dosand  of  pulder  ^  to  ye  calsay,  and  four  dosand  of  sand 
vpone  ye  sewint,  aucht,  and  nynt  dayis  of  Nouember,  xixf.." 

"  1578,  June  3d. — The  quhilk  daye,  it  is  statut  and  ordanit,  yet  ye  haill 
myddynis  be  remowit  of  ye  hie  gait,  and  yet  nane  scraip  on  ye  hie  gait." 

1  *'  Pulder — Powder,  dust." — ^Jamieson. 


DOWHILL  PROPERTY  SALES.  217 

"  1579,  8th  October. — Item:  To  William  Hervey,  26th  Junie,  1578,  to 
pass  to  Dundey  for  ye  calsay  maker,  xx.!." 

"  Item :  To  ane  boy  y.'.  bro.'.  ane  vritting  fra  Dudey,  iii?.. 

{N.B. — iii.^.  Scots  is  only  3d.  English,  which  payment  is  certainly  very 
small  for  going  such  a  journey.  There  was  no  post-office  establishment  in 
Scotland  till  the  year  1635.)! 

I  shall  make  a  short  digression  here  and  take  notice  of  a  part 
of  Glasgow  which  I  believe  has  seldom  or  never  been  visited  by- 
thousands  of  our  west-end  inhabitants,  although  in  olden  time, 
when  the  Saracen's  Head  Inn  was  the  fashionable  inn  of  the  city, 
the  Dowhill  was  a  place  of  some  importance. 

Mercury,  19th  October  1780. — "The  lands  of  Dowhill  for  sale.  To  be 
sold,  by  auction,  on  Friday  the  27th  of  October  next,  etc.,  the  following 
subjects,  lying  on  the  east  side  of  the  Dowhill  Street,  near  to  the  Saracen's 
Head  inn,  which  belonged  sometime  to  the  deceased  John  Robertson,  manu- 
facturer in  Glasgow,  and  now  to  his  creditors,  either  altogether  or  in  the 
following  lots,  at  the  upset  prices  after  mentioned,  viz. — 

Lot  1st.  The  little  house  and  two  cellars  possessed  by  Andrew 

Stark,  merchant,  at  the  yearly  rent  of      .  .  .£600 

And  the  stocking  loom  shop  and  room  adjoining,  possessed  by 

Archibald  Reid,  at  .  .  .  .  .  i    10     o 


Under  the  burden  of  the  roof,  at  the  upset  price  of  ^75. 

Lot  2d.   The  ground  storey  of  the  large  tenement  possessed  by 

Mrs.   Woodrow,  with  the  two  cellars  belonging  to  that 

house,  at  the  rent  of       . 
The  piece  of  vacant  ground  or  yard  on  the  east  of  the  large 

house,  with  the  dung  of  the  whole  tenement,  and  the  dung 

of  Lot  1st  . 


At  the  upset  price  of  ^i  14. 


9    10 


Lot  3d.  The  first  storey  above  the  ground  storey  of  the  said 
large  tenement,  with  the  two  cellars,  possest  by  George 
Johnston,  supervisor,  at  the  yearly  rent  of  .  .  10    10     o 

At  the  upset  price  of  ^120. 

1  In  the  year  1661  the  postage  of  a  single  letter  from  Edinburgh  to  Glasgow  was  2d. 
beyond  Glasgow,  3d.;  to  London,  4d. ;  to  Ireland,  6d. — Arnoi^s  History,  page  130. 


2l8 


OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 


Lot  4th.  The  upper  square  storey  and  garrets  of  the  said  large 
tenement,  possest  as  follows  :  the  square  storey  and  two 
cellars  possest  by  John  Muir,  merchant,  at 

The  garrets  and  two  small  cellars  by  Alexander  Bandochie, 
tailor      ....... 


^lo 


14     5     o 
This  lot  under  the  burden  of  the  roof,  at  the  upset  price  of  ^142  ids. 

Lot  5th.  The  large  weavers'  factory,  and  dwelling-house  above, 
on  the  north  of  the  large  tenement,  possest  at  the  following 
rents,  viz. — 

A  garret  house  and  workshop  by  James  Raeburn,  at 

A  do.  and  do.  by  widow  Cross 

A  house  and  loom  shop  by  George  Mitchell 

A  do.  and  do.  by  William  Drysdale 

A  do.  and  do.  by  WiUiam  Lyon 

A  garret  room  by  Robert  Nisbet 

A  do.  by  Margaret  Shaw     . 

A  do.  by  Janet  Lockhart 

£21    12      o 

With  the  whole  dung  of  this  lot,  and  a  piece  of  vacant  ground  on  the  east,  at 
the  upset  price  of  ^172  i6s.     Burdened  with  los.  of  ground  annual. 

N.B. — Lots  2d,  3d,  and  4th  burdened  with  a  proportion  each  of  20s.  of  ground 
annual  affecting  the  large  tenement  and  Lot  ist. 

The  articles  of  roup,  etc.,  to  be  seen  in  the  hands  of  Joseph  Crombie, 
writer  in  Glasgow." 


£a 

12 

0 

4 

0 

0 

3 

10 

0 

3 

15 

0 

3 

4 

0 

0 

16 

0 

I 

0 

0 

0 

15 

0 

Mercury,  23d  November  1780. — "To  be  sold,  these  two  acres,  one  rood, 
and  twenty-six  falls  of  ground  lying  in  the  Dowhill  of  Glasgow,  as  presently 
possessed  by  Duncan  Campbell,  gardener,  with  the  dye-house  and  houses  on 
the  north  side  of  the  Gallowgate,  adjoining  to  the  above  grounds,  as  presently 
possessed  by  Thomas  Thomson,  and  others.  The  above  grounds  are  well 
situated  for  building  upon,  being  a  diy  soil,  and  command  an  extensive  pros- 
pect, and  contain  excellent  springs  of  water.  For  the  encouragement  of 
purchasers  or  builders,  the  price  will  be  converted  into  a  ground  rent,  or 
ground  annual,  if  they  choose  it. — For  further  particulars,  apply  to  Patrick 
Robertson,  writer  in  Glasgow." 


CHAPTER    XIV. 

Costume  of  the  Lord  Provost  and  Magistrates  of  Glasgow — Convener  Newbigging — 
Salary  of  the  Lord  Provost  of  Edinburgh — Scotch  Episcopalians — History  of  and 
interesting  particulars  regarding  St.  Andrew's  Church — Anti-Burgher  intolerance — 
Episcopal  liberality — Union  of  Scotch  and  English  EpiscopaHans — Articles  of  Union 
and  Act  of  Consecration. 

From  a  very  remote  period  it  had  been  customary  for  the  city  of 
Glasgow  to  pay  a  small  annual  fee  to  their  provosts,  bailies,  and 
certain  other  officials,  which  was  continued  down  to  the  year  1756. 
The  following  is  taken  from  the  treasurer's  account  for  the 
year  1576  : — 

"  Item  :  To  ye  prouest  for  his  fie  . 
Item  :  To  Williame  Conynghame,  baillie  . 
Item  :  To  Andro  Baillie,  baillie,  for  his  fie 
Item  :  To  ye  clerk  for  his  fie 
Item  :  To  ye  maister  of  work  for  his  fie  . 
Item  :  To  ye  thesaurer  compter  for  his  fie 
Item  :  To  ye  herdis  for  their  fies  . 

In  1720  the  Magistrates  and  Town  Council  enacted  that  the 
provosts  of  Glasgow  should  wear  a  court  dress  on  all  public 
occasions,  and  that  the  Council  should  make  the  Provost  a  yearly 
allowance  of  ^40  sterling.  On  the  9th  of  October  175 1  the 
Trades'  House  resolved  that  the  convener  should  wear  a  black 
velvet  coat  on  all  public  occasions,  and  the  House  ordained  their 
collector  to  pay  out  of  the  House  funds  the  sum  of  ;^I5  sterling 
to  the  convener,  after  his  election,  to  buy  such  habit ;  but  "  in  case 
he  do  not  wear  the  said  velvet  coat  he  shall  have  no  claim  to  the 
foresaid  sum."      On  the  15th  November   1742  the  House  further 


xx.Iib. 

a  I 

13s.  4d.) 

x.lib. 

(— 

1 6s.  8d.) 

x.lib. 

jj 

x.lib. 

» 

x.lib. 

;> 

x.lib. 

v.lib." 

(- 

8s."4d.) 

2  20  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

resolved  that  the  convener  and  his  successors  in  office  shall,  in  all 
time  coming,  wear  a  gold  chain  and  medal  as  the  badge  of  his 
office.  In  December  1766  the  Town  Council,  the  Merchants' 
House,  and  the  Trades'  House  resolved  that  the  Magistrates,  Dean 
of  Guild,  and  Convener  should  in  future  wear  gold  chains,  with 
medals  emblematic  of  their  respective  offices.  In  1 8 1  o  the  Town 
Council  resolved  that  the  Bailie  of  the  river  should  wear  a  gold 
chain  ;  and  in  i  8  i  2  they  further  resolved  that  the  principal  Bailie 
of  the  Gorbals  should  also  wear  a  gold  chain.  The  court  dresses 
and  velvet  coats  of  our  city  officials  above  mentioned  appear  to 
have  become  obsolete.  The  last  exhibition  of  the  kind  that  I 
remember  was  upon  the  occasion  of  a  public  assembly,  when 
Provost  James  Ewing  of  Strathleven  appeared  there  dressed  in 
full  court  costume,  in  velvet  coat,  dress  sword,  and  hair  tied  in 
black  silk  bag,  with  lower  habiliments,  and  sparkling  shoe  buckles 
of  the  levee  days  of  George  III.  The  exhibition,  however,  came 
too  late  for  the  times,  and  proved  a  failure. 

Mr.  Archibald  Newbigging,  who  was  deacon  convener  in  1 799 
and  bailie  of  Glasgow  in  18 13,  was  very  proud  of  city  honours, 
and  of  sporting  the  gold  chain  and  medal  on  all  public  occa- 
sions. 

Having  occasion  while  in  office  to  make  a  journey  to  Eng- 
land, he  carried  his  gold  chain  and  its  ornaments  there  along  with 
him,  and  when  arrived  at  Lancaster  he  waited  on  the  mayor  of 
that  town,  and  arranged  with  him  to  attend  the  church  the 
ensuing  Sunday  along  with  the  magistrates  of  the  Corporation. 
Mr.  Newbigging  accordingly  heard  sermon  there  along  with  the 
Lancastrian  officials,  ostentatiously  decorated  with  the  Glasgow 
gold  chain  and  its  ornaments,  to  the  no  small  wonderment  of  the 
natives,  who  could  not  think  what  great  man  this  could  be  who 
had  so  honoured  the  town. 

The  wearing  of  gold  chains  and  velvet  coats  by  our  Glasgow 
Magistrates  and  city  officials  appears  to  have  originated  from  a 
spirit  of  rivalry  towards  Edinburgh,  where  those  dignified  insignia 
of  office  had  for  some  time  previously  decorated  the  persons  of  its 
provosts  and  magistrates,  and  St.  Mungo  was  determined  not  to 
be  thrown  on  the  background  by  Auld  Reekie,  but  should  also 


CIVIC  COSTUMES.  221 

see  its  dignitaries  dressed  in  gold  and  velvet  The  following 
notice  is  taken  from  the  Scots  Magazine  of  1754,  page  448  : — 

"Edinburgh,  September,  1754. — The  wearing  of  velvet  coats  by  the 
magistrates  of  Edinburgh  being  an  annual  expense  to  the  city,  a  motion  was 
made  in  council,  the  i8th  of  last  July,  by  the  lord  provost,  that  they  should  be 
laid  aside  and  some  other  distinguishing  mark  used.  This  motion  having 
been  committed,  the  council  on  report  enacted,  July  31st  and  August  21st, 
that  six  of  the  velvet  coats  should  be  laid  aside,  and  that  gold  chains  with 
medals  should  be,  '  wore  by  the  lord  provost,  the  four  bailies,  the  dean  of 
guild,  and  treasurer,  the  medal  for  the  lord  provost  to  be  of  a  larger  size  than 
the  rest ;  the  expense  in  whole  not  to  exceed  ^200  sterling.  The  device  upon 
the  medal  is,  on  the  one  side,  the  figure  of  justice  chased,  and  on  the  reverse, 
the  arms  of  the  city  engraven.  The  lord  provost  is  still  to  wear  a  velvet  coat. 
By  a  subsequent  Act,  Sept.  i8th,  the  council,  in  place  of  ^10  sterling  in  use 
to  be  paid  annually  to  the  convener  for  a  burgess  ticket,  ever  since  the  £\o 
had  been  paid  to  each  of  the  magistrates  for  their  velvet  coats,  and  which  he 
usually  bestowed  in  charity,  appointed  ;/^3o  to  be  paid  this  year  to  the  con- 
vener, to  be  applied  for  charitable  purposes  by  him  and  his  brethren,  and 
rescinded  the  former  Acts  granting  the  said  ^10  annually.  By  Act  of  Septem- 
ber of  1718,  ^10  was  appointed  to  be  paid  annually  to  each  of  the  four  bailies, 
the  dean  of  guild  and  treasurer  who  should  wear  black  velvet  coats.  This 
£\o  came  in  place  of  a  burgess  ticket  formerly  given  to  each  of  the  gentlemen 
in  the  offices  aforementioned  ;  or  rather  in  place  of  ;^ioo  Scots  which,  at  the 
time  of  passing  this  Act,  was  in  use  to  be  given  them  in  place  of  the  burgess 
ticket.  The  lord  provost  got  no  allowance  for  his  velvet  coat,  an  annual 
salary  oi £100  having  been  granted  by  act  of  council  this  year,  1718,  in  place 
of  several  casualties  his  lordship  formerly  enjoyed.  Ever  since  Michaelmas, 
17 1 8,  black  velvet  coats  have  accordingly  been  worn.' 

'•'■  P.S. — At  this  Michaelmas  six  of  them  were  laid  aside.  The  lord 
provost  wears  one." 

In  the  year  17 16  the  city  of  Edinburgh  first  bestowed  a 
settled  salary  on  the  lord  provost  of  that  city,  in  order  to  enable 
him  to  support  the  dignity  of  first  magistrate.  This  was  at  first 
;^300,  but  afterwards  was  augmented  to  ;!^5oo  sterling. 

Dr.  Cleland,  in  his  Rise  and  Progress  of  Glasgow,  at  page  6^^ 
thus  writes  : — 

"Glasgow  is  the  only  town  of  extensive  population  in  the  empire  whose  chief 
magistrate  does  not  receive  an  allowance  for  the  support  of  the  dignityof  his  office." 

But  in  a  few  lines  afterwards  the  Doctor  adds  that  in  the 
year  1720  our  Magistrates  and  Council  enacted — 

"  That  the  council  should  make  the  provost  a  yearly  allowance  of  ^^40 
sterling,  v.-hich  allowance  has  been  continued  ever  since." 


22  2  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

This  was  written  in  1820,  and  the  citizens  of  Glasgow  used 
to  say  that  it  was  given  to  his  lordship  to  buy  a  pipe  of  wine 
therewith,  in  order  to  entertain  noble  visitors  and  eminent  strangers. 

I  now  proceed  to  give  a  few  gleanings  regarding  the  early 
history  of  the  Episcopal  Chapel  in  Glasgow  ;  but  without  any 
pretensions  or  claim  of  these  being  considered  a  history  of  this 
our  first  Glasgow  Episcopal  Church. 

The  Scotch  Episcopalians,  vulgarly  called  Jacobites,  were  the 
first  religious  body  not  connected  with  the  Church  of  Scotland 
who  regularly  met  for  worship  in  Glasgow  after  the  Revolution. 

1.  Bishop  Alexander  Duncan,  formerly  minister  of  new  Kilpatrick,  was  the 

first  officiating  clergyman ;  he  was  admitted  in  1715.  The  congrega- 
tion at  this  period  met  in  a  dwelling-house  in  Bell  Street. 

2.  Mr.  George  Graham,  from  Perthshire  ;  he  succeeded  Bishop  Duncan 

in  1740.  During  Mr.  Graham's  incumbency  the  congregation 
removed  to  a  larger  dwelling-house  in  Candleriggs  Street. 

3.  Mr.  Thomas   Lyon,  from   St.    Andrews;    he  was   admitted   in    1750. 

About  the  year  1754  the  congregation  had  so  much  increased  that 
it  was  removed  to  a  large  hall  in  Stockwell  Street. 

4.  Mr.  Andrew  Wood,  from  Perthshire  ;  he  was  admitted  in  1778.     Mr. 

Wood  was  afterwards  settled  in  America. 

5.  Mr.  Andrew  M'Donald  ;  he  was  admitted  in   1787.     Mr.   M'Donald 

was  domestic  chaplain  to  Mr.  Oliphant  of  Gask,  in  Perthshire,  who 
procured  him  a  living  in  London  in  the  same  year. 

6.  Mr.  Andrew  Jamieson,  from  Marykirk,  Kincardineshire ;    he  was  ad- 

mitted in  1788,  and  officiated  above  thirty  years.  In  the  year 
1780  the  congregation  was  removed  to  a  large  hall  in  George 
Street,  which  was  commodiously  fitted  up  for  worship. 

There  was  a  small  Episcopal  chapel  in  Black  Friars  Wynd, 
Edinburgh,  which  was  founded  in  the  year  1722.  There  were 
also  at  this  time  in  Edinburgh  some  meetings  of  the  Episcopal 
Church  of  Scotland,  who  adhered  to  their  old  forms,  having  still 
their  bishops  and  inferior  clergy.  For  some  time  they  were 
subjected  to  penal  laws,  in  consequence  of  having  refused  to  take 
the  oath  to  Government,  or  to  pray  for  the  King  and  the  Royal 
Family  ;  but,  subsequently  conforming,  their  conduct  came  to  be 
approved  of  by  the  Crown. 

The   English   Chapel    in   Edinburgh,  which    stands   near   the 


EPISCOPACY  IN  SCOTLAND. 


223 


Cowgate    Port,    was    founded    on    the    3d    of   April    1771,    the 
foundations  being  then  laid  by  General  Oughton. 

By  Act  of  Parliament  passed  in  April  17 19  it  was  decreed 
that  every  Episcopal  minister  performing  divine  service  in  any 
meeting-house  within  Scotland,  without  having  taken  the  oaths 
required  by  Queen  Anne's  Toleration  Act,  and  praying  for  King 
George  by  name,  was  to  suffer  imprisonment ;  and  every  house 
where  nine  or  more  persons,  besides  the  family,  should  be  present 
at  divine  service  was  declared  to  be  a  meeting-house,  within  the 
meaning  of  the  Act. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  7th  May  1788. — "Edinburgh,  5th  May. — On  Thurs- 
day last,  the  24th  ult,  was  held  at  Aberdeen  a  meeting  of  the  Protestant 
Bishops  in  Scotland,  who,  having  previously  consulted  with  their  clergy,  took 
into  their  consideration  the  state  of  the  church,  under  their  inspection,  and 
unanimously  resolved  to  give  an  open  and  public  proof  of  their  allegiance  to 
the  present  Government,  by  praying  in  express  words  for  his  Majesty  King 
George,  and  the  Royal  Family.  This  is  to  take  place  in  all  their  chapels  on 
Sunday  the  25th  of  May  instant,  to  which  day  it  is  deferred,  that  the  bishops 
may  have  time  to  give  the  proper  directions  to  their  clergy  throughout  the 
kingdom.  Thus  an  end  is  put  to  those  unhappy  divisions  which  have  so  long 
subsisted  among  us,  and  many  thousands  of  our  countrymen,  suspected  of 
disaffection  to  the  present  Government,  will  now  be  considered  as  dutiful  and 
loyal  subjects." 

"May  28th,  1788. — Sunday  last,  the  King,  Queen,  and  Prince  of  Wales 
were  prayed  for,  by  name,  and  the  rest  of  the  Royal  Family,  in  the  usual 
manner,  in  all  the  nonjuring  chapels." 

Dr.  Cleland,  in  his  Rise  and  Progress,  p.  16,  informs  us  that — 

"Prior  to  1806,  the  Scotch  and  English  Episcopalians,  in  Scotland,  were 
considered  as  distinct  bodies.  In  the  beginning  of  that  year  the  English 
Episcopalian  clergymen  gave  in  their  submission  to  the  Scotch  bishops,  when 
a  union  took  place,  and  Glasgow  was  united  in  a  diocese  with  Edinburgh  and 
Fife.  The  first  diet  of  the  examination  of  the  English  Episcopalians,  in  Glas- 
gow, was  on  the  15th  of  May,  1806.  On  that  occasion  the  Right  Rev.  Wm. 
Abernethy  Drummond,  Bishop  of  the  United  Dioceses  of  Edinburgh,  Glasgow, 
and  Fife,  confirmed  90  persons." 

This  took  place  two  years  before  the  death  of  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Falconer,  minister  of  St.  Andrew's  Episcopal  Chapel  in  Glasgow, 
and  at  the  time  when  the  Rev.  Mr.  Routledge  was  the  junior 
minister  of  the  said  chapel.  Dr.  Cleland,  in  his  Annals,  published 
in    1 816,   at    page    153,   further    says,   that    the    stipend    of    Mr 


2  24  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Routledge   at   that   time   was   ;^300    per   annum,  and   that   the 
sittings  in  the  chapel  then  amounted  to  641. 

From  an  interesting  pastoral  delivered  in  1 861,  and  from 
a  second  article  published  in  1863,  by  the  present  respected 
minister,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Gordon,  regarding  the  rise  and  progress 
of  St.  Andrew's  Episcopal  Church,  in  Glasgow,  I  have  made  the 
following  extracts  : — 

(1861)  "It  is  now  100  years  past  since  the  first  stone  of  this  [St.  Andrew's 
Episcopal]  Church  was  laid,  and  the  period  when  it  was  built ;  the  various 
persons  and  personages  who  in  their  day  worshipped  here,  and  the  many 
vicissitudes  which  it  has  undergone,  invest  the  old  place  with  an  interest 
which,  excepting  our  Cathedral,  no  other  church  possesses.  Several  old 
people  can  yet  recollect  the  powdered-headed  flunkies  who  marched  along  the 
passages  with  their  masters  and  mistresses  prayer-books,  escorting  them  to 
their  respective  pews.  And  it  was  quite  a  sight  to  look  down  from  the 
galleries  upon  the  many  white-wigged  aristocrats  who  filled  the  body  of  the 
church.  It  was  a  usual  turn  out  to  see  25  or  30  carriages  drive  to  the  chapel 
gate  with  worshippers.  From  18 10  to  1825  many,  now  alive,  had  to  wait 
for  six  and  twelve  months  ere  they  could  obtain  seats  for  their  families.  It 
would  be  impossible  to  give  a  list  of  the  good  and  the  great  who  in  their  day 
attended  this  interesting  but  plain  church.  The  following  will  call  to  mind 
in  many  memories  old  associations,  viz. — The  Duchess  of  Hamilton,  Lord 
Douglas,  Lord  Blantyre,  Campbell  of  Blythswood,  Oswald  of  Auchincruive, 
Sir  D.  K.  Sandford,  Lord  Cathcart,  Gen.  Pye  Douglas,  Cross  Buchanan, 
Stirlings  of  Glorat,  Sir  John  Maxwell,  Sir  Robert  Crawford  of  Pollok,  Admiral 
Fleming  of  Cumbernauld,  Sir  James  Stuart  of  Allanton,  Claud  Hamilton  of 
Barns  ;  Spiers  of  Elderslie,  Theodore  Walrond  of  Calder  Park,  Dunn  of 
Tannochside,  T.  C.  Campbell  of  Mains,  Col.  Sir  C.  Hastings,  Davidsons  of 
Ruchill,  Sir  Andrew  Campbell  of  Garscube,  James  Kibble  of  Park  Place, 
Colquhoun  of  Killermont,  Ambrose  Dale,  John  Cabbell,  M'Call  of  Daldowie, 
Edgar  of  Germiston,  Sir  William  Hooker  of  Kew  Gardens,  Sir  William  Max- 
well of  Calderwood,  John  Bogle  of  Gilmorehill,  Edward  Fairlie  of  the  Royal 
Bank,  General  Smith,  Houldsworth  of  Cranstonhill,  Haggarts  of  Bantaskine, 
Logan  of  Birdistone,  Wilson  of  Benmore,  etc.  The  pulpit  is  not  the  place  for 
going  over  many  reminiscences  of  days  of  yore,  with  great  minuteness ; 
indeed  (said  the  Rev.  Dr.)  I  could  fill  a  thick  volume  from  our  old  sederunt 
books  with  topographical  details,  not  to  be  found,  I  believe,  upon  any  other 
records  ;  and  you  can  easily  fancy  that  many  a  particular  has  taken  place  here 
and  hereabout,  which  is  not  even  on  the  record  of  memory.  I  may,  in  brief, 
narrate,  that  St.  Andrew's  Parish  Church,  in  the  Square,  and  this,  our  church, 
were  being  built  at  the  same  period.  In  consulting  different  histories  of  Glas- 
gow, I  find  contrariant  statements  about  the  year  when  St.  Andrew's  Parish 
Church  was  founded.     What  I  am  about  to  state  is  from  the  Town  Council 


ST.  ANDREW'S  EPISCOPAL  CHURCH.  225 

Records.  The  town  council  met  and  projected  the  building,  in  1739.  The 
first  stone  was  laid  in  1740,  the  year  in  which ,  Lunardi  ascended  in  a 
balloon  from  the  Square,  and  it  was  22  years  ere  the  church  was  erected. 
The  Square  was  a  burying  ground,  and  the  grass  of  the  church-yard  was 
advertised  to  be  let,  by  the  magistrates,  in  1785,  and  in  1786,  the  year  after 
St.  Andrew's  Square  was  laid  out.  The  whole  was  walled  in,  and  the  only 
entrance  to  the  church  and  the  church-yard  was  by  an  iron  gate  on  the  north. 
The  old  cross  of  Glasgow  is  buried  in  the  Square.  St.  Andrew's  Parish 
Church  is  a  meagre  copy  of  St.  Martin's  in  the  Fields,  London.  This  chapel 
seems  to  be  a  miniature  copy  of  the  former.  At  the  time,  church  architecture 
was  at  its  lowest  ebb ;  nothing  like  Gothic,  nor  any  external  sacred  symbol  of 
the  faith  would  have  been  allowed  by  the  general  taste,  and  hence  was  not 
thought  of.  I  did  what  has  been  done  in  the  way  of  raising  money  for 
alterations  and  repairs,  for  paying  old  debts,  and  for  endowing  the  church,  viz., 
nearly  ^1000.  The  Font  was  the  first  of  correct  design  ever  put  up  in  Glas- 
gow, since  the  Reformation,  and  it  is  well  used — all  and  sundry  being  baptized 
who  come.  It  is  a  copy  of  Bradley  Church,  Lincolnshire,  and  it  is  a  memorial 
to  Dr.  Campbell.  I  have  only  to  characterise  the  former  arrangements  as 
hideous ;  what  has  been  done  is  correct,  as  far  as  it  goes,  but  altogether,  inside 
and  outside,  St.  Andrew's  is  a  poor  concern,  unworthy  the  name  of  a  temple 
suitable  for  the  worship  of  God.  Its  walls  are  too  substantial  for  a  good 
riddling  fire  to  make  any  impression  for  final  demolition,  and  so  we  must  be 
content  to  let  it  remain,  endeared  for  its  old  associations,  and  as  being  most 
useful  for  its  environs.  The  present  enamelled  brazen  altar  cross  was  pre- 
sented by  one  of  the  Smiths  of  Jordanhill,  and  came  originally  as  a  gift  from 
the  present  Member  of  Parliament,  Walter  Buchanan,  Esq.  The  Grecian  and 
Elizabethan  styles  were,  in  the  middle  of  last  century,  those  in  vogue,  both  for 
churches  and  private  houses. 

"You  may  perceive  a  close  resemblance  between  the  buildings  of  Charlotte 
Street  and  this  church.  Where  we  now  are  was  called  '  Willow  Acre,'  past 
which  flow  the  Molendinar  or  Gallowgate  burn  on  the  west  of  the  church,  and 
the  Camlachie  burn  on  the  south.  In  our  records  there  appear  long  papers 
about  the  covering  in  and  keeping  up  the  footpaths  and  bridges  across  and 
around  these  burns,  which  seem  to  have  been  the  occasion  of  incessant 
bargain-making  between  the  managers  and  town  council,  each  paying  only 
their  own  share. 

"  In  our  early  accounts  I  find  frequent  charges  for  '  flambeaus,'  probably 
for  lighting  the  roads  to  the  church  at  evening  services,  and  preventing  people 
from  falling  into  the  burns. 

"  '  Willow  Acre '  belonged  to  three  brothers,  John,  Robert,  and  Thomas 
Moodie.  The  two  former  were  gardeners,  and  likely  cultivated  this  spot  as  a 
garden  ;  the  latter,  Thomas,  was  a  bookbinder. 

"  I  find  no  mention  of  '  Willow  Acre  '  except  in  our  own  charters.  The 
name  may  have  been  given  from  willows  growing  by  the  two  brooks  which 
flowed  past  the  plot  of  ground.  We  have  still  '  Brook  '  Street,  from  its  prox- 
imity to  one  of  these  brooks,  which  both  meet  a  little  way  from  here,  opposite 
VOL.  in.  Q 


2  26  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Mr.  Lynch's  stables  gate,  and  flow  into  the  Clyde  opposite  the  south  side  of 
the  jail,  and  which  are  carried  in  pipes  below  the  bed  of  the  river.  I  have 
said  that  probably  this  '  Willow  Acre,'  from  being  the  property  of  the  two 
Moodies  who  were  gardeners,  was  then  public  gardens  ;  at  all  events,  the 
ground  on  which  Charlotte  Street  stands  was  occupied  as  a  garden,  for  the 
sale  of  fruits  and  vegetables,  at  the  rent  of  365  marks  per  annum.  Hence 
the  street  when  first  built  was  called  '  Merkdailly.'  This  piece  of  ground  con- 
sists of  1083  square  ells,  for  which  ;^36o  sterling  per  square  ell  were  paid  of 
what  is  called  'dead  earnest,'  and  £1  Scots  for  every  ell  additional.  There 
is  no  burden  or  feu-duty,  but  some  feudal  right  (a  grey  duck's  Qgg,  I  believe) 
payable  to  the  superior — the  preceptor  of  St.  Ninian's  Hospital — when  asked, 
which  it  never  has  been,  and  I  dare  say  never  will  be. 

"  In  the  original  charter,  registered  in  the  Commissary  Court  books  here, 
this  church  and  church-yard  are  declared  to  be  '  for  the  people  of  the  com- 
munion of  the  Church  of  England  who  .have  seats  and  attend  divine  worship 
in  the  said  chapel.'  The  first  meeting  of  the  original  subscribers  and  contri- 
butors, called  by  advertisement  in  the  Glasgow  Journal^  was  held  on  the  15th 
of  March,  1750,  in  the  house  of  Robert  Tennent,  vintner  and  the  names  of 
the  first  directors  are  as  follows,  viz.  :  Alexander  Oswald,  merchant ;  Casper 
Claussen,  sugar  baker ;  James  Dennistoune,  merchant  ;  Robert  Parr,  dyer ; 
David  Dalyell,  merchant ;  David  Cochran,  merchant ;  George  Sangster, 
tobacconist  ;  Robert  Tennent,  vintner ;  and  Andrew  Stalker,  bookseller. 
Most  of  these  are  buried  outside,  and  this  latter,  Andrew  Stalker's  gravestone 
is  the  oldest  in  date,  at  the  south  corner  of  the  chancel.  *  Missives '  were  ex- 
changed between  the  directors  and  the  tradesmen — William  Paul  and  Andrew 
Hunter  masons  ;  and  Thomas  Thomson,  wright. 

"  Excerpts  from  the  Sederunt  Book  : — '  Glasgow,  i  5th  May,  1751.  Which 
day  it  was  reported  to  this  meeting  that  Messrs.  Richard  Oswald  &  Company, 
merchants  in  London  (who  had  been  solicited  to  procure  supply  for  the  chapel 
in  London)  had,  by  a  letter  of  the  4th  current  directed  to  Messrs.  Oswald  of 
Glasgow,  informed  that  in  order  to  obtain  a  "Brief"  in  favour  of  the  chapel, 
it  would  be  necessary  to  employ  a  solicitor ;  and  that  in  answer  to  this,  Mr. 
Alexander  Oswald,  in  name  of  the  managers,  to  the  said  Richard  Oswald  & 
Co.,  of  London,  being  laid  before  this  meeting,  whereby  they  are  empowered 
to  employ  a  solicitor  for  the  above  purpose,  on  the  expense  of  the  managers, 
in  case  it  was  found  proper.  The  managers  now  present  unanimously  approve 
of  the  said  answer  in  their  name,  and  agree  to  pay  the  expense  debursed  in 
prosecuting  the  same.— James  Dennistoune  ;  John  Buchanan,  jun.' 

"'Glasgow,  26th  September,  1751.  Which  day,  in  consequence  of  an 
advertisement  in  the  Glasgoiu  Journal  for  a  general  meeting,  this  time  and 
place,  of  all  concerned  in  the  English  chapel,  sundry  of  them  being  now  met 
accordingly  in  the  house  of  John  Burns,  vintner  in  Glasgow,  and  David  Dalyell, 
merchant  in  Glasgow,  was  elected  preses  of  the  meeting,  in  the  absence  of 
Mr.  Alex.  Oswald  ;  and  it  is  agreed,  that  Dr.  John  Brisbane,  physician  in 
Glasgow,  and  Alex.  Spiers,  merchant  there,  should  be  added  to  the  number 
of  the  present  directors,  and  to  continue  in  office  till  next  general  election. 


ST.  ANDREW'S  EPISCOPAL  CHURCH.  227 

And  further,  that  immediate  application  be  made,  in  name  of  the  managers 
and  those  concerned,  to  the  Lord  Bishop  of  London  for  supply  to  the  chapel, 
and  for  a  proper  clergj'man  to  the  chapel,  of  his  Lordship's  nomination.  And 
Mr.  Dalyell,  Dr.  Brisbane,  Mr.  Stalker,  Mr.  Spiers,  and  John  Buchanan  are  ap- 
pointed as  a  committee  to  draw  up  a  proper  representation  to  his  Lordship,  to  be 
laid  before  a  meeting  of  the  whole,  to  be  held  in  this  house  on  Tuesday  next,  the 
3d  October,  of  which  all  present  are  now  warned  in  this  present  meeting.' 

"  At  the  present  time  it  is  altogether  ludicrous  to  record  how  high  the  pre- 
judice ran  against  the  erection  of  this  chapel ;  but  what  I  am  about  to  state 
evidences  with  what  seriousness  and  intolerance  the  project  was  viewed. 
Andrew  Hunter,  one  of  the  masons,  happened  to  be  a  member  of  what  was 
the  oldest  Burgher  congregation  here — Dr.  King's,  or  rather  now  Mr.  Calder- 
wood's,  in  North  Albion  Street.  What  we  now  call  *U.P.'s'  were  then  sub- 
divided into  Seceders,  termed  Relief  Burgher  and  Anti-Burgher  (so  termed  in 
reference  to  the  Burgess  oath),  Old  Lights  and  New  Lights.  The  United 
Presbyterian  congregation  now  in  Greyfriars  Church  was  then  called  the 
'  Shuttle  Street  Secession  Congregation,'  and  the  following  minute  is  copied 
from  their  records  of  session,  26th  April,  1750: 

** '  The  session,  understanding  by  the  moderator  and  some  members  of  the 
session,  that  they  had  conversed  privately  with  Andrew  Hunter,  mason,  a 
member  of  this  congregation,  who  had  engaged  to  build  the  Episcopal  meeting- 
house in  this  place,  and  have  been  at  great  pains  in  convincing  him  of  the 
great  sin  and  scandal  of  such  a  practice ;  and  the  session,  understanding  that 
notwithstanding  thereof,  he  has  actually  begun  the  work,  they  therefore  appoint 
him  to  be  cited  to  the  session  at  their  meeting  on  Thursday,  after  sermon.' 

*'  Andrew  Hunter  did  go  on  with  the  '  great  sin  '  of  building  the  Episcopal 
meeting-house,  and  the  moderator  and  session  having  failed  to  open  his  eyes 
as  to  '  the  scandal  of  such  a  practice,'  he  was  forthwith  excommunicated. 

"  I  may  mention  that  our  registers  of  baptisms,  marriages,  and  burials  are 
regularly  kept  from  the  first.  We  have  also  those  of  Musselburgh  and  Dalkeith. 
The  Rev.  John  Falconer  carried  his  registers  from  these  places  to  Glasgow  ; 
and  many  of  Sir  John  Cope's  soldiers'  children's  baptisms  are  engrossed  in 
the  registers  for  Musselburgh.  The  originals  are  still  in  the  possession  of  St. 
Andrew's  Church  ;  but  two  years  ago,  copies  were  made  of  the  whole  for  the 
Duke  of  Buccleuch's  private  chapel  records  at  Dalkeith  Palace. 

"Upwards  of  100,000  children  have  been  baptized  in  St.  Andrew's  with 
a  corresponding  number  of  marriages  ;  and  even  yet,  every  Monday's  average 
is  about  twenty-five — quite  a  scene. 

"  The  Rev,  James  Riddoch,  afterwards  appointed  to  St.  Paul's  Church, 
Aberdeen,  was  the  first  clergyman,  and  remained  one  year.  The  Rev.  John 
Falconer  succeeded  him,  in  1751,  and  served  for  the  long  period  of  57  years. 
The  following  clergy  were  assistants,  for  a  shorter  or  longer  period,  viz.  : — 
The  Rev.  Mr.  Sanderson,  the  Rev.  William  Andrews,  the  Rev.  J.  Franks,  the 
Rev.  Dr.  Wynne,  the  Rev  James  Foster,  the  Rev.  J.  F.  Grant,  and  the  Rev. 
Wm.  Routledge,  who  came  from  St.  Bridges,  in  Cumberland,  in  1795,  ^s 
assistant  to  Mr.  Falconer,  and  who  was  appointed  to  the  full  charge  in  1808, 


2  28  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS 

He  served  here  48  years,  and  I  need  not  say  in  what  respect  his  memory  is 
held.  The  first  stained-glass  window,  in  the  church,  was  erected  to  his  memory. 
The  first  stained-glass  window  that  Ballantine  of  Edinburgh  put  in  a  Glasgow 
church — what  is  in  it,  you  can  behold  with  your  own  eyes.  The  other  two 
are  diaphaned,  and  contain  four  apostles,  and  our  blessed  Lord's  Resurrection, 
and  the  adoration  of  the  Magi.  The  following  clergy  were  the  Dean's  assist- 
ants or  curates  :  the  Rev.  H.  J.  Urquhart,  the  Rev.  J.  P.  Lawson,  the  Rev.  D. 
Aitchison,  the  Rev.  J.  E.  Keane,  and  the  Rev.  Louis  Page  Mercier.  Dean 
Routledge  died  in  1843,  and  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Wm.  Nerval,  whom 
I  succeeded  in  1 844.  The  following  are  among  the  distinguished  clergy  that 
have  occasionally  officiated  here  :  The  Rev.  C.  Simeon  of  Cambridge,  the 
Right  Rev.  Bishop  Sandford,  the  Right  Hon.  and  Rev.  Lord  Douglas,  whose 
family  seat  is  still  retained  by  the  Earl  of  Home,  the  Rev.  Legh  Richmond, 
who  officiated  often,  and  many  other  well-known  clergymen.  I  find  that 
before  Dean  Routledge's  appointment,  in  1794,  the  present  Sir  A.  Alison's 
father,  then  curate  of  North  Shields,  was  on  treaty  to  be  assistant  to  Mr. 
Falconer.  Many  years  afterwards  he  succeeded  to  St.  Paul's,  Edinburgh, 
where  his  body  rests  outside  the  altar. 

"  From  1795  to  1812  the  singers  all  wore  surplices.  For  that  period  we 
had  here  a  regularly  surpliced  choir,  as  is  customary  in  all  cathedrals ;  and 
before  next  Christmas  the  same  shall  be  once  more,  twenty  boys  being  now  in 
regular  weekly  training,  and  the  surplices  having  been  already  presented  by 
Lord  Belhaven's  niece.  Moreover,  a  great  addition  will  be  about  that  time 
made  to  the  organ. 

"  Strenuous  exertions  are  to  be  made  to  render  the  services  as  popular, 
correct,  and  simple,  as  possible,  as  the  funds  for  that  intent  have  recently  been 
supplied.  It  cannot  be  that  in  a  city  like  Glasgow,  a  well-rendered  Church  of 
England  music  service  can  be  lost.  If  our  rich  Episcopalians  in  the  west  are 
so  slow  and  niggard  to  build  a  befitting  church,  those  in  the  east  are  deter- 
mined to  spur  up  and  not  to  lose  ground  too.  The  reason  why  the  surplices 
were  discontinued  was  because  they  were  all  stolen.  On  the  7th  of  May, 
1 8 12,  the  vestry  was  broken  into  by  James  Stewart  and  William  M' Arthur, 
who  stole  these  and  the  clergyman's  robes,  and  a  variety  of  other  things. 
These  two  persons  were  sentenced  to  be  capitally  executed  on  the  i8th  of 
November,  the  same  year,  but  Mr.  Routledge  and  the  congregation  having 
petitioned  the  Prince  Regent  for  mercy,  the  sentence  was  commuted  to  trans- 
portation for  life. 

"The  present  organ  was  bought  from  the  magistrates  in  18 12.  It  was 
originally  built  by  Donaldson  of  York,  in  1792,  but  has  often  been  added  to 
and  improved  in  tone.  It  was  formerly  on  the  rood  screen  of  Glasgow 
Cathedral,  immediately  behind  the  minister's  loft,  recently  erected.  The  first 
one  was  sold  to  the  Unitarian  congregation,  and  was  built  by  the  renowned 
Snetzler.  It  formerly  stood  in  a  gallery  across  the  mouth  of  the  chancel, 
which  was  taken  down  at  the  alterations  made  by  me  ten  years  ago,  above 
which  there  was  a  transparency  of  the  transfiguration.  The  pulpit,  reading 
desk,  and  clerk's  desk  were  originally  to  the  left  of  the  present  pulpit,  near 


ST.  ANDREW'S  EPISCOPAL  CHURCH  229 

the  middle  of  the  south  wall,  while  opposite,  in  the  gallery,  was  the  Duchess 
of  Hamilton's  pew,  with  a  rich  canopy  over  it. 

"The  church  and  church-yard  v/ere  consecrated,  in  1808,  by  Bishop 
Abernethy  Drummond,  who  married  the  heiress  of  Hawthornden,  and  took,  in 
consequence,  the  name  of  Drummond,  when  forty  persons  were  confirmed. 
Before  the  Clyde  was  deepened  the  church  was  often  flooded.  Boats  were 
rowed  up  and  down  Saltmarket,  Bridgegate  and  Stockwell  Streets,  and  in  the 
year  18 16  the  water  rose  inside  St.  Andrew's  Church  four  or  five  feet  above 
the  floor.  This  happened  on  a  Christmas  day,  when  there  was  a  large 
attendance.  Some  twenty  or  thirty  carriages  with  families — near  and  distant 
— drove  here  to  keep  the  festival.  With  the  exception  of  ]\Ir.  Jamieson's  little 
flock,  the  nucleus  of  the  present  St.  Mary's,  the  faithful  remnant  that  stuck  to 
the  Episcopal  Church,  through  all  her  persecutions,  ever  since  the  Revolution, 
in  1688,  when  Episcopacy  was  disestablished  in  Scotland;  I  say  with  this 
exception,  this  church  was  the  only  one  of  our  communion,  not  only  in  our 
neighbouring  towns,  but  in  the  neighbouring  counties  ;  in  fact,  there  were  no 
Episcopal  Churches  nearer  than  Edinburgh.  The  predicament  caused  by  the 
river  inundation  of  the  church  was  made  known  to  Dr.  Gibb,  then  minister  of 
St.  Andrew's  Parish  Church,  who  most  readily  permitted  the  congregation  to 
assemble  therein,  and  celebrate  the  Christmas  of  18 16.  There  were  290 
communicants,  and  ^28  10s  lod  of  offerings. 

"  Around  these  walls  lie  many  illustrious  dead,  and  of  recent  years  several 
memorial  crosses  and  sculptured  gravestones,  of  ecclesiastical  design,  have 
been  placed  upon  their  graves.  There  is  one  very  affecting  gravestone,  which 
covers  the  spot  where  Captain  Sutherland  and  his  wife  are  both  interred,  who 
were  drowned  in  the  '  Comet '  steamboat,  on  their  marriage  trip  down  the 
river.  Dr.  M'Nish,  the  author  of  the  'Philosophy  of  Sleep'  'Anatomy  of 
Drunkenness,'  &c.,  is  buried  at  the  south-east  corner.  The  bodies  of  the 
following  Episcopal  clergymen  lie  in  their  difterent  lairs,  viz. — The  Rev.  John 
Falconer,  (beside  his  three  wives),  the  Rev.  A.  Jamieson,  the  Rev.  D.  M'Coll, 
the  Rev.  J.  Murray  of  Forres,  the  Rev.  Wm.  Alexander  Aitken,  Curate  of 
Ballantoy,  Antrim,  and  the  Very  Rev.  Dean  Routledge.i  Almost  eveiy  public 
institution  in  Glasgow  has  been  benefited  from  the  alms-deeds  of  those  who 
once  worshipped  here,  and  whose  deeds  do  follow  them,  though  they  rest  from 
their  labours.  I  instance  a  few  to  show  how  well  off  in  funds  this  church  at 
one  time  was. 

1  Mr.  Salmon,  in  his  Report  on  Grave-yards  to  the  Magistrates  and  Council  of  Glas- 
gow, dated  3d  December,  1863,  thus  writes: — "St.  Andrew's  Episcopal  Burj'ing 
Ground  entirely  surrounds  the  church  with  which  it  is  connected.  The  space  applicable 
to  interments  extends  to  about  694  square  yards.  The  outward  appearance  of  this 
grave-j'ard  has  all  the  disagreeable  characteristics  inseparable  from  such  places,  while  its 
locality  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  a  dense  and  sunken  population  renders  these  charac- 
teristics all  the  more  objectionable.  The  effect  is  repugnant  to  every  just  conception  of 
taste  and  propriety.  When  we  observe  what  a  trifling  extent  the  space  is  now  used,  it 
is  most  unfortunate  that  the  above  church,  long  ere  now,  has  not  been  redeemed  from 
its  present  obnoxious  influence." 


iSog.  ' 

Collecti 

1813. 

do. 

do. 

1815. 

do. 

1816. 

do. 

1818. 

do. 

1819. 

do. 

1821. 

do. 

1826. 

do. 

651 

I 

0 

34 
48 

12 
0 

6 
0 

181 

0 

0 

32 
60 

19 
0 

6 
0 

27 

0 

0 

20 

3 

0 

30 

0 

0 

230  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Collection  for  the  Lunatic  Asylum 
for  the  Lunatic  Asylum 
for  the  Magdalene,  do.       . 
for  the  Aged  Women's  Society   . 
for  the  Magdalene  Asylum 
for  the  Royal  Infirmary 
for  the  Fever  Hospital 
for  the  Deaf  and  Dumb  Asylum 
for  do.  do. 

"  Besides  these  local  charities  there  were  equally  large  collections  for  the 
poor  and  for  divers  missionary  societies.  Among  miscellaneous  charges,  &c., 
in  1 79 1,  occur  the  following. — '  For  porter  and  entertainment  for  the  managers 
at  different  meetings  in  the  Tontine,  £1  6s  4d.  The  general  annual  dinner, 
appointed  to  be  held  in  Dowell's  Inn,  but  next  year  in  Hemmings,  at  i  5s  a 
head.  Agreed  that  Janet  Hutcheson,  beadle,  shall  be  allowed  one  guinea  to 
purchase  her  annual  cloak,  to  be  applied  at  the  sight  of  John  Fergus.  1792, 
28th  Dec. — Resolved  unanimously  that  any  member  who,  if  in  town  and  in 
health,  shall  not  attend  the  chapel  once  a  month,  at  least,  shall  not  be  entitled 
to  vote  in  the  chapel  affairs.  1751,  Oct.  31st  —  Paid  two  soldiers  filling  up 
chapel,  ^3  3s.  Paid  by  Mr.  Tennent  for  stabbs  for  round,  £^\  2s  6d.  Paid 
for  oak  nails  for  the  gate,  8s.' 

<'  Many  legacies  have  been  left  from  time  to  time  to  St.  Andrew's,  but 
they  seem  all  to  have  shared  the  fate  of  the  subsequent,  as  not  one  remains, 
even  those  left  for  the  poor  were  borrowed  to  pay  some  accumulating  debts, 
and  were  never  afterwards  paid.  The  most  extraordinary  thing  is  how  not 
hundreds  of  pounds  but  even  thousands  of  pounds  were  frittered  away  upon  a 
building  of  the  poorest  design. 

"  The  clergymen  seem  to  have  been  kept  as  a  cheap  bargain,  for  the  Rev. 
John  Falconer,  for  57  years,  got  his  ^50  per  annum.  Witness — 'At  Glasgow, 
the  17th  of  June,  1822,  and  within  the  vestry  of  the  chapel,  convened,  Messrs. 
Fyfe,  Pinkerton,  Hussey,  Ellis,  Wilson,  and  Jack — Mr.  Fyfe  in  the  chair. 
There  was  laid  before  the  meeting  a  letter  from  Mr.  Spreull,  city  chamberlain, 
stating  that  the  magistrates  of  Glasgow  would  not  pay  more  than  4|  per  cent, 
on  their  bond  for  ^100  (formerly  stated  as  Sangster's  annuity  in  the  sederunt 
book)  after  Martimas  next.  The  meeting  having  taken  into  consideration  that 
as  the  money  bequeathed  to  the  chapel  by  Mrs.  Sangster  is  at  the  disposal  of 
the  managers,  resolve  and  authorise  the  treasurer  to  receive  the  .2^^100  from 
the  magistrates,  and  apply  the  same  towards  the  extinction  of  the  debt  due  by 
the  chapel.'  Every  one  of  those  who  did  so  were  legally  liable  for  being 
accessory  to  such  a  transaction.  This  legacy,  like  every  other  one,  was  meant 
to  lie  at  interest  for  specified  purposes,  and  no  managers  had  any  right  to  abuse 
their  trust  by  thus  seizing  on  the  principal.  Our  Scottish  church,  from  being 
reduced  to  the  lowest  ebb  by  political  persecution,  has  survived  the  withering 
influence  of  such  a  storm,  and  during  the  last  fifteen  years  she  has  doubled 
her  congregations,  and  no  diocese  has  progressed  more  of  recent  years  than 
the  diocese  of  Glasgow  and  Galloway  ;  but  2d.  a  head  is  the  most  magnificent 


ST.  ANDREW'S  EPISCOPAL  CHURCH.  231 

sum  which  the  40,000  Episcopalians  in  Scotland  annually  give  towards  the 
support  of  their  church  and  clergy. 

"  For  more  than  half  a  century  St.  Andrew's  was  a  '  qualified  chapel,'  but 
not  defiant  of  the  Scotch  Episcopate,  although  the  legal  penalties  necessitated 
its  position.  In  1805  terms  of  union  with  the  Scotch  Episcopal  Church  were 
agreed  upon,  and  henceforth  St.  Andrew's  became  incorporated  with  the 
diocese  of  Glasgow  and  Galloway,  and  for  some  time  it  was  the  metropolitan 
church  of  the  diocese.     The  following  are  the  articles  of  the  union. 

"Articles  of  Union. 

"  At  Glasgow,  the  fifth  day  of  December,  eighteen  hundred  and  five  years. 
Present,  Messrs.  Charles  Wilson,  Joshua  Senior,  John  Shearer,  Arthur  White, 
Thomas  Laycock,  Hugh  Love,  George  Pinkerton,  Septimus  Ellis,  Richard 
Lawrie,  Bright  Langley,  and  Henry  Wood. 

*'  A  paper,  signed  by  the  greatest  part  (it  is  believed  the  whole)  of  the 
members  of  this  chapel,  having  been  presented  to  the  meeting,  recommending 
a  union  with  the  ancient  Episcopal  Church  of  Scotland,  agreeable  to  the 
articles  of  union  proposed  by  the  reverend  bishop  of  that  church,  to  such 
clergymen  as  officiate  in  Scotland,  by  virtue  of  ordination  from  English  or 
Irish  bishops,  the  managers  after  mature  deliberation  on  the  articles  also 
produced,  and  after  seeing  the  opinions  of  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  the 
bishops  of  London,  Lincoln,  St.  Asaph's,  &c.,  in  favour  of  the  measure, 
unanimously  approve  of  the  proposal,  inasmuch  as  the  entire  control  and 
management  of  the  funds  and  temporalities  of  the  chapel  are  understood  to 
remain  in  the  hands  of  the  managers  or  church  wardens,  for  the  congregation, 
as  formerly  ;  as  also  the  nomination  of  the  clergyman  in  case  of  vacancy. 
Therefore  they  authorise  and  request  the  Rev.  William  Routledge,  (the  Rev. 
John  Falconer,  the  senior  minister,  not  being  in  such  health  as  to  undertake 
the  journey),  to  wait  upon  the  diocesan,  the  Right  Rev.  Wm.  Abernethy 
Drummond,  and  to  sign  the  articles  of  union  proposed.  And  the  managers 
further  order  that  the  aforesaid  articles  of  union  be  engrossed  in  the  minute 
book  kept  for  the  transactions  of  this  chapel,  and  signed  individually  by  the 
members  approving  the  same,  as  an  authority  and  justification  of  this  measure 
in  all  time  coming. 

'«  Articles  of  Union. 

"  Proposed  by  the  Right  Rev.  the  bishops  of  the  Scotch  Episcopal  Church 
to  those  clergymen  who  officiate  in  Scotland  by  virtue  of  ordination  from  an 
English  or  Irish  bishop. 

"Asa  union  of  all  those  who  profess  to  be  of  Episcopal  persuasion  in 
Scotland  appears  to  be  a  measure  extremely  desirable,  and  calculated  to  pro- 
mote the  interest  of  true  religion,  the  Right  Rev.  the  bishops  of  the  Scotch 
Episcopal  Church  do  invite  and  exhort  all  those  clerg>'men  in  Scotland  who 
have  received  ordination  from  English  or  Irish  bishops,  and  the  people 
attending  their  ministrations,  to  become  pastors  and  members  of  that  pure 


232  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

and  primitive  part  of  the  Christian  church  of  which  the  bishops  in  Scotland 
are  the  regular  governors.  With  a  view  to  the  attainment  of  which  desirable 
end,  the  said  bishops  propose  the  following  articles  of  union  as  the  conditions 
on  which  they  are  ready  to  receive  the  above-mentioned  clergy  into  a  holy 
and  Christian  fellowship,  and  to  acknowledge  them  as  pastors,  and  the  people 
who  shall  be  committed  to  their  charge,  and  duly  and  regularly  adhere  to  their 
ministration,  as  members  of  the  Scotch  Episcopal  Church  : — 

I.  Every  such  clergyman  shall  exhibit  to  the  hishop  of  the  diocese  or  district  in 
which  he  is  settled,  or  in  case  of  a  vacancy,  to  the  primus  of  the  Episcopal 
College,  his  letters  of  orders,  or  a  duly  attested  copy  thereof,  that  to  their 
authenticity  and  validity  being  ascertained,  they  may  be  entered  in  the 
diocesan  book  or  register  kept  for  that  purpose. 

II.  Every  such  clergyman  shall  declare  his  hearty  and  unfeigned  assent  to  the 
whole  doctrines  of  the  gospel  as  revealed  and  set  forth  in  the  Holy  Scrip- 
tures, and  shall  further  acknowledge  that  the  Scotch  Episcopal  Church,  of 
which  the  bishops  are  the  regular  governors,  is  a  pure  and  orthodox  part 
of  the  universal  Christian  church. 

III.  Every  such  clergyman  shall  be  at  liberty  to  use  in  his  own  congregation  the 

liturgy  of  the  Church  of  England,  as  well  in  the  administration  of  the 
Sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper  as  in  all  other  offices  of  the  church. 

IV.  Every  such  clergyman,  when  collated  to  any  pastoral  charge,  shall  promise, 

with  God's  assistance,  faithfully  and  conscientiously  to  perform  the  duties 
thereof,  promoting  and  maintaining,  according  to  his  power,  peace,  quiet- 
ness, and  Christian  charity,  and  studying  in  a  particular  manner  to  advance, 
by  the  example  and  doctrine,  the  spiritual  welfare  and  comfort  of  that 
portion  of  the  flock  of  Christ  among  which  he  is  called  to  exercise  his 
ministry, 
V,  Every  such  clergyman  shall  own  and  acknowledge  as  his  spiritual  governor, 
under  Christ,  the  bishop  of  the  diocese  or  district  in  which  he  is  settled, 
and  shall  pay  and  perform  to  the  said  bishop  all  such  canonical  obedience 
as  is  usually  paid  by  the  clergy  of  the  Scotch  Episcopal  Church,  or  by  the 
clergy  of  the  United  Church  of  England  and  Ireland  to  their  respective 
diocesans,  saving  and  excepting  only  such  obedience  as  those  clergymen 
who  do  or  may  hold  spiritual  preferments  in  England  or  Ireland  owe  to  the 
bishops  in  whose  dioceses  in  those  parts  of  the  United  Kingdom  they  do 
or  may  hold  such  preferment. 
VI.  Every  such  clergyman,  who  shall  approve  and  accept  the  foregoing  articles 
as  terms  of  agreement  and  union  with  the  Scotch  Episcopal  Church,  shall 
testify  his  approbation  and  acceptance  of  the  same  in  the  manner  following, 

viz. — At  ,  the  day  of  -,  I ,  ordained  deacon  by 

the  lord  bishop  of  ,  and  priest  by  the  lord  bishop  of ,  do  hereby 

testify  and  declare  my  entire  approbation  and  acceptance  of  the  foregoing 
articles  or  terms  of  union  with  the  Scotch  Episcopal  Church,  and  oblige 
myself  to  comply  with,  and  fulfil  the  same,  with  all  sincerity  and  diligence. 
In  testimiony  whereof  I  have  written  and  subscribed  tliis  my  acceptance  and 

obligation,  to  be  delivered  into  the  hands  of  the  Right  Rev. ,  bishop  of 

,  as  my  diocesan   and   ecclesiastical   superior,  before  these  witnesses, 

the  Rev.  and  the  Rev. ,  both  clergymen  of  the  said  diocese, 

specially  called  for  that  purpose. 


ST.  ANDREW'S  EPISCOPAL  CHURCH.  233 


"Act  of  Consecration. 

"After  union  with  the  Scottish  Episcopal  Church,  St.  Andrew's  was  duly- 
consecrated,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  following  entry  in  the  minute  book  : — 

"  '  Upon  the  fourth  of  May,  1 808,  in  the  presence  of  the  congregation 
assembled  for  divine  service,  the  Episcopal  Chapel  of  Glasgow,  and  the 
adjoining  burying  ground  dedicated  in  honour  of  the  holy  apostle  and  martyr, 
Saint  Andrew,  were  solemnly  consecrated  to  the  worship  of  the  Almighty  God 
by  the  Right  Rev.  Father  in  God,  William  Abernethy  Drummond,  bishop  of 
Glasgow,  before  the  Rev.  William  Routledge,  the  Rev.  Robert  Adam,  the 
Rev.  Alex.  Jamieson,  and  the  managers  of  the  chapel. — W.  Abernethy  Drum- 
mond ;  Wm.  Routledge,  minister ;  Robert  Adam,  clerk ;  Alex.  Jamieson, 
clerk.' 

"  The  Rev.  Mr.  Norval,  the  predecessor  of  the  present  incumbent,  formerly 
belonged  to  the  Scottish  Established  Church.  '  The  Church  Review  and 
Scottish  Ecclesiastical  Magazine,'  as  well  as  several  Scotch  newspapers  for 
^^37-3^,  narrate  at  full  length  the  Presbytery  and  Synod  speeches  which 
contained  the  novel  proceedings  which  caused  Mr.  Norval  to  seek  refuge  in 
Church  of  England  orders.      This  narrative  is  gathered  therefrom  : — 

"  The  name  of  JVorva/,  famed  in  song,  is  likely  to  become  a  pro  claruui 
jiomen  in  our  annals  ecclesiastic.  In  Mr.  Norval  the  kirk  has  verily  found  a 
frugal  swain  ! — one  who  would  feed  his  flocks  on  pilfered  pasturage.  He 
came  to  Kirriemuir  in  1836  from  Glasgow,  his  native  place.  No  sooner  was 
he  inducted  minister  of  the  New  Kirk  at  Kirriemuir  than  the  provincial 
press  blazed  away  in  their  own  proper  style,  dwelling  on  his  most  harmonious 
settlement  as  an  .edifying  illustration  of  the  results  of  popular  election.  One 
of  the  charges  in  the  parish  of  Brechin  soon  became  vacant.  Again  Mr. 
Norval  is  the  man  of  the  people,  but  the  sermons  are  found  out  not  to  be  Ins 
owtt,  but  taken,  in  all  their  material  points,  out  of  certain  volumes  of  sermons 
by  the  Rev.  Henry  Melville  of  Camberwell  Chapel,  London. 

"  A  few  of  the  hearers  bring  the  imposition  practised  upon  them  before 
the  Presbytery,  who  refer  the  case  to  the  Synod  of  Angus  and  Mearns,  who 
refer  the  case  to  the  General  Assembly. 

"  '  Let  us  hope,'  says  a  periodical,  containing  the  minutes  of  this  whole 
case,  '  that  Mr.  Norval's  brethren  in  the  ministry  will  be  merciful,  in  due 
recollection  of  the  sacred  maxim  :  "  He  that  is  without  sin  amongst  you,  let 
him  first  cast  a  stone." '  Thenceforward  Mr.  Norval  betook  himself  to  study 
at  Durham.  By  the  bishop  of  that  diocese  he  got  ordained  to  the  incumbency 
of  Trimdon,  which  he  bought  with  his  wife's  money.  He  was  just  one  year 
in  St.  Andrew's,  and  was  what  is  termed  'very  low  church.'" 


CHAPTER    XV. 

Lunardi's  balloon  ascent,  1785 — The  "kist  o'  whisUes  " — Choral  Union  in  Glasgow, 
1756 — Concert  in  1789 — The  Devil's  Kirk — Willow  Acre — Various  ministers  of 
St.  Andrew's  Church. 

I  NOW  beg  leave  to  make  a  few  passing  remarks  upon  the  fore- 
going interesting  details  regarding  the  early  history  of  St.  Andrew's 
Episcopal  Church,  as  furnished  by  its  respectable  pastor,  the  Rev. 
Dr.  Gordon. 

The  rev.  doctor  thus  commences  :  "  What  I  am  about  to  state 
is  from  the  Town  Council  Records,"  and  then  continues  :  "  The 
first  stone  was  laid  in  the  year  that  Lunardi  ascended  from  a 
balloon  in  the  Square  in  1740."  Now,  if  the  Town  Council 
Records  thus  state  the  date  of  Lunardi's  ascension  in  Glasgow, 
they  are  wrong,  for  it  was  not  till  Wednesday,  the  23d  of  Novem- 
ber 1785,  that  he  first  ascended  from  St.  Andrew's  Square.  I  was 
present  on  the  occasion,  and  witnessed  the  ascension  from  the 
Green,  as  I  have  mentioned  in  another  article.  The  following  is 
a  notice  by  Lunardi : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  17th  November  1785.  —  '■^Aerial  Exxursion.  —  On 
Wednesday  next,  about  noon,  Mr.  Lunardi  will  ascend  with  his  balloon  into 
the  atmosphere,  from  St.  Andrew's  Church-yard.  Mr.  Lunardi  is  happy  of 
having  in  his  power  to  acquaint  the  ladies  and  gentlemen  that,  according  to 
their  wishes,  the  magistrates  have  granted  him  the  choir  of  the  Old  Cathe- 
dral, where,  on  Monday  next,  the  balloon  will  be  suspended  in  a  floating  state, 
with  the  netting  over  it,  and  the  car  attached  to  it,  which  will  be  an  exact 
representation  of  its  ascent.     Admittance  one  shilling." 

I  must  apologise  for  making  a  digression  here,  by  giving  a 


LUNARDI'S  BALLOON  ASCEiNT.  235 

copy  of  a  curious  letter  from  Gilbert  Chisholm,  Esq.  of  Stretches, 
narrating  the  descent  of  Lunardi,  near  Hawick,  in  1785. 

"  Dear  Sir — Yesterday  afternoon  (23  November),  about  half  an  hour 
after  three,  as  I  was  returning,  with  Mrs.  Chishohn,  from  a  visit  to  Sir  James 
Naysmith,  of  Posso,  Bart.,  my  servant  called  out  to  me  to  observe  a  paper 
kite  of  most  surprising  magnitude  and  height.  Turning  my  eyes  to  the  place 
where  the  boy  pointed,  I  perceived  a  body  flying  among  the  clouds,  which 
sometimes  intercepted  it  from  my  sight.  As  it  came  near  the  ground,  I 
perceived  it  assume  an  oblong  oval  shape,  something  like  a  sugar  mould  ;  but 
as  I  could  perceive  no  string  to  hold  it,  nor  any  tail  appended,  I  was  con- 
vinced that  it  could  be  no  kite — which,  indeed,  its  extraordinary  height  had 
convinced  me  of  before.  As  I  knew  that  Lunardi  was  in  the  country,  and 
intended  a  voyage  from  Glasgow  this  day,  I  began  to  suspect  this  must  be  his 
balloon,  though  I  was  yet  unable  to  distinguish  his  car,  and  could  scarce  allow 
myself  to  think  that  he  could  be  at  such  a  distance  from  that  city.  As  it  still 
came  nearer,  however,  I  was  at  last  convinced  it  could  be  no  other ;  and  in 
about  a  quarter  of  an  hour  after  I  first  saw  him,  he  wa'S  got  so  near,  that  I 
began  to  call  out  to  him,  'Mr.  Lunardi,  come  down!  come  down!'  This 
invitation  I  gave  him  the  more  readily,  because  if  he  had  still  gone  on  he  must 
have  alighted  in  a  very  inconvenient  place,  on  account  of  the  high  wind.  After 
repeated  calls,  I  had  the  good  fortune  to  hear  that  he  answered  me  through 
his  speaking  trumpet,  though  I  could  not  distinctly  hear  what  he  said.  At 
five  minutes  before  four,  he  alighted  in  a  place  very  near  the  water  of  Ale,  and 
so  effectually  screened  from  the  wind  that  the  balloon  stood  quite  upright, 
without  inclining  either  to  one  side  or  another. 

"  Two  shepherds  who  kept  their  sheep  on  the  hillside  were  so  much 
astonished  at  the  descent  of  the  balloon,  with  a  human  creature  appended  to 
it,  that  it  was  with  difficulty  I  could  persuade  them  that  Mr.  Lunardi  was  not 
some  devil  who  would  destroy  them.  At  last,  by  my  earnest  persuasion,  they 
ran  down  the  hill,  and,  with  some  fears  in  their  countenances,  came  up  to  Mr. 
Lunardi.  My  horse  was  so  frightened  that  I  could  scarce  come  within  a  gun- 
shot ;  but  Mrs.  Chisholm,  who  rode  a  more  peaceable  beast,  was  allowed  to 
come  much  nearer.  The  shepherds  at  my  desire  conveyed  the  balloon,  and 
Mr.  Lunardi  along  with  it,  over  the  water  which  separated  us,  which  they 
effected  with  the  greatest  ease,  the  balloon  yet  rising  from  the  ground  with  the 
slightest  touch.  After  receiving  our  hearty  congratulations,  Mr.  Lunardi  asked 
Mrs.  Chisholm  if  she  would  take  his  place  in  the  aerial  car,  to  which  she 
replied  by  jumping  into  it.  She  willingly  would  have  had  the  balloon  set  at 
liberty,  but  as  the  wind  was  very  high,  Mr.  Lunardi  judged  this  to  be  improper; 
for  as  Mrs.  Chisholm  is  considerably  lighter,  she  must  have  ascended  to  a 
great  height,  and  been  conveyed  to  several  miles'  distance ;  the  car,  therefore, 
was  held  near  the  ground  by  the  two  shepherds.  In  this  manner  she  was 
carried  for  about  three  miles,  while  the  hills  sheltered  us  from  the  wind  ;  but 
then  it  became  so  violent,  and  the  balloon  waved  so  much,  that  she  was 
obliged  to  alight.     After  this  we  assisted  Mr.  Lunardi  in  emptying  his  balloon. 


236  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

which  was  not  accomplished  without  great  difficulty,  on  account  of  the  high 
wind.  After  having  the  pleasure  of  Mr.  Lunardi's  company  for  the  night,  I 
had  the  honour  of  introducing  him  this  day  to  the  magistrates  of  Hawick,  who, 
after  having  entertained  him  at  dinner,  presented  him  with  the  Freedom  of  the 
Burgh.  Mrs.  Chisholm  is  much  pleased  with  her  aerial  journey,  and  still 
wishes  that  she  had  been  set  at  liberty." 

On  Monday  the  5th  of  December  1785  Lunardi  made  a  second 
ascent  from  Glasgow,  On  this  occasion  he  went  right  over  the 
city  to  the  north,  and  alighted  in  the  parish  of  Campsie,  about 
ten  miles  distant,  returning  before  eight  o'clock  at  night. 

I  think  that  the  Council  Records  are  also  wrong  if  they  state 
that  the  land  on  which  St.  Andrew's  Parish  Church  stands  was 
" a  burying- ground','  and  that  the  only  entrance  to  the  church  and 
churchyard  was  by  an  iron  gate  on  the  north.  There  is  no 
written  evidence,  I  believe,  of  the  lands  of  St.  Andrew's  Square 
ever  having  been  a  cemetery,  or  of  any  church  having  existed  upon 
the  said  lands  before  the  present  church  was  built.  No  human 
remains  were  found  when  the  buildings  of  the  Square  were  in  the 
course  of  erection.  The  iron  gate  above  mentioned  was  not  on 
the  north  of  the  Square,  but  on  the  west,  at  the  opening  from  the 
Saltmarket ;  but  there  was  also  an  opening  to  the  said  lands  from 
the  Gallowgate,  but  it  had  no  iron  gate. 

It  was  in  the  year  1787  that  the  lands  of  St.  Andrew's  Square 
were  first  advertised  for  sale,  viz.  1 4th  February.  "  To  be  sold, 
sundry  steadings  for  houses  in  St.  Andrew's  Square.  The  plan  of 
the  Square,  and  the  regulations  for  building,  are  to  be  seen  in  the 
hands  of  the  town  clerks  of  Glasgow." — Mercury. 

Dr.  Gordon  informs  us  that  the  first  meeting  of  the  contribu- 
tors for  building  St.  Andrew's  Episcopal  Chapel  was  held  upon 
the  15th  of  March  1750,  in  the  house  of  Robert  Tennent,  vintner, 
who  was  one  of  the  directors.  Mr.  Tennent,  besides  his  business 
as  a  vintner  in  the  White  Hart  Inn,  near  the  old  toll  in  the 
Gallowgate,  was  also  an  extensive  builder ;  and,  along  with 
Robert  Muir  and  David  M'Arthur,  he  rented  from  the  city  of 
Glasgow  the  extensive  stone  quarry  called  the  "  Sheep  Quarry,"  in 
the  eastern  common.  Mr.  Robert  Tennent  built  the  Saracen's 
Head   Inn,  and   the  Magistrates  and  Town  Council,  by  way  of 


ST.  ANDREW'S  EPISCOPAL  CHURCH.  237 

encouragement  to  such  a  great  undertaking,  granted  him  Hberty 
to  take  stones  from  the  Bishop's  Palace  to  build  the  said  inn. 
Mr.  Tennent  appears  to  have  availed  himself  of  this  liberty,  by 
demolishing  the  handsome  gateway  of  the  palace,  and  carrying  off 
Bishop  Dunbar's  coat  of  arms,  which  stood  in  front  of  the  gate. 
Mr.  Tennent  at  the  time  being  also  engaged  in  building  a  large 
tenement  on  the  east  side  of  the  High  Street,  near  the  Cross,  he 
placed  the  stone  having  Bishop  Dunbar's  coat  of  arms  deeply 
sculptured  thereon  in  the  back  wall  of  the  said  tenement,  where  it 
remains  to  this  day,  and  may  be  seen  from  the  back  court  of  the 
tenement  by  those  who  are  interested  in  viewing  antiquarian 
subjects. 

Mr.  Robert  Tennent  belonged  to  the  family  of  the  Tennents 
of  Wellpark  ;  and  it  is  curious  to  see  a  Wellpark  Tennent  care- 
fully preserving  Roman  Catholic  relics,  and  superintending,  as 
director,  the  building  of  an  Episcopal  chapel. 

William  Paul,  one  of  the  contractors  to  execute  the  mason 
work  of  St.  Andrew's  Episcopal  Chapel,  was  deacon  of  the  Incor- 
poration of  Masons  in  1745  and  1749  ;  and  Thomas  Thomson, 
who  contracted  for  the  joiner  work  of  the  said  chapel,  was  dea- 
con of  the  Incorporation  of  Wrights  in  1744.  As  for  Andrew 
Hunter,  the  other  contractor  to  execute  the  mason  work  of  the 
fabric  in  question,  Mr.  Pagan,  in  his  Glasgow,  at  page  181,  has 
given  a  full  corroboration  of  what  Dr.  Gordon  states  regarding  the 
great  sin  which  Andrew  had  committed  by  soiling  his  fingers  with 
the  mortar  of  such  a  wicked  temple. 

Dr.  Gordon  informs  us  that  the  present  organ  of  the  chapel 
was  bought  from  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  in  1 8 1 2,  and  that  it 
was  formerly  the  rood  screen  of  the  Glasgow  Cathedral,  immedi- 
ately behind  the  Magistrates'  loft,  recently  erected.  In  Pagan's 
Cathedral,  at  page  70,  it  is  stated  that  the  great  organ,  or  "  kist 
o'  whistles,"  as  it  was  termed,  which  is  believed  to  have  been 
placed  above  the  rood  screen,  was  removed  at  the  Reformation, 
and  a  similar  instrument  was  not  again  seen  in  Glasgow  till  1775, 
when  an  organ  was  placed  in  the  then  new  Episcopal  chapel  on 
the  Green.  The  Rev.  W.  M.  Wade,  A.M.,  writing  in  1822,  says 
that  the  Unitarian    meeting-house  in   Union   Street  of  Glascrow 


238  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

contains  the  organ  which  was  formerly  in  St.  Andrew's  Episcopal 
Ghapel,  situated  near  the  Green  of  the  city. 

Although  for  a  number  of  years  after  its  erection  in  1750 
there  was  no  organ  in  the  chapel,  nevertheless  the  directors  appear 
to  have  taken  pains  to  procure  a  professional  music  master  as 
leader  of  the  choir,  so  as  that  the  want  of  an  organ  might  be  suffi- 
ciently supplied  by  experienced  chanters  in  lieu  of  the  said  organ. 

Glasgow  Mercury,  20th  December  1756. — "John  Buchanan,  clerk  to 
the  English  Chapel,  Glasgow,  opens  his  school  for  teaching  church  music  in 
the  2nd  storey  of  M'Nair's  land,  opposite  the  Main  Guard,  on  Tuesday  the 
28th  inst.,  at  six  o'clock  in  the  evening,  and  will  continue  to  teach  every  day 
in  the  week,  except  Saturday,  at  that  or  any  other  hour  most  convenient  for 
his  scholars." 

{N.B. — Clerk  is  the  layman  who  reads  the  respones  to  the 
congregation  in  the  church,  to  direct  the  rest. — JOHNSON.) 

We  are  left  in  the  dark  by  the  foregoing  advertisement 
whether  or  not  John  taught  his  scholars  upon  the  Sundays. 

The  example  of  cultivating  and  improving  a  taste  for  church 
music  thus  first  set  agoing  in  Glasgow  by  the  directors  of  St. 
Andrew's  Episcopal  Chapel  was  immediately  followed  by  our  civic 
authorities. 

Mercury,  22nd  November  1756. — "By  order  of  the  magistrates.  To 
encourage  and  promote  the  improvement  of  church  music,  the  magistrates 
have  directed  Mr.  Moor  to  open  a  free  school  in  Hutcheson's  Hospital,  on 
Tuesday  the  2 2d  instant,  at  seven  o'clock  in  the  evening,  where  the  inhabitants 
of  the  city  will  be  admitted  and  taught  at  the  public  charge,  on  their  produc- 
ing proper  certificates  of  their  character  from  the  minister  and  elders  of  the 
parish  where  they  reside." 

Mercury,  loth  November  1785. — "The  managers  of  the  licensed  Epis- 
copal Chapel  in  the  city  of  Glasgow  having  some  time  since'  erected  the  same 
into  a  collegiate  charge,  by  appointing  two  clergymen  jointly  to  perform  the 
different  parts  of  the  public  worship  at  every  meeting,  upon  the  plan  of  divine 
service  established  in  the  new  chapel  in  Edinburgh ;  and  the  managers  having 
also  erected  a  new  gallery  for  the  better  accommodation  of  the  inhabitants  of 
this  city  and  neighbourhood  as  may  not  be  supplied  with  seats — all  who  may 
be  interested  in  this  public  notice  are  desired  to  apply,  by  letter,  to  Mr.  John 
Fergus,  in  Glasgow,  mentioning  the  seats  they  wish  to  occupy,  that  the  same 
may  be  laid  before  the  managers,  to  enable  them  to  take  early  measures  for 
their  accommodation.  The  chapel  is  now  warmed  by  a  couple  of  stoves,  and 
the  floors  are  covered  with  mattings. 


ST.  ANDREW'S  EPISCOPAL  CHURCH.  239 

"  The  said  managers,  for  the  greater  improvement  of  the  harmony  of  the 
pubhc  worship,  having  ordered  a  proper  number  of  boys  to  be  educated  to 
music,  for  the  purpose  of  accompanying  the  organ,  that  divine  service  may  be 
performed  on  a  plan  better  calculated  to  improve  the  knowledge  and  refine  the 
taste  for  sacred  music — hereby  give  notice,  that  they  wish  to  procure  a  clerk 
or  precentor  for  the  Episcopal  Chapel,  of  approved  abilities  and  knowledge  in 
music,  and  of  an  unexceptionable  moral  character ;  and  for  this  purpose,  they 
request  that  all  candidates  for  this  situation  may,  as  soon  as  possible,  send  a 
note  of  their  names,  professions,  and  places  of  abode  to  Mr.  John  Fergus, 
junior,  organist,  or  Mr.  William  Goold,  teacher  of  music  in  Glasgow,  who  will 
immediately  inform  such  candidates  when  they  may  appear  upon  a  comparative 
trial.  The  salary,  exclusive  of  perquisites,  is  ^10  8s.  per  annum,  besides  the 
undoubted  advantages  which  may  be  expected  to  arise  from  the  establishment 
of  an  able  and  skilful  teacher  of  church  music  in  the  city  of  Glasgow." 

The  successful  candidate  for  the  above  situation  was  a  Mr. 
Banks,  an  Englishman,  who  possessed  a  good  musical  voice,  and 
was  an  excellent  performer  on  the  violin.  On  the  i8th  of  Feb- 
ruary 1788  the  directors  of  the  gentlemen's  private  concert  gave 
Mr,  Banks  a  benefit  concert,  in  which  Messrs.  John  Fergus  and 
William  Goold  took  parts,  the  former  on  the  harpsicord  and  the 
latter  on  the  German  flute.  On  this  occasion  Mr.  Banks  sang 
"  Ma  chere  Ami,"  and  joined  in  several  glees.  In  the  second  act 
he  gave  a  violin  concerto,  which  was  much  admired  by  musical 
connoisseurs,  there  being  then  no  other  eminent  performer  of 
Italian  music  in  Glasgow. 

Mercury^  12th  May  1789. — "On  Thursday,  the  21st  of  May,  in  the 
English  Chapel,  will  be  performed  several  select  pieces  of  sacred  music,  from 
the  works  of  Handel,  Marcello,  Boyce,  &c., 

For  the  Benefit  of  the  Chapel  Band. 

"  The  doors  to  be  opened  at  six  o'clock,  and  the  performance  will  begin 
precisely  at  half  an  hour  after  six  of  the  evening.     Tickets  :   is  each." 

The  above  entertainment  was  conducted  by  Mr.  Banks  for 
behoof  of  the  chapel  band,  but  soon  afterwards  he  gave  a  public 
concert  upon  his  own  account,  in  the  course  of  which  he  performed 
several  airs  on  the  psaltery,  an  instrument  much  in  use  amongst 
the  ancient  Hebrews,  who  called  it  "  Nebel."  The  psaltery  on 
which  Mr.  Banks  performed  was  in  shape  somewhat  like  the 
modern  violin,  but  had  strings  of  brass  wire.  I  was  present  at 
this  concert,  and   I   think  that  the  psaltery  used  by  Mr.   Banks 


240  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIPs-ONS. 

was  quite  different  from  the  ancient  instrument,  wiiich  had  thirteen 
strings  and  two  bridges  ;  whereas  Mr.  Banks's  psaltery  had  only  a 
small  number  of  strings  and  but  one  bridge  ;  besides  he  made  use 
of  the  violin  bow  to  draw  out  the  notes,  when,  on  the  contrary, 
the  ancient  Jewish  musicians  struck  the  strings  with  a  plectrum,  or 
slender  crooked  stick.  The  performance  of  Mr.  Banks  on  this  in- 
strument turned  out  a  complete  failure,  and  this  gentleman  never 
attempted  a  second  time  to  perform  publicly  on  the  psaltery. 
The  organist  of  St.  Andrew's  Chapel  at  this  time  was  Mr.  John 
Fergus.  He  was  a  teacher  of  music,  and  was  greatly  respected 
by  all  ranks  of  our  citizens.  His  manners  were  mild  and  un- 
assuming, and  as  he  possessed  considerable  talents  as  a  musician, 
he  was  frequently  invited  to  private  musical  parties.  He  always 
attended  those  parties  as  a  guest,  and  I  never  heard  of  his  hav- 
ing made  any  professional  charge  when  invited  to  attend  private 
musical  parties.  Besides  being  an  excellent  performer  on  the 
organ  and  pianoforte,  he  also  led  the  violoncello,  or  double  bass,  at 
all  our  public  concerts,  and  likewise  at  the  gentlemen's  subscrip- 
tion concerts,  attending  the  rehearsals  ''gratis!' 

Mr.  Fergus  composed  several  pieces  of  music,  amongst  which 
was  "  The  Royal  Glasgow  Volunteer  March,"  which,  in  the  volun- 
teer days  of  the  French  war,  animated  the  ranks  and  files  of  our 
citizen  soldiers  on  their  marches  to  and  from  their  parades  on  the 
Green.-^ 

Dr.  Cleland,  in  his  Rise  and  Progress,  at  page  i6,  informs 
us  that  prior  to  i8o6the  Scotch  and  English  Episcopalians  in 
Scotland  were  considered  as  distinct  bodies,  but  in  the  beginning 
of  that  year  a  union  took  place.  That  the  first  diet  of  confirma- 
tion of  Episcopalians  in  Glasgow  took  place  on  the  15  th  of  May 

1  Glasgow  Mercury,  l8th  October  1781. — "MUSIC. —  John  Fergus,  junior,  begs 
leave  in  this  manner  to  acquaint  the  public  that  he  teaches  the  harpsicord,  pianoforte, 
and  organ  upon  reasonable  terms.  Having  made  music  his  particular  study  under  the 
best  masters  in  Edinburgh,  and  since,  under  Mr.  Esden  of  Durham  Cathedral,  and 
others  in  England,  he  flatters  himself  he  will  be  able  to  give  complete  satisfaction  to  his 
employers.  He  also  teaches  church  music  in  the  English  chapel  here  ;  he  will  teach 
gratis  the  children  of  parents  belonging  to  that  congregation  who  are  unable  to  pay  for 
their  instruction.  .  .  .  John  Fergus  returns  his  most  grateful  thanks  to  those  who  for- 
merly employed  him,  and  hopes  to  merit  their  further  favours,  and  the  favours  of  the 
public  at  large. 

<«  jj;B. — He  tunes  harpsicords,  pianofortes,  organs,  &c." 


ST.  ANDREW'S  EPISCOPAL  CHURCH.  241 

1806,  Avhen  ninety  persons  \vere ^confirmed  by  Bishop  Drummond, 
This  happened  two  years  before  the  death  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Falconer, 
and  at  the  time  when  the  Rev.  Mr.  Routledge  was  junior  minister. 
The  Doctor  in  his  Annals,  at  page  153,  further  says  that  the  sti- 
pend of  Mr.  Routledge  after  the  death  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Falconer, 
was  ;^300  per  annum,  and  that  the  sittings  of  the  chapel  in  1820 
amounted  to  641. 

Denholm,  in  his  History  of  Glasgow,  at  page  171,  says  that 
when  the  English  Chapel  was  erecting  in  175  i,  it  met  with  no 
little  opposition  from  the  fanatical  spirit  prevailing  amongst  the 
lower  orders,  who  vilified  it  by  the  appellation  of  the  Whistling 
Kirk.  The  spirit  of  these  times  is  luckily  now  changed  by  giving 
place  to  more  enlarged  and  generous  ideas. 

Even  down  to  my  early  days  the  operative  classes  in  Glasgow 
almost  unanimously  were  hostile  to  Episcopacy,  looking  upon  the 
English  service  as  being  too  nearly  allied  to  Popery  to  be  in 
accordance  with  the  word  of  God  ;  and  although  Denholm  says 
that  on  this  subject  the  spirit  of  the  times  has  changed,  I  am 
afraid  that  there  is  still  a  little  lingering  of  the  same  spirit  exist- 
ing amongst  many  of  the  lower  orders  in  Glasgow. 

About  eighty  years  ago  I  remember  of  the  following  cutting 
lampoon  against  the  English  Episcopalians  having  been  told  to 
me  by  an  operative  weaver  who  had  lived  during  the  time  that 
St.  Andrew's  Chapel  was  building. 

It  must  first  be  noticed  that  the  act  of  building  St.  Andrew's 
Parish  Church  proceeded  at  a  snail's  pace,  more  than  thirty  years 
having  been  consumed  in  erecting  that  edifice ;  while,  on  the  con- 
trary, the  building  of  the  English  Chapel  went  forward  at  race- 
horse speed,  the  foundations  of  it  having  been  laid  in  1750,  and 
the  chapel  opened  in  175  i. 

My  informant  said  that  while  St.  Andrew's  Parish  Church  was 
building,  in  the  year  1750,  Mungo  Naysmith,  the  foreman  of  the 
masons  employed  in  its  erection,  happened  one  morning  very 
early,  before  dawn  of  day,  to  be  standing  upon  the  walls  of  the 
said  church  inspecting  the  workmanship  of  the  masons  previous 
to  any  of  the  operatives  of  the  craft  arriving  to  their  daily  labour, 
when,  accidentally  casting  his  eyes  towards  the  English  Chapel, 
VOL.  III.  R 


242  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

then  in  the  course  of  erection,  he  was  surprised  to  see  a  strange 
uncouth  figure  there  busily  employed  in  furthering  the  building, 
and  carrying  huge  stones  (which  would  have  required  six  of 
Mungo's  men  to  move)  with  as  much  ease  as  if  they  had  been 
feathers,  and  placing  the  same  in  position  towards  the  erection  of 
the  building.  While  Mungo  was  thus  gazing  with  amazement  at 
the  spectacle,  the  figure  raised  itself  to  its  full  height,  and  called 
out  to  Mungo  :  "  Mungo,  Mungo  come  over  here  and  help  me  to 
build  my  kirk  !"  "  Na,  na,"  instantly  quoth  Mungo  to  the  figure  ; 
"  fegs,  my  lad,  I  ken  better  than  that.  The  Lord  sef  us,  man,  wha 
are  you?"  But  no  sooner  had  Mungo  pronounced  the  word 
"  Lord,"  than  the  figure  vanished  in  a  twinkling.  Mungo,  how- 
ever, positively  affirmed  that  he  distinctly  saw  that  it  had  horns 
on  its  head  and  cloven  feet !  My  informant  told  me  the  story 
with  the  greatest  glee,  as  a  capital  joke  currently  handed  about 
amongst  the  working  classes  of  his  youth,  who  were  delighted 
with  the  innuendo  against  the  Episcopalians. 

Although  the  lower  orders  in  Glasgow  were  hostile  to  Episco- 
pacy, it  was  otherwise  with  the  Magistrates  of  the  city  and  higher 
classes  of  the  community,  who  were  at  least  tolerant,  if  not  indif- 
ferent on  the  subject,  as  the  following  notice  shows  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  23d  August  1764. — "  On  Sunday  last  (19th),  the  Right 
Rev.  Dr.  Littleton,  bishop  of  Cadisle,  preached  in  the  morning  to  a  crowded 
audience  in  the  hcensed  Episcopal  Chapel  here,  and  in  the  afternoon,  he  went 
with  the  Right  Hon.  Lord  Wentworth  and  his  son,  and  attended  divine  service 
in  the  High  Church.  They  were  waited  on  next  day  by  the  magistrates,  and 
had  the  compliments  of  the  city." 

(Archibald  Ingram  was  at  this  time  Provost  of  Glasgow.) 
Dr.  Gordon  informs  us  that  Willow  Acre  belonged  to  three 
brothers — John,  Robert,  and  Thomas  Moodie.    'John  was  dea- 
con of  the  gardeners  in  the  years    1725-6,    1729-30,  and    1734. 
Robert  was    deacon    of  the  same   incorporation  in    173 1-2  and 

1733- 

The  lands  of  Willow  Acre  seem  to  have  originally  extended 

to  both  sides  of  the  Camlachie  Burn,  and  apparently  to  have  em- 
braced Castle  Boins,  which  was  joined  to  the  left  bank  of  the  burn, 
and  was  bounded  by  the  waters  of  the  stream  itself  on  the  north. 


WILLOW  ACRE.  243 

Dr.  Gordon  states  that  the  grounds  of  the  Episcopal  Chapel  con- 
sisted of  1083  square  ells,  but  as  a  Scotch  acre  contains  6150^ 
English  yards,  the  chapel  lands  could  only  have  been  about  the 
sixth  part  of  the  Willow  Acre  grounds. 

Dr.  Gordon  having  stated  that  the  ground  on  which  the 
chapel  was  built  formerly  formed  part  of  the  lands  called  Willow 
Acre,  he  suggests  that  the  name  may  have  been  given  to  it  in 
consequence  of  willows  growing  by  the  two  brooks  which  flowed 
past  the  plot  of  ground.  But  although  I  possess  little  antiquarian 
knowledge,  I  doubt  the  correctness  of  this  derivation,  for  willow 
is  an  English  word  and  Saiichie  Acre  should  have  been  the 
Scotch  term. 

I  would  derive  the  term  Willow  Acre  from  the  Scotch  and 
Saxon  word  weel,  well,  or  wele,  which  signifies  an  eddy  or  whirl- 
pool in  a  stream,  and  it  will  be  seen  from  the  Plan  that  Willow 
Acre  stood  upon  a  bend  of  the  Camlachie  Burn  at  Castle  Boins, 
where  formerly  there  were  washings,  and  probably  an  eddy.  In 
the  same  manner  we  see  the  entry  from  the  Saltmarket  to  the 
Molendinar  Burn  called  the  Weel  Close,  leading  to  a  bend  of  the 
said  burn  where  washings  took  place.  (See  Plan.)  The  ancient 
term,  in  my  opinion,  was  the  "Weel  Acre,"  corrupted  into  the  Willow 
Acre,  as  Sauchie  Haugh  has  been  perverted  into  Sauchiehall,  and 
Shield  Haugh  into  Shieldhall.  I  refer  to  a  former  part  of  these 
jottings  at  page  197  as  to  the  Weel  Close. 

Perhaps  it  may  be  objected  to  my  etymology  that  acre  is  not 
an  ancient  Scotch  word  ;  but  Jamieson  says  that  Acker- dale, 
means  divided  into  single  acres.  Aecer,  an  acre,  and  dael-en,  to 
divide. 

In  the  Origines  Parochiales,  vol.  i.  p.  507,  we  find  as  follows  : — 

"  In  a  not  of  some  informationes  concerning  the  valour  of  a  certane  of  the 
personage  teynds  of  Ranfrew,  dated  March  165  i,  it  is  stated  that  the  towne 
of  Ranfrew,  comprehending  the  borrow  aikers,  with  the  knock,  Sandiefurd  and 
Bogside  is  a  ten  pund  land." 

I  only  further  add  that  the  Encyclopaedia  says,  that  acre 
signified  any  open  ground,  especially  a  wide  champaign,  and  in 
this  antique  sense  it  seems  to  be  preserved  in  the  names  of  places 


244  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

as  "  Castle  Acre,"  etc.  But  I  must  leave  this  knotty  point  to 
some  of  our  Glasgow  antiquaries,  who  are  more  able  to  handle  the 
subject  in  a  satisfactory  manner  than  me. 

As  there  never  was  any  street  called  "  Brook  Street "  in  the 
Bridgegate  district  of  Glasgow,  I  suppose  that  Dr.  Gordon  in 
alluding  to  the  said  street  means  "  Brook  Street,"  in  the  Bridge- 
ton  district  of  the  city  at  Mile-end,  which  there  is  near  the  Cam- 
lachie  Burn, 

With  regard  to  the  original  directors  of  the  St.  Andrew's 
Episcopal  Chapel,  Alexander  Oswald,  the  first  in  the  list  of 
directors,  died  at  Scotstown,  27th  January  1763. 

Casper  Claussen  was  a  Dutchman  brought  from  Holland  by 
the  Western  or  Stockwell  Sugar  House  Company,  to  improve  and 
superintend  the  manufacture  of  their  sugar-refining  process. 

James  Dennistoun  belonged  to  the  Colgrain  family,  and  was 
probably  the  father  of  the  James  Dennistoun  who  married  Miss 
Mary  Ramsay  Oswald,  fifth  daughter  of  George  Oswald  of  Scots- 
town. 

Andrew  Stalker  was  a  bookseller,  and  also  the  Editor  of  the 
Glasgozv  Joumal.  He  lived  in  a  house  which  stood  across  the 
Molendinar  Burn,  near  the  Gallowgate  Bridge  on  the  south,  which 
house  is  shown  on  the  Plan  annexed  to  these  jottings. 

As  for  the  other  directors,  I  have  found  no  particulars  regard- 
ing them. 

In  reference  to  the  vestry  of  the  chapel  having  been  broken 
into  in  1812  by  Stewart  and  M Arthur,  I  find  the  following 
account  of  the  trial  of  those  persons  in  the  Scots  Magazine  of 
I  812,  at  page  801  : — 

"Glasgow  Circuit  Court  of  Justiciary,  Wednesday,  7th  October  18 12. — 
James  Stewart  and  William  M 'Arthur,  were  accused  of  breaking  into  the 
vestry  of  the  English  Chapel,  on  the  night  of  Monday  the  4th,  and  of  Wednes- 
day the  6th  of  May,  and  feloniously  carrying  off  one  minister's  gown,  silk,  one 
minister's  cassock,  ditto,  two  minister's  gowns,  bombazeen,  three  linen  sur- 
plices, one  black  silk  scarf,  one  table  cloth,  five  towels,  one  great  coat. 

"  Elizabeth  Menzies,  otherwise  Stewart,  was  accused  resetting  these  articles, 
knowing  them  to  be  stolen.  The  pannels  pleaded  not  guilty,  and  after  a 
number  of  witnesses  had  been  examined,  the  diet  was  deserted  simpliciter 
ap-ainst  Elizabeth  Menzies.     Lord   Gillies  delivered  an  admirable  charge  to 


EAGLESHOLM  CROFT.  245 

the  jury,  who  returned  a  verdict  unanimously  finding  James  Stewart  and  Wm. 
M 'Arthur  guilty  of  the  crime  libelled,  and  they  were  both  sentenced  to  be 
hanged  in  Glasgow,  on  Wednesday  the  i8th  of  November. 

"  M 'Arthur  asserted  his  innocence  after  the  sentence,  and  called  God  to 
witness  that  he  told  the  truth." 

Dr.  Gordon  says  : — 

"These  two  persons  being  sentenced  to  be  capitally  executed  on  the  i8th 
November  the  same  year ;  but  Mr.  Routledge  and  the  congregation  having 
petitioned  the  Prince  Regent  for  mercy,  the  sentence  was  commuted  to  trans- 
portation for  life." 

But  in  addition  to  the  above-mentioned  petition  for  mercy,  it 
may  be  remarked  that  the  pannels  were  accused  not  only  of  theft, 
but  also  of  being  habit  and  repute  thieves.  They  were  found 
guilty  of  the  first  charge,  but  the  last  was  not  proven,  and  it  was 
supposed  that  this  circumstance  tended  greatly  to  influence  the 
Crown  to  listen  to  the  petition  of  Mr.  Routledge  and  the  con- 
gregation of  St.  Andrew's  for  a  commutation  of  the  capital 
sentence. 

The  sum  of  ;^i  :  i6s.  sterling  of  "dead-earnest,"  which  was 
paid  when  the  ground  of  the  chapel  was  bought,  appears  to  have 
been  given  by  the  buyers  as  a  symbol  or  mark  that  the  bargain 
was  perfected,  and  came  in  lieu  of  the  ancient  Scotch  mode  of 
finishing  bargains  by  the  mutual  licking  of  thumbs. 

The  ground  for  the  chapel  and  churchyard  thus  purchased, 
according  to  Dr.  Gordon,  consisted  of  1083  square  ells,  at  ;^i 
Scots,  or  IS.  8d.  English,  which  amounts  to  ^90  :  5s.  sterling  of 
annual  feu-duty,  or  rather  less  than  is.  8d.  per  square  yard,  the 
Scots  ell  being  37ith  inches  in  length,  and  the  English  square 
yard  36  inches.  Scotch  square  ells  are  now  generally  reckoned 
in  round  numbers  as  English  square  yards. 

Our  learned  antiquarian  citizen  J.  B.  informs  us  that  the 
ground  now  the  site  of  the  English  Episcopal  Chapel  originally 
formed  part  of  the  ancient  lands  of  "  Eaglesholm  Croft,"  which 
extended  from  the  Saltmarket  eastward  to  the  Burnt  Barns,  and 
from  the  Gallowgate  south  to  the  Green.  J.  B.  further  says  that 
the  ground  of  the  said  chapel  came  into  the  possession  of  St. 
Nicholas   Hospital,  and  that  although  it  actually  lies  within  the 


246  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

territory  of  the  burgh,  it  does  not  hold  burgage  of  the  Crown, 
through  the  Magistrates,  and  consequently  the  chapel  lands  are 
held  of  St.  Nicholas  Hospital  as  the  superiors.  St.  Nicholas 
Hospital  was  sold  by  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow,  on  the  1 3th 
July  1798.  It  fronted  Adelphi  Street,  and  stood  about  ten  yards 
east  from  the  Main  Street  of  Gorbals.  The  ground  consisted  of 
551  square  yards. 

But  to  return  to  matters  immediately  regarding  the  chapel 
establishment.  James  Riddoch  was  the  first  minister  ;  he  was 
admitted  in  1750.  Mr.  Riddoch  was  afterwards  preferred  to  be 
minister  of  St.  Paul's  at  Aberdeen.  He  remained  only  one  year 
in  Glasgow.  Mr.  John  Falconer  was  ordained  by  the  Bishop  of 
Carlisle  at  Rose  Castle,  and  was  minister  of  Musselburgh  before 
he  came  to  Glasgow.  He  was  admitted  in  the  year  1 751,  and 
died  in  1808,  having  been  fifty-seven  years  in  the  ministry  at 
Glasgow.  Mr.  Sanderson  was  admitted  as  junior  minister  in  1783, 
and  left  the  chapel  in  1785.  Mr.  William  Andrews  was  admitted 
as  junior  minister  in  1785.  He  was  an  American  Royalist,  who 
took  refuge  in  this  country  soon  after  the  breaking  out  of  the 
American  War  in  1774.  He  left  Glasgow  in  the  year  1787,  and 
was  succeeded  by  Mr.  James  Franks,  who  was  admitted  as  junior 
minister  in  1788.  Mr.  Franks  was  preferred  to  a  cure  in  Halifax, 
Yorkshire,  and  left  Glasgow  in  1791.  The  Rev.  Dr.  Wynne 
succeeded  Mr.  Franks,  but  he  most  probably  was  only  a  tem- 
porary assistant,  as  Mr.  James  Forster  was  admitted  as  junior 
minister  in  1791,  being  the  same  year  that  Mr.  Franks  left  Glas- 
gow. Mr.  Forster  was  a  fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge  ; 
he  left  Glasgow  in  1794.  Mr.  James  Francis  Grant  was  admitted 
as  junior  minister  in  1794.  He  was  the  son  of  Sir  James  Grant 
of  Monymusk.  He  left  Glasgow  in  the  year  1795,  and  was 
succeeded  by  Mr.  William  Routledge,  who  was  admitted  as  junior 
minister  and  assistant  to  Mr.  Falconer  on  the  20th  of  April  1795. 
Mr.  Routledge  was  from  St.  Bridges,  in  Cumberland,  He  was 
ordained  deacon  by  the  Bishop  of  Carlisle  in  1791,  and  priest  by 
the  Archbishop  of  York  in  1794.  Mr.  Falconer  having  died  in 
1808,  Mr.  Routledge  then  succeeded  him  as  first  minister.  Mr. 
Routledge  died  in  1843,  and  at  that  date  was  succeeded  by  the 


ST.  ANDREW'S  EPISCOPAL  CHURCH.  247 

Rev.  William  Nerval,  so  particularly  noticed  by  Dr.  Gordon  in 
his  pastoral  addresses.  Mr.  Norval  was  succeeded  in  1844  by 
the  present  incumbent,  the  Rev.  J.  F.  S.  Gordon,  D.D.,  from 
whose  interesting  notices  I  have  given  so  much  valuable  in- 
formation as  to  the  early  history  of  St.  Andrew's  Episcopal 
Chapel. 


CHAPTER  XVI. 

General  Wolfe  in  Glasgow  in  1753 — Wade's  sketch  of  the  Episcopal  Chapel — Bishop 
Home's  opinion  of  the  Scotch  Episcopalians— Roman  Catholic  Meeting-House 
eighty  years  ago — Burgess  Oath — Popery  riot  in  Glasgow  in  1779-80 — Address  to 
Lord  George  Gordon — Statute  Labour  Assessment  in  1765 — Sundry  regulations 
by  Town  Council — Bailie  Bogle's  villa,  1712 — Conclusion. 

The  late  Captain  William  Marshall  of  Rothesay  at  his  death  was 
the  oldest  Episcopalian  in  Scotland.  In  a  letter  which  I  lately- 
received  from  him  he  says  : — 

"  My  father,  (Robert  Marshall),  who  came  from  England,  was  one  of  the 
original  promoters  of  St.  Andrew's  Chapel,  along  with  old  Mr.  Norris,  bleacher, 
at  the  head  of  the  Green,  when  the  Camlachie  Burn  was  a  pure  stream,  and 
they  were  greatly  assisted  by  the  officers  of  an  English  regiment  which  then 
lay  in  Glasgow.  This  was  always  said  in  our  family.  You  are  right  regarding 
the  greater  gentility  of  the  English  Chapel  in  Glasgow,  when  there  was  no 
other  Episcopal  Chapel  in  Scotland,  excepting  in  Edinburgh.  There  were  a 
few  meeting-houses  of  non-jurors  scattered  over  the  country,  especially  in  the 
north.  With  the  nobility  and  gentry  of  the  west  of  Scotland,  who  had  sittings 
in  St.  Andrew's  Chapel,  I  remember  the  Lowndes  family,  of  Paisley,  coming 
to  St.  Andrew's  Chapel  in  a  grand  coach,"  &c. 

In  reference  to  what  Captain  Marshall  states  of  the  parties 
who  assisted  in  promoting  the  scheme  of  erecting  an  Episcopal 
Church  in  Glasgow,  the  old  Mr.  Norris  at  the  head  of  the  Green, 
mentioned  as  above,  was  the  father  of  the  late  Alexander  Norris, 
born  in  1 7  5  i ,  who  was  so  generally  known  in  Glasgow  by  the 
familiar  name  of  "  Sandy  Norris."  Captain  Marshall  states  that 
the  promoters  were  greatly  assisted  in  furthering  the  scheme  of 
erecting  the  said  chapel  by  the  officers  of  an  English  regiment 
which   then    lay  in    Glasgow.      Now,  it  is   known   that   Wolfe's 


GENERAL  WOLFE  IN  GLASGOW.  249 

regiment  lay  in  Glasgow  when  the  Episcopal  Chapel  was  building, 
and  it  is  remembered  that  General  Wolfe  attended  service  in  the 
said  chapel  in  the  year  1753,  when  he  was  residing  with  William 
Orr,  Esq.,  of  Barrowfield,  the  father  of  the  late  John  Orr,  town- 
clerk. 

Quarterly  Review,  1848,  page  350. — "We  have  read  General  Wolfe's 
letters  to  his  father  and  mother,  during  his  service  in  Scotland,  under  the 
Duke  of  Cumberland,  in  1746,  and  a  subsequent  residence  in  Glasgow.  We 
remember  that  he  attended  various  classes  in  the  College  there,  a  good  example 
for  young  garrison  officers  ;  but  at  leaving  the  place,  signified  that  there  were 
only  two  things  he  should  remember  with  tenderness,  '  its  young  ladies  and 
breakfasts,'  both  of  which,  we  believe,  still  command  the  approbation  of 
military  connoisseurs." 

The  Rev.  W.  M.  Wade,  A.M.,  author  of  Walks  in  Oxford,  etc. 
writing  in  1822,  thus  describes  St.  Andrew's  Episcopal  Chapel  of 
Glasgow  at  the  above-mentioned  date  : — 

"  The  Episcopal  Chapel,  standing  in  the  midst  of  its  well-walled  and 
neatly-railed  burying-ground,  has  something  attractive  in  its  exterior.  It  is 
built  of  good  squared  freestone  ;  has  a  projecting  entrance  porch  on  the  west ; 
is  lighted  by  two  tiers  of  windows,  all  square  however,  except  that  over  the 
communion  table,  which  is  of  the  Venetian  kind,  and  exhibits  as  completive 
decoration  at  top,  four  pediments,  together  with  sundry  urns.  Within,  although 
certain  peculiarities  springing  from  a  requisite  economy  of  space,  are  observ- 
able, the  chapel  is  handsome.  As  the  windows,  though  sufficiently  numerous, 
are  not  large,  and  the  three  eastern  ones,  that  in  the  centre,  partly  through 
the  organ  standing  before  it,  partly  through  its  being  made  by  painted  blinds 
to  imitate  painted  windows,  admit  not  fully  the  splendours  of  day.  The 
general  light  of  the  interior  has  in  it  a  good  deal  of  the  '  dim  religious  char- 
acter '  that  Milton  loved.  The  beautiful  gilt  lustres  that  once  accommodated 
and  adorned  the  interior,  are  vanished  ;  but  other  ornaments  have  been 
adopted.  The  great  richness  of  effect  marks  the  combination  of  altar,  pulpit, 
organ,  and  choristers'  loft,  at  the  east  end  of  the  chapel.  Decoration  has, 
indeed,  been  too  freely  bestowed  upon  the  organ  and  its  appendages.  For  the 
unusual  position  of  the  semi-circular  gallery  containing  the  organ,  namely,  just 
over  the  communion  table,  the  necessity  of  gaining  seat  room  in  the  western 
gallery  is  a  sufficient  apology  ;  but  the  effect  produced  by  extending  the  wings 
of  the  organ  case,  so  as  to  comprehend  the  '  door '  into  the  organ  gallery  is 
decidedly  bad.  A  too  great  profusion  of  gilding  also  appears  ;  otherwise  the 
exterior  even  of  an  instrument  of  no  common  merit  is  handsome.  So  is  the 
pulpit,  in  front  of  which,  gradually  descending,  are  placed  the  reading  desk, 
and  clerk's  pew.  It  is  canopied  by  a  handsome  sounding  board,  sustained  by 
a  square  panelled  pillar,  with  a  capital  of  the  composite  order,  and  capped 


250  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

by  a  gilded  mitre.  The  hangings  are  crimson.  Over  the  communion  table 
are,  in  handsome  panels  and  in  gold  letters,  the  Decalogue,  Creed,  and  Pater- 
noster. The  opposite  gallery — that  on  the  west — has  a  semi-circular  project- 
ing front.  Like  the  two  side  galleries,  it  is  panelled,  and  is,  in  common  with 
them,  sustained  by  bronzed  pillars.  Most  of  the  pews  are  lined.  Nearly  700 
persons  may  sit  in  this  chapel,  which  in  winter  is  warmed  by  a  large  stove 
placed  in  the  entrance  porch  ;  this  gives  out  heated  air,  which  is,  by  means  of 
large  perforated  tubes  carried  longitudinally  through  the  chapel,  beneath  the 
front  of  the  galleries,  made  to  diffuse  itself  in  the  interior.  At  the  west  end 
of  the  chapel  is  the  vestry,  in  which  is  kept  a  library,  of  the  kind  termed  in 
England  'Parochial  Lending  Libraries.'  It  was  founded  nearly  two  years  ago, 
through  the  instrumentality  of  the  most  esteemed  clergyman,  Mr.  Routledge, 
and  bids  fair  to  be  very  useful. 

"  We  had  almost  forgotten  to  remark  that  the  subject  of  the  great  eastern 
window  is  the  '  Transfiguration,'  and  that  the  chapel  contains  one  monument. 
The  latter  is  of  white  marble,  to  the  memory  of  a  contributor  to  the  building. 
This  chapel  was  founded  in  1750,  a  time  at  which  prejudice  ran  absurdly 
high  against  the  Church  Episcopal ;  so  much  did  the  organ  offend,  that  for  a 
length  of  time  the  populace  were  wont  to  term  the  chapel  the  '  ivhistling 
kirk: 

"  The  choral  establishment  is  here  on  an  exceedingly  liberal  footing,  and 
is  conducted  with  great  taste  and  ability  by  the  present  organist,  Mr.  John 
Fergus." 

The  largest  number  in  any  single  year  of  communicants  and 
of  baptisms  in  St.  Andrew's  Episcopal  Chapel  happened  in  the 
year  1815,  when  Mr.  Routledge  was  assistant  to  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Falconer.  In  181 5,  during  the  four  festivals  of  Easter,  Whit- 
sunday, Michaelmas,  and  Christmas,  the  communicants  amounted 
to  904,  and  the  baptisms  in  the  same  year  were  1016. 

The  Scotch  Episcopal  bishops  of  my  early  days  were  as 
follows  : — Bishop  William  Falconer,  who,  we  are  told  by  our 
church  historians,  had  been  minister  of  a  chapel  at  Forres,  and 
was  consecrated  at  Alloa  on  the  loth  September  1741,  was  elected 
bishop  in  1761,  and  died  in  1784.  Bishop  William  Abernethy 
Drummond  was  elected  bishop  in  1787,  and  resigned  in  favour 
of  Dr.  Daniel  Sandford  in  1806.  Dr.  Sandford,  on  the  17th 
January  1806,  was  elected  by  the  clergy  of  Edinburgh  to  be  their 
bishop.      He  was  the  author  of  several  professional  works. 

The  present  bishop  is  the  Rev.  William  Scot  Wilson,  A.M., 
ordained  in  1827,  and  consecrated  in  1859. 

Dr.  Gordon  informs  us  that   in   the  year  1 8 1 6   the  waters  of 


FLOOD  OF  1816.  251 

the  Clyde  rose  inside  of  St.  Andrew's  Chapel  four  or  five  feet 
above  the  floor.  On  this  occasion  the  river  rose  seventeen  feet 
above  its  usual  level  ;  and  Denholm  says  that  the  chapel  was 
inundated  by  the  Clyde,  to  such  a  height  as  not  only  to  cover  the 
humble  situation  of  the  clerk,  but  even  to  bathe  in  its  waters  the 
footstool  of  the  more  dignified  pulpit.  I  remember  this  flood  very 
well.  The  Clyde  then  reached  in  Stockwell  Street  to  the  present 
Stockwell  Place,  and  the  sunk  floors  of  the  tenements  still  higher 
up  the  street  were  inundated  from  the  regorgeraent  of  the  common 
sewer  in  the  centre  of  the  street,  from  which  the  waters  oozed, 
owing  to  the  foundations  being  of  sand.  This  flood,  however, 
was  considerably  less  than  the  great  flood  of  1782,  before  noticed, 
when  the  perpendicular  rise  of  the  river  above  the  ordinary  tide 
was  a  trifle  above  twenty  feet,  consequently,  the  area  of  the  chapel 
must  then  have  been  submerged  to  the  extent  of  upwards  of 
seven  feet. 

Keith  in  his  Bishops,  on  the  last  page  of  his  treatise,  thus 
concludes  his  work  : — 

"  Bishop  Home  had  such  an  opinion  of  the  Scotch  Episcopal  Church  as 
to  think  that  if  the  great  Apostle  of  the  Gentiles  were  upon  earth,  and  if  it 
were  put  to  his  choice,  with  what  denomination  of  Christians  he  would  com- 
municate, the  preference  would,  probably,  be  given  to  the  Episcopalians  of 
Scotland,  as  most  like  the  people  he  had  been  used  to." 

In  the  Plan  annexed  to  the  present  jottings  it  will  be  seen 
that  Dr.  Woodrow's  garden  was  enclosed  by  a  strong  wall,  and 
was  bounded  on  the  west  by  the  Molendinar  Burn,  so  that  the 
passage  along  the  left  bank  of  the  said  burn  was  interrupted,  and 
the  only  regular  access  to  the  Episcopal  Chapel  in  1760  was  by 
way  of  Saltmarket  Street ;  the  chapel,  however,  might  have  been 
approached  through  the  long  and  dirty  closes  opposite  the  Bridge- 
gate,  and  then  across  the  bridge,  at  the  corner  of  Dr.  Woodrow's 
garden. 

I  have  a  map  of  Glasgow,  dated  1779,  in  which  the  ground 
of  Dr.  Woodrow's  garden  is  represented  as  being  vacant,  and  free 
from  all  erections.  It  appears  as  an  open  space  of  ground, 
bounded  by  a  wall  on  the  west,  and  having  a  foot-road  between 
the  said  wall  and  the  Molendinar  Burn.      About  eighty  years  ago 


252  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

I  remember  the  property  in  question  in  this  state,  and  it  continued 
so  after  St.  Andrew's  Square  was  formed.  About  1770,  as  before 
stated,  there  was  a  plan  projected  of  forming  a  square  on  the 
lands  of  Merkdailly,  but  after  some  progress  had  been  made,  and 
buildings  had  commenced  to  be  erected,  the  scheme  was  abandoned, 
and  the  materials  sold.  It  is  probable  that  the  walls  which  sur- 
rounded Dr.  Woodrow's  garden  were  at  that  time  demolished. 

I  have  not  been  able  to  learn  anything  certain  regarding  the 
history  of  this  Dr.  Woodrow,  but  I  see  that  the  Rev.  Alexander 
Woodrow  was  admitted  minister  to  the  Tron  Church  of  Glasgow 
in  the  year  1701,  and  Dr.  Woodrow  might,  perhaps,  have  been 
his  son.  I  have  no  evidence,  however,  of  this  being  the  fact. 
None  of  our  Glasgow  historians  have  taken  notice  of  such  a  person 
as  Dr.  Woodrow  residing  in  Glasgow  about  this  time  ;  whether  he 
was  a  D.D.,  M.D.,  or  LL.D.,  I  cannot  say  with  certainty  ;  but  I 
observe  amongst  a  long  list  of  subscribers  in  Glasgow  to  Wod- 
row's  CJmrch  History,  published  in  1 721,  the  name  of  "John 
Woodrow,  doctor  of  medicine,"  who,  I  suppose,  is  the  Dr.  Woodrow 
whose  garden  is  delineated  on  the  Plan. 

When  St.  Andrew's  Square  was  built  in  1787,  a  convenient 
entrance  was  made  to  the  foot-road  leading  to  the  English  Chapel 
by  means  of  a  covered  arch  or  tunnel  having  been  formed  through 
the  tenement  at  the  south-west  corner  of  the  Square,  by  which 
ready  access  to  St.  Andrew's  Chapel  was  obtained  by  way  of 
Saltmarket,  the  "  Weel  Close  "  (or  St.  Andrew's  Open)  and  the 
Square.  At  this  time  the  footpath  in  question  had  no  distinctive 
name,  but  it  is  now  known  as  "  Low  Green  Street,"  which  leads 
from  St.  Andrew's  Square  to  Greendyke  Street. 

About  eighty  years  ago  there  was  a  Roman  Catholic  meeting- 
house in  the  first  storey  of  a  back  tenement,  at  the  foot  of  a  long 
close,  opposite  the  Bridgegate  (see  the  Plan).  This  close  was 
bounded  on  the  east  by  the  Molendinar  Burn,  and  led  to  the 
bridge  over  the  burn  at  the  corner  of  Dr.  Woodrow's  garden. 

I  remember  in  1782  of  seeing  the  congregation  of  this  Roman 
Catholic  meeting-house  when  they  were  separating  after  having 
attended  divine  service  on  a  Sunday,  and  remarked  at  the  time 
that  the  members  of  this  congregation   appeared  to   be  mostly 


ROMAN  CATHOLICS  IN  GLASGOW.  253 

operatives  and  labourers,  and  that  their  number  apparently  did 
not  exceed  from  twenty  to  thirty  persons.  This  was  then  the 
only  Roman  Catholic  Chapel  in  Glasgow.  The  Roman  Catholics 
in  Glasgow  are  now  estimated  to  amount  to  upwards  of  100,000 
individuals. 

Mr.  Pagan,  writing  in  1 8  5  i ,  in  Glasgow,  Past  and  Present, 
vol.  i.  pp.  119,  120,  informs  us  that — 

"  Near  to  this  spot  three  closes  have  their  termination,  and  though  much 
altered  of  late  years,  they  still  present  a  curious  specimen  of  labyrinthine 
city  architecture.  The  southmost  belonged  to  the  late  Dr.  Rae  Wilson,  the 
Eastern  traveller,  who  died  only  a  few  weeks  ago  in  London,  and  whose 
remains  have  since  been  brought  down  and  interred  in  the  Necropolis  here. 
In  this  close,  about  seventy  years  ago,  the  few  Roman  Catholics  then  in  Glas- 
gow would  appear  to  have  gathered  together,  and  heard  mass  for  the  first  time 
since  their  expulsion  from  the  Cathedral,  more  than  200  years  ago.  They 
met  by  stealth,  as  if  engaged  in  a  deed  of  darkness.   .   .  . 

"  Although  there  are  still  some  narrow  old  turnpike  stairs  in  the  upper 
part  of  the  close  alluded  to  above,  the  'chapel'  must  have  been  long  since 
removed,  possibly  to  make  way  for  Low  Green  Street,  which  for  a  space  runs 
parallel  with  the  Molendinar.  The  house  near  the  bottom  of  the  close  is  now 
converted  into  a  byre,  in  which  on  Friday  last,  we  saw  four-and-twenty  gaucy 
cows  chewing  the  cud." 

Mr.  Pagan  further  adds  that,  according  to  information  fur- 
nished to  him  by  the  kindness  of  the  Roman  Catholic  bishop,  in 
the  year  1846  there  were  no  fewer  than  3000  children  baptized 
in  the  various  Catholic  places  of  worship  in  the  city. 

In  my  early  days  Roman  Catholics  were  shamefully  persecuted 
in  Glasgow  ;  and  even  down  to  the  present  times  there  still  re- 
mains a  sprinkling  of  the  same  ungenerous  feeling  among  many 
of  our  rigid  clergymen  towards  those  who  profess  Popery,  as  if  it 
were  a  crime  conscientiously  to  follow  the  ancient  doctrine  of  the 
Christian  church  of  their  forefathers.  There  is  scarcely  a  news- 
paper of  the  day  in  which  are  not  to  be  seen  numerous  advertise- 
ments of  sermons,  lectures,  and  other  publications  inveighing 
against  Roman  Catholic  principles.  Protestant  clergymen,  how- 
ever, ought  to  look  at  the  excellent  example  of  moderation  which 
the  Jewish  rabbis  show  by  keeping  themselves  clear  of  all  discord 
and  wrangling  in  religious  matters  with  those  who  profess  different 
tenets  from  themselves  ;  they  strictly  follow  the  golden  rule,  that 


2  54  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

"  Whatever  you  would  that  men  should  do  to  you,  do  you  even 
the  same  to  them  ;  for  this  is  the  law  and  the  prophets."  The 
Jews  never  send  forth  missionaries  or  distribute  tracts  for  the 
purpose  of  making  proselytes,  although  by  the  lex  talionis  they 
would  be  fully  justified  in  doing  so,  but  quietly  remain  in  peace 
and  amity  with  their  brethren  of  all  sects  and  opinions. 

That  the  Roman  Catholics  were  a  persecuted  body  in  Glasgow 
during  last  century  is  evident  from  the  terms  of  the  Burgess  Oath 
of  the  city,  which  was  as  follows  : — 

Burgess  Oath. 

"  Here  I  protest  before  God.  that  I  confess  and  allow  with  my  heart  the 
true  religion  presently  professed  within  this  realm,  and  authorised  by  the  laws 
thereof :  I  shall  abide  thereat,  and  defend  the  same  to  my  life,  and  renouncing 
the  Roman  religion  called  Papistry.  I  shall  be  leal  and  true  to  our  sovereign 
lord  the  King's  Majesty,  and  to  the  provost  and  bailies  of  this  burgh.  I  shall 
obey  the  officers  thereof,  fortify,  maintain,  and  defend  them  in  the  execution 
of  their  office  with  my  body  and  goods.  I  shall  not  colour  unfreemen's  goods 
under  colour  of  my  own.  In  all  taxations,  watchings,  and  wardings  to  be  laid 
upon  the  burgh,  I  shall  willingly  bear  my  part  thereof,  as  I  am  commanded 
thereto  by  the  magistrates.  I  shall  not  purchase  nor  use  exemptions  to  be 
free  thereof,  renouncing  the  benefit  of  the  same  for  ever.  I  shall  do  nothing 
hurtful  to  the  liberties  and  common  well  of  this  burgh.  I  shall  not  brew  nor 
cause  brew  any  malt,  but  such  as  is  grinded  at  the  town's  milns  ;  and  shall 
grind  no  other  corns  except  wheat,  pease,  rye,  and  beans,  but  at  the  same 
allenarly :  and  how  oft  as  I  shall  happen  to  break  any  part  of  this  my  Oath,  I 
oblige  me  to  pay  to  the  common  affairs  of  this  burgh  the  sum  of  one  hundred 
pounds  Scots  money,  and  shall  remain  in  ward  while  the  same  be  paid.  So 
help  me  God. 

*'  I  shall  give  the  best  counsel  I  can,  and  conceal  the  counsel  shown  to  me. 
I  shall  not  consent  to  dispose  the  common  goods  of  this  burgh  but  for  ane 
common  cause  and  ane  common  profit.  I  shall  make  concord  where  discord 
is,  to  the  utmost  of  my  power.  In  all  lienations  and  neighbourhoods,  I  shall 
give  my  leal  and  true  judgment,  but  price,  prayer,  or  reward.     So  help  me  God." 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  terms  of  the  above  oath  that  no 
Roman  Catholic  could  become  a  burgess  of  Glasgow  without 
committing  perjury  ;  a  Jew  or  Mohammedan  might  safely  take 
the  above  oath,  and  so  become  a  burgess  of  the  city  ;  but  it  was 
otherwise  with  regard  to  Papists. 

Further,  it  was  common  among  the  trades'  crafts,  when  a 
petition  was  given  in  to  them  by  a  person  desirous  of  becoming  a 


ROMAN  CATHOLIC  DISABILITIES.  255 

member  of  one  of  these  incorporations,  for  the  deacon  of  the  craft, 
as  a  preliminary,  to  demand  the  production  of  the  applicant's 
burgess  ticket ;  consequently,  a  Roman  Catholic  was  debarred 
from  becoming  a  member  of  any  of  the  crafts  of  Glasgow,  without 
forswearing  himself  A  Catholic  was  thus  shut  out  from  becom- 
ing a  trader  in  Glasgow. 

By  Act  of  Parliament  1700,  it  was  declared  that — 

"  No  persons  professing  the  Popish  reHgion  past  the  age  of  fifteen  years 
shall  be  capable  to  succeed  as  heirs  to  any  person  whatever,  nor  to  bruik  or 
enjoy  any  estate  by  disposition  or  other  conveyance,  flowing  from  any  person  to 
whom  the  said  Papists  might  succeed  as  heirs  in  any  manner  of  way,  until  the 
said  heirs  purge  themselves  of  Popery." 

By  this  Act  a  Catholic  could  not  succeed  to  a  lair  in  a  kirk- 
yard  where  the  bones  of  his  ancestors  were  deposited  unless  he 
took  the  oath  renouncing  the  Roman  religion  called  Papistry — 
thereby  purging  himself  of  Popery. 

In  February  1756  Hugh  M'Donald,  brother  of  M'Donald  of 
Morar,  was  tried  before  the  Lords  of  Justiciary  for  being  a  Papist  ; 
and  having  refused  to  purge  himself  of  Popery,  by  taking  the 
usual  oath  and  formula,  he  was  found  guilty,  and  sentenced  to  be 
banished  forth  of  the  realm,  with  certification,  that  if  ever  he 
returned  thereto,  being  still  a  Papist,  he  shall  be  punished  with 
the  pain  of  death.      {Scots  Magazine,  page  1 00.) 

Having  given  a  particular  account  of  the  Popery  riots  in 
Glasgow  in  1778  and  1779,  in  Glasgow,  Past  and  Present,  vol. 
ii.  p.  263,  I  shall  not  repeat  the  article.  I  was  at  that  time 
very  young,  but  I  remember  that  my  parents  (being  Dissenters) 
were  so  afraid  that  the  mob  would  look  upon  them  as  Papists, 
and  would  attack  and  plunder  our  house,  that  they  shut  all  the 
windows,  and  would  not  permit  any  of  the  family  to  go  out  of 
doors.  This  was  done  in  order  that  the  mob  might  think  the 
house  was  without  a  tenant,  and  so  to  pass  it  over.  Our  house 
was  situated  near  to  Bagnall's  shop,  in  King  Street,  which  was 
burst  open,  and  everything  in  it  broken  and  destroyed.  That  the 
fears  of  my  parents  were  not  without  some  foundation  evidently 
appears  from  the  following  advertisement  of  the  time,  taken  from 
the  Glasgow  Mercury  of  i  ith  February  1779  : — • 


256  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

"  As  a  report  has  been  wantonly  or  maliciously  raised  and  industriously 
spread  against  Andrew  Philp,  shopkeeper  in  the  Gallowgate,  that  he  is  of  the 
Papist  profession,  which  is  entirely  false,  he  earnestly  desires,  that  if  any  can 
give  such  information  of  the  persons  who  have  raised  the  report  as  will  lay  a 
foundation  for  a  legal  process  against  them,  they  will  communicate  the  same, 
and  they  shall  be  handsomely  rewarded.  Andrew  Philp." 

Glasgow  Mercury,  4th  March  1779. — "Just  published,  price  6d,  a  half- 
sheet  emblematical  print,  representing  the  introduction  of  the  Popish  Bill. 
Among  the  figures  in  the  print  are  The  Whore,  Beast,  Pope,  Devil,  &;c.  It  is 
to  be  sold  by  Messrs  Dunlop  and  Wilson,  John  Smith,  James  Duncan,  and  the 
other  booksellers." 

On  the  iith  of  May  1781  the  eighty-five  Protestant  societies 
of  Glasgow,  by  their  preses,  John  Paterson,  wrote  to  Lord  George 
Gordon — 

"  I  have  the  honour  to  transmit  to  your  Lordship  a  draft  for  ^485  sterling, 
as  a  token  of  our  esteem  for  you  as  a  sincere  friend  to  the  Protestant  cause. 
We  judged  it  expedient  to  transmit  you  this  sum  in  the  meantime,  as  our  sub- 
scriptions are  not  quite  closed.  We  understand  there  will  be  a  subscription 
from  Paisley,  in  connexion  with  some  other  places." 

To  which  his  Lordship  answered  by  acknowledging  the  receipt  of 
the  ;^485,  and  adding — 

"  This  instance  of  the  affection  of  the  societies  and  other  friends  in  Glas- 
gow gives  me  the  greatest  comfort  and  satisfaction,  and  I  beg  that  you  will 
take  the  earliest  opportunity  of  returning  them  my  most  sincere  thanks  for  so 
convincing  a  proof  of  their  real  esteem  and  approbation.  You  may  assure  the 
societies  that  it  is  my  fixed  determination  to  persevere,  by  the  grace  of  God,  in 
maintaining  and  promoting,  by  all  lawful  endeavours,  the  true  Protestant  interest 
in  these  kingdoms  to  the  latest  period  of  my  life.  George   Gordon." 

In  1793  an  Act  of  Parliament  was  passed  authorising  magis- 
trates of  royal  burghs  to  admit  Roman  Catholics  to  be  burgesses 
and  guild  brethren  of  their  respective  burghs  on  the  administration 
of  an  oath,  whereby  the  applicant  is  to  declare,  inter  alia,  that  he 
will  be  faithful  and  bear  true  allegiance  to  his  Majesty  George  III., 
and  to  the  Hanoverian  succession  ;  that  he  rejects  and  detests  the 
impious  position  that  it  is  lawful  to  murder  or  destroy  any  per- 
sons whatsoever  for,  or  under  the  pretence  of,  their  being  heretics 
or  infidels  ;  or  that  faith  is  not  to  be  kept  with  such  persons. 
Further,  he  is  bound  to  swear  that  he  does  not  believe  that  the 


ROMAN  CATHOLICS  IN  GLASGOW.  257 

Pope  of  Rome  has  any  civil  or  temporal  jurisdiction,  power,  superi- 
ority, or  pre-eminence,  directly  or  indirectly,  within  the  realm. 

Applications  by  Roman  Catholics,  under  this  Act,  to  become 
burgesses  of  the  city  of  Glasgow  were  first  made  in  the  year  1 801. 
Since  which  time  the  Roman  Catholics  have  enjoyed  the  usual 
freedom  of  their  fellow-citizens,  and  have  increased  in  numbers  so 
as  now  to  amount  to  100,000  souls,  or  thereby. 

Although  Roman  Catholics  are  now  enabled  to  become 
burgesses  of  Glasgow,  I  am  not  aware  that  any  Papist  ever 
obtained  a  seat  at  the  Council  Board  of  the  city,  while  Christians 
of  all  other  denominations,  such  as  members  of  the  Established, 
Free,  Secession,  and  sectarian  Churches  are  freely  elected  to  that 
honour,  without  any  regard  being  paid  to  their  creeds. 

As  Roman  Catholics  now  constitute  about  one-fifth  of  the 
population  of  Glasgow,  it  would  be  but  fair  that  they  should  have 
a  representative  at  the  Council  Board,  seeing  that  Papists  are 
admitted  to  seats  in  the  House  of  Commons,  and  that  all  classes 
should  be  fairly  represented  ;  to  say  nothing  about  Catholic 
peers  sitting  in  the  House  of  Lords  by  descent.  I  am  afraid, 
however,  that  a  Roman  Catholic  candidate  for  city  honours  would 
have  little  chance  of  success  at  the  poll  if  opposed  by  a  Free 
churchman  or  active  sectarian. 

In  the  Act  admitting  Catholics  to  become  burgesses  of  royal 
burghs  there  is  no  clause  enacting  SECRECY,  such  as  that  in  the 
early  burgess  oath  of  the  city,  viz.  "  I  shall  give  the  best  counsel 
I  can,  and  conceal  the  counsel  shown  to  me." 

It  was  in  consequence  of  this  clause  in  the  former  burgess 
oath  that  the  proceedings  of  the  Council  Board  of  Glasgow  at  that 
time  were  kept  profoundly  secret,  the  citizens  of  the  burgh  being 
held  in  complete  ignorance  of  what  their  representatives  were 
doing,  until  an  order  of  Council  was  recorded  allowing  publicity. 
Hence  in  all  our  early  newspapers  there  is  not  a  word  to  be  found 
about  what  was  going  on  at  meetings  of  the  Magistrates  and 
Council  of  the  city,  and  so  our  magnates  were  freely  allowed  to 
elect  themselves  into  office  at  the  nod  of  some  clique.  Our  fore- 
fathers were  thus  deprived  of  the  pleasure  of  seeing  in  print  an 
account  of  the  oratorical  flourishes  and  piquant  bickerings,  such 
VOL.  III.  S 


258  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

as  usually  take  place  at  our  present  Council  Board  among  our 
councillors. 

Glasgow  Mercury^  14th  February  1787. — "The  Trades'  House  of  this 
city  having  lately  opened  a  correspondence  with  the  magistrates  and  council 
relative  to  sundry  grievances  alleged  to  by  members  of  the  community,  and 
having  considered  these  grievances,  and  council's  resolutions  relative  to  the 
matters  complained  of,  after  due  deliberation  and  reasoning  at  great  length, 
came  to  the  opinion  that  the  present  set  of  the  burgh  was  inconsistent  with  the 
liberties  of  the  citizens,  and  required  alteration.  The  House  therefore  resolved 
that  it  was  necessary  to  apply  to  Parliament  for  such  alterations  as  the  internal 
set  of  this  burgh  requires,  either  in  conjunction  with  the  other  burghs  of  Scot- 
land, or  for  their  own  particular  situation,  whichever  may  be  thought  advisable  ; 
and  that  proper  care  should  be  taken  that  the  offices  of  magistrates  and  council, 
in  any  set  that  may  be  judged  proper  to  adopt,  should  be  so  modelled,  as  to 
preserve  among  them  a  respectable  and  proper  class  of  citizens." 

It  was  at  this  time  that  disputes  first  arose  regarding  Sunday 
delivery  of  letters. 

Mercury,  14th  February  1787. — "The  Postmaster-General  has  returned  an 
answer  to  the  requisition  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  the  ministers,  and 
the  merchants  of  this  city,  relative  to  the  arrival  and  despatch  of  a  post  on 
Sunday,  in  which  he  observes  that  he  cannot,  in  justice  to  the  rest  of  the 
kingdom,  give  up  the  measure,  but  that,  if  the  gentlemen  who  oppose  it  think 
proper,  the  letters  brought  by  the  Sunday's  post,  shall  neither  be  sorted  nor 
delivered  till  Monday." 

The  following  extract  shows  the  origin  of  the  statute  labour 
assessment  in  Glasgow  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  4th  April  1765.  —  "By  order  of  the  magistrates  of 
the  city  of  Glasgow. — The  magistrates  considering  that  the  trustees  of  the 
several  turnpike  roads  leading  into  Glasgow  having  claimed  the  statute  work 
of  the  city  of  Glasgow,  the  magistrates  obtained  a  reasonable  composition  in 
favour  of  the  inhabitants  in  place  of  the  statute  work,  and  agreed  that  eveiy 
householder,  within  the  city,  who  possesses  a  house  exceeding  twenty-six 
shillings  stg.,  real  rent,  should  pay  three  shillings  stg.  of  annual  composition, 
but  to  be  restricted  to  one  shilling  and  sixpence  in  case  of  punctual  payment, 
commencing  at  Whitsunday,  1760  ;  and  the  magistrates  named  Patrick  Mont- 
gomerie,  collector  of  the  cess,  to  uplift  the  composition  money  so  agreed  for. 
And  though  many  of  the  householders  have  paid  their  composition,  at  the  rate 
of  one  shilling  and  sixpence  per  year,  the  collector  informs  that  a  great  many 
arrears  are  still  outstanding,  for  enforcing  the  speedy  payment  whereof,  the 
magistrates  hereby  order  and  require  all  persons  who  are  in  arrears  for  said 
composition,  with  all  speed,  to  pay  the  same  to  Patrick  Montgomerie,  collector 


ORDERS  BY  THE  MAGISTRATES.  259 

of  the  stent,  at  the  stent  office,  certifying  that  such  persons  who  shall  fail  to 
pay  upon  or  before  the  1 5th  of  April  current,  they  will  be  prosecuted  so  far  as 
the  law  will  admit." 

From  the  concluding  passage  of  the  above  advertisement  the 
Magistrates  of  Glasgow  seem  to  have  been  sensible  that  they  had 
assumed  power  of  levying  a  tax  on  the  citizens  without  proper 
legal  authority. 

Journal^  17th  January  1757. — "  By  order  of  the  magistrates. — The  magis- 
trates have  fixed  the  assize  and  weight  of  wheat  bread  as  follows.  The  bakers 
are  discharged  from  baking  any  loaves,  of  the  finest  kind,  of  any  higher  value 
than  twopence,  and  the 

Lb.  Oz.  Dr. 
Twopenny  loaf  to  weigh  .         .         .         .         .         o  14   10 

The  penny  loaf        .  .  .  .  .  .  .  O     7     5 

The  sixpenny  loaf  of  the  wheaten       .         .         .         .         420 

Ditto  household 5     8     o 

"  And  so  in  proportion.  The  bakers  to  affix  the  letter  F.,  on  the  fine, 
W.  H.  for  wheaten,  and  H.  for  household." 

Journal,  2d  January  1766. — "The  corporation  of  bakers,  in  Glasgow, 
find  themselves  under  the  necessity  of  abolishing  the  custom  of  giving  New- 
Year's-day  presents  to  their  customers,  and  have  ordered  this  their  resolution 
to  be  insert  in  the  Glasgow  Journal,  that  neither  their  friends  in  town  and 
country  may  suffer  themselves  to  be  disappointed." 

Journal,  6th  November  1766. — "  On  Tuesday  last,  Colin  Campbell,  boat- 
man, being  convicted  before  the  magistrates  of  forestalling  the  fish  market,  was 
fined  in  forty  pounds,  Scots,  in  terms  of  law." 

Journal,  nth  December  1766. — "The  magistrates  of  Glasgow  having 
received  information  that  some  of  the  inhabitants  keep-  in  their  shops  and 
cellars,  within  the  burgh,  considerable  quantities  of  gunpowder,  from  which 
the  most  fatal  consequences  may  ensue,  the  magistrates  hereby  order  all 
persons  who  have  gunpowder  in  their  shops,  cellars,  or  other  repositories 
within  the  city,  immediately  to  carry  and  lodge  the  same  in  the  common 
magazine  for  powder,  at  the  Castle  of  Glasgow  ;  with  certification,  that  if  any 
gunpowder,  exceeding  six  pounds  weight,  shall  be  found  in  the  shops,  cellars, 
or  other  repositories,  of  any  of  the  inhabitants  within  this  burgh,  at  any  time 
within  forty-eight  hours,  the  proprietors  of  such  powder  shall  be  fined  and 
punished  in  terms  of  law.  Any  persons  who  inform  shall  receive  a  reward  of 
ten  shillings  stg.,  from  the  magistrates,  upon  conviction  of  the  offender." 

Journal,  2d  June  1763. — "By  order  of  the  magistrates  and  town  council 
of  Glasgow. — The  magistrates  and  council,  considering  that  the  selling  of 
salt  within  the  burgh  by  weight  and  not  by  measure,  is  enjoined  by  the  Con- 
vention of  Royal  Boroughs,  and  as  selling  salt  by  measure  is  attended  with  many 
frauds,  resolve,  that  in  time  coming,  salt  shall  be  sold,  within  this  burgh,  by 


26o  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

weight  only,  and  strictly  forbid  and  discharge  all  persons  whatever,  to  sell  any 
salt,  within  the  burgh,  from  and  after  the  first  day  of  September  next,  otherwise 
than  by  weight,  certifying  such  as  shall  fail,  of  their  being  fined  in  the  unlaw 
of  the  burgh." 

But  I  must  return  from  the  foregoing  digressive  advertisements 
to  the  Green  of  Glasgow  and  its  environs,  which  have  been  too 
long  thrown  in  the  background  to  make  room  for  subjects  which 
many  of  my  readers  may  consider  of  no  value  whatever. 

On  the  south  of  the  three  labyrinthine  closes  mentioned 
by  Mr.  Pagan  there  stood  an  ancient  building  known  as  "  Silver 
Craigs  Land,"  at  one  time  the  property  of  the  Campbells  of  "  Silver 
Craigs."  It  was  here  that  Oliver  Cromwell  lodged  when  he  came 
to  Glasgow.  It  stood  back  a  few  feet  from  the  building-line  of 
the  Saltmarket,  and  became  the  property  of  Mr.  M'Gilchrist, 
town- clerk  of  Glasgow,  whose  heirs  appear  to  have  turned  it  into 
a  weaving  factory, 

Glasgow  Journal,  i6th  August  1764. — "Sale  of  Silver  Craigs  Factory. 
That  all  and  hail  the  houses,  and  utensils,  and  yard,  belonging  to  the  Silver 
Craigs  Manufactoiy,  lying  at  the  foot  of  the  Saltmarket  of  Glasgow,  are,  jointly 
or  separately,  to  be  sold,  by  public  roup,  within  the  house  of  Mrs.  Armour,  at 
the  Cross  of  Glasgow,  upon  the  6th  of  September  next,  between  the  hours  of 
1 2  and  2  of  that  day. — Apply  to  John  Wilson,  writer  in  Glasgow." 

These  subjects  were  subsequently  converted  into  a  shop  and 
stand  for  the  sale  of  old  furniture,  the  articles  of  furniture  being 
showily  displayed  in  the  open  area  between  the  buildings  and 
Saltmarket  Street. 

On  the  south  of  Silver  Craigs  Land  there  was  a  piece  of 
vacant  building-ground,  which  is  thus  described  in  the  Merany  of 
1st  April  1779  : — 

"To  be  sold,  about  a  rood  of  ground  altogether,  or  a  steading  for  one 
house,  which  lyes  south  of  Silver  Craigs  Factory,  at  the  foot  of  the  Saltmarket, 
opposite  to  the  Low  Green.  It  is  veiy  convenient  for  building  upon,  as  there 
is  not  the  smallest  probability  of  the  light  being  interrupted  by  other  buildings. 
— Apply  to  Alexander  Harvey,  the  proprietor." 

The  opposite  corner  of  the  Saltmarket  and  Bridgegate  was  a 
villa  and  garden  belonging  to  Robert  Bogle,  who  was  bailie  of 
Glasgow  in  1 7  I  2.      I  remember  the  south  portion  of  this  property 


CONCLUDING  REMARKS.  261 

still  remaining  as  a  garden,  in  which  there  stood  a  summer-house 
or  fancy  tea-arbour,  then  considered  an  embellishment  to  a  rural 
establishment. 

I  shall  now  close  these  loose  jottings  of  the  Low  Green  of 
Glasgow  and  its  environs,  etc.,  which  I  am  afraid  many  readers 
will  think  have  been  extended  too  far,  and  have  embraced  rather 
a  superabundant  proportion  of  advertisements,  notices,  and  quota- 
tions, in  proportion  to  more  readable  matter.  To  this  charge  I 
must  plead  guilty,  only  remarking,  as  an  apology,  that  my  object 
in  so  doing  was  to  preserve  a  few  of  such  notabilia  as  might  tend 
to  assist  some  future  historian  of  Glasgow  in  elucidating  any 
subject  of  our  city's  history,  which  might  otherwise  appear  to 
require  illustration. 

I  have  further  to  apologise  for  having  introduced  so  many 
gossiping  stories  amongst  these  jottings ;  but  they  have  been 
given  merely  as  characteristic  of  Glasgow  in  olden  time,  when 
such  "  bletherings  "  passed  from  mouth  to  mouth  as  the  ordinary 
chit-chat  of  our  citizens  of  all  ranks. 


ADDITAMENTA 


PREFACE   TO   ADDITAMENTA. 

The  following  miscellaneous  and  desultory  excerpta  were  pub- 
lished in  the  Glasgow  Herald  between  the  years  1856  and  1863 
inclusive.  They  are  republished,  with  some  trifling  additions,  as 
a  sequel  to  the  article  regarding  the  Low  Green  of  Glasgow  and 
its  environs,  etc. 

As  these  jottings  in  many  cases  have  reference  to  subjects 
which  relate  to  more  than  one  point  treated  of  at  the  time,  it 
necessarily  happens  that  some  quotations  and  advertisements  are 
repeated  ;  but  the  loose  character  of  the  writings  must  be  kept  in 
view  by  the  reader,  as  the  only  apology  for  so  transgressing  upon 
his  patience. 

A  writer  of  fragmenta  like  the  following  labours  under  many 
disadvantages  when  compared  with  the  writers  of  History  ;  his 
subjects,  in  general,  have  necessarily  no  regular  connection  with 
each  other,  and  being  minutely  related,  are  apt  to  become  irksome 
and  tiresome  ;  the  ideas  which  are  suggested  are  obliterated  by 
the  sudden  appearance  of  an  intruding  article  relating  altogether 
to  a  new  and  extraneous  subject,  so  that  the  reader  is  tantalised 
with  a  passing  glimpse  of  various  objects,  which,  like  flakes  of 
snow  falling  on  a  running  stream,  just  appear  and  then  vanish. 

History,  on  the  contrary,  has  the  advantage  of  being  related 
in  a  uniform  and  connected  series  which  follow  in  regular  order, 
so  that  the  reader  is  not  harassed  by  the  sudden  interruption  of 


266  PREFACE  TO  ADDITAMENTA. 

new  objects,  but  goes  pleasantly  along  with  the  historian  in  his 
narration  of  facts  without  feeling  languid  and  tired  by  sudden 
interruptions  and  intrusive  passages. 

I  am  sensible  that  most  readers  will  skip  over  a  great  part  of 
these  jottings,  as  is  usually  done  in  long  chronological  tracts  ;  but 
if  any  part  of  the  annexed  Additamenta  shall  prove  useful  to  a 
future  Glasgow  historian,  my  object  is  gained. 


ADDITAMENTA. 


THE   WATER    BAILIE   COURT    OF  GLASGOW   IN    OLDEN    TIME. 

Seeing  the  discussions  which  are  now  going  on  in  the  Clyde 
Trust  regarding  Water  Bailie  matters,  perhaps  the  following 
notice  may  prove  interesting  to  your  readers. 

In  1792  a  case  came  before  the  Water  Bailie  Court  of 
Glasgow,  in  which  judgment  having  been  pronounced  in  favour  of 
the  pursuer,  the  defender  afterwards  presented  a  petition  to  the 
Court  of  Session,  praying  their  Lordships  to  find — 

"  That  the  judgment  pronounced  by  the  Water  Bailie  of  Glasgow  is  void, 
and  that  the  question  was  incompetent  to  be  tried  before  him,  or  at  least  before 
answer  on  that  point  to  oblige  the  pursuer  and  the  Water  Bailie,  as  having 
sisted  himself  in  the  case,  to  condescend  specially  how  far  he  was  in  use  to 
exercise  a  civil  jurisdiction  of  any  kind  during  the  subsistence  of  a  Vice- 
Admiralty  Court  at  Glasgow ;  or,  if  he  was,  how  far  back,  and  to  what  extent, 
and  in  what  kind  of  cause,  such  civil  jurisdiction  appears  from  the  Records  of 
the  Court  to  have  been  exercised  by  him." 

The  case  was  a  very  simple  one,  viz. — Thomas  Ewing,  a 
boatman,  was  in  use  to  ply  with  a  boat  between  Glasgow  and 
Greenock,  carrying  goods  and  other  merchandise.  Donald  La- 
mont,  a  small  trader  in  Mull,  placed  some  goods  on  board  of 
Ewing's  boat,  which  was  to  sail  next  morning  from  the  Broomielaw 
for  Greenock.  These  goods  were  correctly  stowed  along  with  the 
other  goods  in  the  proper  and  usual  manner,  and  two  tarpaulins 
fixed  over  the  cargo.  Ewing  and  his  assistant  boatman  slept  on 
board ;  but  about  three  o'clock  next  morning,  upon  getting  up  to 
observe  the  state  of  the  weather,  they  found  the  hatchway  fixed 
down,  which  with  difficulty  they  got  opened,  and  then  they  found 


2  68  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

that  the  tarpaulins  had  been  removed,  and  one  of  the  chests  of 
goods  broken  open  and  its  contents  carried  off.  For  the  loss  so 
sustained  Lamont  brought  an  action  against  Ewing  before  the 
Water  Bailie,  founding  upon  the  edict  Naut(2  Catipoiies  Stabularii, 
in  answer  to  which  Ewing  pled  that  the  Water  Bailie  had  no 
jurisdiction  whatever  to  take  cognisance  of  the  question.  The 
Water  Bailie,  having  given  judgment  sustaining  his  jurisdiction, 
found  Ewing  liable  for  the  value  of  the  goods  stolen,  and  also  for 
expenses  of  process.  Ewing  presented  a  bill  of  advocation  for  the 
purpose  of  removing  the  question  into  the  Court  of  Session,  both 
with  respect  to  the  point  of  jurisdiction  and  upon  its  merits.  The 
Lord  Ordinary,  on  a  short  view  of  the  case,  was  pleased  to  pro- 
nounce the  following  interlocutor  : — 

"Finds  that  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Water  Bailie  of  Glasgow  was  competent, 
and  that  he  had  sufficient  power  to  determine  in  the  cause,  and  therefore 
repels  the  reason  of  advocation  specially  insisted  on  on  the  part  of  the  defender; 
and  in  respect  the  procurator  for  the  defender  declines  stating  his  reasons  of 
advocation  as  to  the  merits  of  the  cause,  repels  also  these  reasons,  and  upon  the 
whole  remits  the  cause  to  the  Water  Bailie  of  Glasgow  in  common  form  ;  and, 
lastly,  finds  the  defender,  the  raiser  of  the  advocation,  liable  to  the  pursuer  in 
expenses,  and  appoints  an  account  thereof  to  be  given  in." 

Upon  advising  a  short  representation,  his  Lordship,  of  date 
1 0th  March  1792,  adhered  to  his  former  interlocutor. 

The  case  having  then  come  before  the  Inner  House,  it  was 
stated  to  their  Lordships  that  there  was,  till  of  late,  an  Admiralty- 
Court  held  at  Glasgow,  under  a  deputation  from  the  Vice-Admiral 
of  Scotland,  whose  jurisdiction  extended  originally  over  not  only 
the  Firth  of  Clyde,  but  a  great  part  of  the  western  coast  of  Scot- 
land, though  it  came  afterwards,  in  consequence  of  certain  grants 
to  the  family  of  Argyll  and  others,  to  be  limited  to  certain  parts 
of  the  Firth  of  Clyde,  and  which  Court  exercised  a  jurisdiction 
civil  and  criminal,  cumulative  with  the  High  Court  of  Admiralty ; 
and,  like  other  inferior  Courts  of  Admiralty,  was  in  use  also,  in 
imitation  of  that  Court,  to  take  cognisance  of  all  mercantile  cases, 
as  well  as  those  purely  maritime,  till  this  last  practice  was  corrected, 
and  its  jurisdiction  restrained  to  maritime  causes  alone,  and  the 
Court  found  incompetent  to  judge  in  those  which  were  purely 


THE  WATER  BAILIE  COURT.  269 

mercantile,  even  on  the  acquiescence  or  consent  of  parties  in  the 
case. 

The  Vice- Admiralty  Court,  formerly  held  at  Glasgow,  together 
with  those  held  in  other  parts  of  the  country,  being  suppressed  in 
consequence  of  certain  arrangements  adopted  within  these  few  years 
respecting  the  Court  of  Admiralty,  the  Water  Bailie  of  Glasgow,  in 
place  of  the  limited  jurisdiction  formerly  exercised  by  him,  has 
begun  to  assume  that  civil  jurisdiction  formerly  exercised  by  the 
Admiralty  Depute  for  Clyde.  Nor  has  he  always,  during  this  time, 
confined  himself  in  its  exercise  to  those  questions  strictly  maritime  ; 
but,  in  some  late  instances,  taken  cognisance  of  such  as  would  not, 
it  is  believed,  be  found  to  come  properly  within  that  description. 

The  grants  to  the  family  of  Argyll  before  alluded  to  contained 
grants  of  an  Admiralty  jurisdiction,  within  their  several  bounds, 
in  the  most  general  and  ample  terms  of  the  nature  of  the  com- 
missions granted  to  the  Vice-Admiralty  Courts,  where  it  was  in 
view  that  they  should  exercise,  in  the  first  instance,  the  proper 
civil  jurisdiction  of  a  Court  of  Admiralty.  An  example  may  be 
found  in  the  commission  granted  by  the  Earl  of  March,  as  Vice- 
Admiral  of  Scotland,  to  Robert  Barclay,  constituting  him  Admiral- 
Depute  for  the  River  and  Firth  of  Clyde,  1768,  12th  September,^ 
which  gives  power — 

"  To  him  and  his  substitutes  to  sit,  afifix,  affirm,  hold  and  continue  Admiral 
Courts  within  any  part  of  the  said  bounds,  over  all  the  limits  thereof  most 
commodious  for  that  effect,  and  there  to  administer  and  do  justice  in  all 
matters  and  causes  civil  and  criminal  that  shall  be  intented  and  pursued 
before  them,  conform  to  the  laws  of  Scotland ;  acts  to  make  decreets,  and 
sentences  to  pronounce,  and  the  same  to  due  and  lawful  cause  be  put ;  and  to 
call  for  and  require  all  his  Majesty's  lieges  within  the  said  bounds  to  put  his, 
and  his  said  substitutes, .'their  decreets,  to  due  and  lawful  execution,  and 
generally  with  power  to  the  said  Robert  Barclay  to  use,  and  exercise  bruik, 
and  enjoy,  during  oter  pleasure  only,  the  foresaid  office  within  the  foresaid 
bounds  ;  and  to  exact,  intromit  with,  uplift  and  receive,  the  whole  fees,  duties, 
casualties,  and  profits  thereof,  during  the  continuance  of  this  our  commission 
to  him  ;  and  to  act  and  do  all  things  requisite  and  necessary  thereanent,  and 
fully  and  freely  as  any  other  Deputy  Vice-Admiral  and  factor  within  the  said 
bounds  did,  or  might  have  done  in  any  time  bygone,  or  may  do  in  time 
coming,  reserving  always  to  the  High  Court  of  Admiralty  in  Scotland  the  sole 

1  The  former  Brooniielaw  Bridge  was  then  building. 


270  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

power  of  cognoscing  and  determining  in  all  prizes  and  piracies,  and  other 
capital  crimes,  and  in  all  other  causes  and  actions  which  shall  be  intented  and 
pursued  before  the  said  High  Court  of  Admiralty,  against  any  person  or  persons 
within  the  foresaid  bounds." 

The  petitioner  Ewing  further  pled,  that  with  respect  to  the 
Water  Bailie  of  Glasgow,  the  only  authority  which  he  could  find 
for  the  nomination  of  such  a  magistrate  and  for  the  jurisdiction 
exercised  by  him  within  those  parts  of  the  River  Clyde  over  which 
it  extends,  is  an  extract  produced,  with  the  answers  to  the  Bill  of 
a  Charter  from  Charles  I.  to  the  City  of  Glasgow,  dated  i6th 
October  1636,  which  grants,  or  rather  confirms,  to  them  the 
privilege  of  naming  a  Water  Bailie,  and  describes  his  jurisdiction 
in  the  following  terms  : — 

"  Ac  etiam  libertatem,  USUM,  et  possessionem,  quam  die :  Burgos  noster 
de  Glasgow,  et  Magistratus  ejusdem,  habuerunt  elijendi  unum  Ballivum,  qui 
aquce  prosit  lie  'Water  Bailie,'  infra-diet,  fluvium  de  Clyde,  ubi  mare  fluit  et 
refluit,  et  infra  integras  bondas  ejusdem  subtus  pontem  de  Glasgow,  ad  lie 
Cloehstane,  et  corrigendi  omnes  injurias,  et  enormitates  super  dicto  fluvius 
commiss  :  infra  bondas  ejusdem  ;  in  omnibus  et  singulis  capitibus  articulis, 
conditionibus  ei  circumstantiis  eorund  :  quibuscunque." 

Mr.  William  M'Leod  Bannatyne,^  counsel  for  Ewing,  argued 
that  the  jurisdiction  given  to  the  Water  Bailie  of  Glasgow  was 
conferred  for  the  limited  purpose  "  corrigendi  omnes  injurias  et 
enormitates  super  dicto  fluvio  commissas  " — viz.  within  the  bounds 
of  his  jurisdiction  as  described,  being  from  the  Bridge  of  Glasgow 
to  the  Cloehstane,  a  few  miles  below  Greenock,  and  which  is  also 
the  boundary  of  a  similar  grant  to  the  Burgh  of  Rothesay,  of  a 
petty  criminal  jurisdiction  for  preserving  the  peace  of  the  river, 
by  the  punishment  or  correction  of  offences  committed  by  seafar- 
ing persons  within  those  bounds,  the  greater  part  of  whom  might 
naturally  be  considered  as  resorting  to  Glasgow. 

For  the  pursuer  Lamont  and  the  Water  Bailie,  it  was  pled  that 
USAGE  of  very  long  continuance  gave  the  Water  Bailie  power  to 
exercise  a  jurisdiction  to  determine  in  this  and  similar  causes. 

Their  Lordships,  after  parties  being  fully  heard,  refused  the 

^  Afterwards  Lord  Bannatyne. 


MUNICIPAL  ELECTIONS.  271 

petition   of  Ewing,    and    affirmed  the   interlocutor  ot   the  Lord 
Ordinary,  with  expenses. 


{2Tth  October  1858.) 

MUNICIPAL  ELECTIONS. 

"  Mores  populi,  quantum  mutaverint,  vel  hie  dies  indicio  erit." 

•'  Thou  as  a  vesture  shalt  them  change, 
And  they  shall  changed  be." 

So  says  the  Psalmist ;  and  truly,  amongst  the  mighty  changes 
which  have  taken  place  in  Glasgow  since  the  days  "  o'  langsyne," 
none  has  been  more  remarkable  than  the  mode  of  getting  through 
with  our  annual  municipal  elections.  Even  down  to  our  own 
days,  everything  went  on  in  a  snug  quiet  way  at  the  Council 
Board,  and  our  citizens  were  left  to  guess  in  the  dark  who  was  to 
be  lord  provost,  or  who  were  to  be  bailies  or  councillors  ;  in  fact, 
the  ruling  provost  and  his  party  were  generally  the  nominators  of 
those  who  were  to  receive  civic  honours  ;  and  if  any  of  our  great 
bushy  wigs  happened  to  be  in  opposition  to  the  leading  clique  of  the 
board,  they  were  punished  by  being  elected  provosts,  bailies,  deans 
of  guild,  or  councillors,  it  being  well  known  that  those  Virginian 
lords  would  not  condescend  to  play  a  second  fiddle  in  corporation 
matters,  and  of  course  they  had  to  pay  the  fine  for  non-acceptance 
of  office.  How  different  is  the  case  nowadays !  At  present,  all 
is  bustle,  hurry-burry,  and  restless  activity  among  the  candidates 
aspiring  to  the  office  of  city  councillors  ;  all  of  them  are  willing 
to  give  their  services  to  the  community  scot-free,  even  to  the 
neglect  of  their  own  business  and  private  affairs  ;  the  expenses  of 
newspaper  advertisements,  of  committee  rooms,  and  of  Cdb-hirings, 
being  considered  by  them  as  quite  beneath  their  notice,  and  as 
trifles  light  as  air,  while  thus  in  pursuit  of  municipal  dignity.  It 
was  well  said  by  Dr.  Johnson,  that  ''Distinction  is  so  pleasing  to 
the  pride  of  man,  that  a  great  part  of  the  pain  and  pleasure  of 
life  arises  from  the  gratification  or  disappointment  of  an  incessant 


272  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

wish  for  superiority"  But  perhaps  it  is  rather  stale  to  draw 
invidious  parallels  between  the  present  times  and  the  past  ;  and 
your  readers  may  say  that  I  should  leave  it  to  carping  moralists 
to  harp  on  this  jarring  chord,  and  to  please  their  fancies  by  look- 
ing continually  backwards,  and  condemning  by  retrospect  what 
is  presently  before  them.  I  shall  therefore,  without  more  ado, 
proceed  to  state  a  few  loose  facts  regarding  our  former  corporation 
affairs,  commencing  about  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century. 

In  the  disturbed  period  of  1559  the  Council  of  Glasgow 
appear  to  have  elected  the  provost  and  bailies  of  the  city  of 
Glasgow,  hitherto  under  the  nomination  of  the  archbishops  ;  but 
both  before  and  immediately  after  the  Reformation  in  1560  little 
is  known  in  what  manner  the  proceedings  at  the  Council  Board  of 
Glasgow  were  conducted  ;  there  is,  however,  no  doubt  of  their 
having  been  managed  with  closed  doors,  in  the  strictest  sense  of 
these  words,  as  the  following  passages,  taken  from  the  City  Records, 
sufficiently  show  : — 

Burgh  Records^  4th  October  1575. — "Lord  Boyd  having  been  named 
provost  by  the  archbishop,^  and  a  list  of  eight  burgesses  having  been  presented 
to  his  Grace,  for  the  purpose  of  naming  two  of  them  as  baiUes,  he  selected  two 
of  them  as  bailies  for  the  said  year.  These  gentlemen  having  accepted  of 
office,  immediately  commenced  their  rule  by  the  following  statute  : — Item :  It 
is  statut  and  ordanit  be  ye  provest,  baillies,  and  counsale,  yt  gif  ony  persona 
of  ye  counsale  happins  to  revele  ony  ying  spoken  or  tretit  in  counsale,  as  coun- 
sale, sail  be  removit  of  ye  counsale,  and  never  in  tymes  cuming  to  be  admittit 
upon  ye  counsale  agane,  bot  haldin  infame,  and  yair  freedomes  caUit  doun.'" 

This  statute  was  confirmed  on  the  3d  October  1577,  Thomas 
Crawford  of  Jordanhill  being  provost  at  the  time.  On  the  30th 
September  1578  Archbishop  Boyd  appointed  the  Earl  of  Lennox 
to  be  lord  provost  of  Glasgow,  although  the  Earl  was  not  then 
even  a  burgess  of  the  city.  The  nomination,  however,  had  the 
sanction  of  the  Crown. 

On  the  2d  October  1578  we  find  the  following  entry  in  the 
Burgh  Records,  which  shows  that  the  appointment  of  the  Earl  of 

^  Archbishop  James  Boyd  of  Trochrigg,  who  obtained  the  archbishopric  by  the 
Treaty  of  Leith  settling  Episcopacy  in  1572.  He  was  the  son  of  the  Hon.  Adam  Boyd, 
the  brother  of  Lord  Boyd.  The  Lord  Boyd  whom  the  archbishop  elected  as  provost 
was  his  nephew. 


MUNICIPAL  ELECTIONS.  273 

Lennox  to  be  provost  did  not  give  satisfaction  to  the  lieges  of  the 
city  : — • 

"  The  quhilk  daye  comparit  Thomas  Crawfurde,  of  Jordanhill,  auld  provest, 
and  allegit  yat  he  was  put  of  ye  counsale  bot  ony  fait,  and  uncallit  yairfore, 
and  protestit  for  remeid  of  law,  and  yat  ye  namyng  and  chesing  of  ye  counsale, 
but  his  or  ye  auld  baillies'  consent,  preinge  nocht  his  r>'cht,  and  yat  ye  libertie 
of  ye  town  be  nocht  hurt  yairby." 

The  bailies  also  recorded  their  protest  against  the  said 
election. 

From  the  following  extract  it  appears  that  about  this  period 
there  was  no  Dean  of  Guild  Court  in  Glasgow,  and  that  the  bailies 
and  certain  members  of  the  Town  Council  acted  as  liners  when 
disputes  arose  between  conterminous  proprietors  of  ground  re- 
garding their  mutual  boundaries  : — 

Burgh  Records,  31st  May  1574. — "The  quhilk  day  the  thre  baillies  and 
ane  parte  of  the  counsale  past  to  visie  and  decyde  ye  questione  of  lyneyng  and 
nytbourheid  betwixt  Thomas  Crawfurd,  of  Jordanhill,  fewar  of  ye  persone  of 
Glasgwis  mans,  on  that  ane  part,  and  Maister  David  Conynghame,  fewar  of 
ye  Subdeynes  mens  on  yat  wyer  part,"  etc. 

M'Ure,  at  pages  50  and  51,  informs  us  that  the  parsonage  of 
Glasgow  manse  was  situated  a  little  to  the  east  of  the  Bishop's 
Castle,  and  that  the  parsonage  house  of  the  Subdean  stood  a  little 
to  the  south,  and  opposite  the  church  on  the  little  brook  called 
the  Molendinar. 

For  a  considerable  number  of  years  after  the  last-mentioned 
period  there  appears  to  have  been  great  irregularity  regarding  the 
mode  of  nominating  the  Magistrates  and  Council  of  the  city,  as  the 
following  extract  shows  : — 

Burgh  Records,  4th  October  1580. — "  The  Court  and  Conventioun  of  ye 
burt.  and  citie  of  Glasgw  haldin  ye  tolbuyt.  yrof  in  of  ye 

saymyn  be  honobl.  men,   George   Elphinston  and  Willam.    Conyngha,   auld 
baillies,  ye  auld  counsale  for  nemyng  of  lytis  of  ye  baillies  yis  zeir 

to  cum,  ye  ferde  [4th]  daye  of  October,  ye  zeir  of  God  J.oo.Vc.  four  schoir 
zeirs." 

On  this  occasion  the  Magistrates  and  Council  seem,  in  fact,  to 
have  elected  themselves  into  office,  as  the  convention  of  citizens 
made  no  objection  to  the  election  ;  but  it  must  be  observed  that 

VOL.  III.  T 


274  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

in  the  above  minute  two  great  blanks  arc  left,  as  if  the  Court  and 
Convention  of  the  burgh  had  been  ashamed  to  place  the  whole  of 
their  transactions  on  record  in  black  and  white.  At  this  meeting 
there  appears  to  have  been  a  general  assembly  of  the  burgesses 
called,  to  act  in  concert  with  the  Magistrates  and  Council,  They 
appointed  Sir  Matthew  Stewart  of  Minto  to  be  lord  provost ;  and 
his  partisans  Hector  Stewarde  and  John  Graham  as  bailies,  "  for 
ye  zeir  to  cum,"  the  landed  interest  being  then  too  powerful  for 
the  citizens. 

In  1633  the  city  of  Glasgow  was  declared  by  Parliament  to 
be  a  Royal  Free  Burgh,  notwithstanding  of  which,  down  to  the 
Revolution  in  1688,  our  municipal  affairs  fell  into  the  hands  of 
a  mercantile  clique,  composed  of  Bells,  Campbells,  Andersons, 
Walkinshaws,  and  Hamiltons,  etc.,  who  for  the  most  part  were 
connected  to  each  other  either  by  blood  or  marriage.  It  was 
during  the  reign  of  those  provosts  that  our  splendid  Eastern  and 
Western  Commons  were  frittered  away  ;  of  which,  however,  their 
lordships  took  especial  care  to  secure  a  goodly  share  of  them  to 
themselves,  such  as  the  Cowcaddens,  Bell's  Parks,  Blythswood 
Holms,  Anderson  Faulds,  Barrowfield  Lands,  Hamilton  Hill, 
Stobcross,  and  sundry  other  pickings  of  the  like  kind.  Whilst  they 
and  their  partisans  held  the  rule  in  the  city  we  have  little  infor- 
mation regarding  what  passed  at  the  Council  Board,  further  than 
that  those  worthies  were  in  the  practice  of  electing  themselves 
and  their  dependants  into  office.  Dr.  Cleland,  at  page  167  of  his 
Annals,  informs  us  that,  in  consequence  of  the  Revolution,  "the 
Magistrates  and  Council  of  Glasgow  were  elected  by  a  poll  vote  of 
all  the  burgesses  on  the  2d  July  1689."  From  this  time  forward 
we  hear  no  more  of  the  Bells  of  Cowcaddens  or  the  Campbells  of 
Blythswood  being  in  office. 

I  now  pass  over  the  troubled  times  of  the  rebellions  of  1 7 1 5 
and  1745,  and  come  to  the  year  1748,  when  a  committee  of  the 
Town  Council  reported  that  by  the  constitution  of  the  burgh  the 
government  of  the  city  might  perhaps  turn  out  to  be  vested  in  the 
hands  of  particular  persons  longer  than  was  for  th-Q  public  good ; 
the  Council  therefore  resolved,  that  in  future  two  senior  councillors 
of  the  Merchants'  and  Trades'  ranks  should  annually  retire  from 


MUNICIPAL  ELECTIONS.  275 

the  Council,  and  should  not  be  eligible  to  serve  as  councillors  till 
three  years  had  elapsed.  In  1801,  however,  by  an  Act  of  the 
Convention  of  Royal  Burghs,  a  Merchant  and  a  Trades  bailie  were 
added  to  the  magistracy.  Such  continued  to  be  the  position  of 
city  matters  until  the  Reform  Bill  was  passed  in  1832. 

Mr.  Crawfurd,  in  his  interesting  and  valuable  work,  A  Sketch 
of  the  Trades'  House  of  Glasgoiv,  says,  at  page  96,  that  in  1748 
some  sleight-of-hand  alterations  were  made  upon  the  set  of  the 
burgh,  and  he  adds  : — 

"  It  thus  appears  that  of  the  town  council,  composed  of  thirteen  of  the 
Merchant  rank  and  twelve  of  the  Trades'  rank,  besides  the  magistrates  and 
the  dean  of  guild,  deacon  convener,  and  treasurer,  two  of  each  rank  retired 
annually  by  rotation,  and  that  those  who  remained  elected  the  successors  of 
those  who  retired,  under  a  sleight-of-hand  management  of  the  ^  teets'  by  the 
provost,  who  was  the  Great  fuggler  !!P\ 

Mr.  Crawfurd,  however,  does  not  inform  us  exactly  in  what 
manner  this  legerdemain  trick  of  the  leets  was  performed  ;  and 
Dr.  Cleland,  though  no  doubt  master  of  the  subject,  has  been 
apparently  intentionally  silent  as  to  all  the  hocus-pocus  election 
tricks  achieved  at  the  Council  Board  of  Glasgow  whilst  he  was  in 
office. 

During  all  last  century  it  was  considered  as  a  point  of  honour 
that  no  magistrate,  councillor,  or  city  official  should  disclose 
what  took  place  at  the  meetings  of  the  Council  Board,  in  conse- 
quence of  which  the  citizens  in  general  were  kept  in  complete 
ignorance  of  every  measure  concocted  by  the  provost  and  bailies, 
except  in  so  far  as  it  pleased  those  worthies  to  give  information 
to  the  public. 

I  have  in  my  possession  an  old  Court  of  Session  paper,  dated 
1765,  regarding  a  lawsuit,  in  which  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow 
were  defenders.  In  the  course  of  the  proceedings  in  this  case, 
Archibald  M'Gilchrist,  depute  town-clerk  of  Glasgow,  was  called 
as  a  haver — 

"And  the  said  Archibald  M'Gilchrist  being  interrogate  as  to  the  practice 
and  custom  of  the  magistrates  and  town  council  of  Glasgow,  relative  to  the 
town's  affairs," — it  was  objected  that  no  such  questions  could  be  put  to  Mr. 
M'Gilchrist,  he  being  the  confidential  adviser  of  the  magistrates ;  the  Court, 


276  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

however,  overruled  the  objection,  and  accordingly  "  the  said  Archibald 
M'Gilchrist,  aged  57  years,  being  solemnly  sworn,  depones— 'That  he  entered  to 
be  an  extractor  in  the  Town  Clerk's  Chamber  in  the  year  1730,  and  ever  since 
has  been  particularly  acquainted  with  the  way  and  manner  the  Acts  of  Council 
have  been  passed,  minuted,  and  recorded,  as  to  which  depones — that  the  con- 
stant and  invariable  practice  ever  since  the  said  year  1730,  has  been,  that  the 
magistrates  and  council  first  resolve  and  agree  upon  what  is  to  be  done ; 
immediately  after  which  a  distinct  minute  of  their  resolutions  is  taken  down  in 
writing  by  the  town-clerk,  in  presence  of  the  magistrates  and  council,  and 
afterwards  is  read  in  their  hearing  and  approved  of.  That  thereafter,  and 
before  the  next  meeting  of  council,  the  matters  so  minuted  and  approved  of 
are  recorded  by  the  town-clerk  in  the  Records  of  the  Acts  of  Council ;  and  at 
the  first  meeting  of  council  after  an  Act  is  resolved  and  agreed  on,  that  Act  is 
recorded  from  the  minutes  taken  when  the  Act  passed,  is  publicly  read  over 
to  the  magistrates  and  council,  and  they  subscribe  the  Record  thereof.' " 

Such,  then,  was  the  mode  of  proceeding  at  the  meetings  of 
our  Council  Board  when  the  first  history  of  Glasgow  was  published 
by  John  M'Ure,  and  which  system,  so  far  as  I  know,  was  con- 
tinued down  to  our  own  times. 

There  is  a  subject  regarding  the  election  of  our  magistrates 
and  councillors  which  seems  to  me  to  have  escaped  the  notice  of 
all  the  historians  of  Glasgow — at  least  I  have  searched  their  works 
in  vain  for  some  explicit  information  on  this  topic.  I  mean  what 
were  the  penalties  for  our  magistracy  refusing  to  accept  of  office  ? 
and  how  came  known  recusants  to  be  subjected  to  heavy  fines  for 
declining  to  serve,  while  scores  of  our  most  respectable  citizens 
were  panting  and  gaping  for  the  honour?  To  the  best  of  my 
recollection,  the  following  were  the  penalties  which  in  my  younger 
days  could  lawfully  be  extorted  from  any  citizen  of  Glasgow  for 
refusing  to  accept  of  office  in  the  burgh  : — 

1.  For  refusing  to  accept  the  office  of  Lord  Provost,  £so- 

2.  „  „  Bailie,  40. 

3.  „  „  Dean  of  Guild,   40. 

4.  „  „  Councillor,  20. 

5.  „  „  Deacon-Convr.,  nil. 

The  crafts  here  seem  to  have  been  the  only  sapient  folks  at 
the  Council  Board,  for,  though  legally  entitled  to  do  so,  they 
exacted  no  penalty  from  any  of  their  members  who  might  refuse 
to  accept  of  the  convenership.      I  must  say,  however,  that  I  never 


MUNICIPAL  ELECTIONS.  277 

heard  of  such  a  thing  as  a  craftsman  refusing  to  be  made  a  deacon- 
convener. 

I  shall  now  proceed  to  give  a  few  examples  of  the  above- 
mentioned  fines  having  been  rapaciously  extracted  from  the 
purses  of  recusant  individuals. 

Glasgow  Journal^  15th  November  1764.  — "  Yesterday,  Arthur  Connell, 
merchant  of  this  place,  was  chosen  dean  of  guild,  in  room  of  Mr.  James 
Simson,  who  refused  to  accept  of  that  office." 

Dr.  Cleland,  at  page  175  of  his  Annals,  says  in  a  note  that 
"Peter  Murdoch  was  elected  a  bailie  in  1767;"  but  his  name 
does  not  appear  in  the  list  of  Magistrates  of  that  year  ;  he  of 
course  must  have  paid  the  fine,  as  all  fines  for  refusing  to  accept 
the  bailieship  were  rigorously  exacted. 

Glasgow  Journal,  31st  October  1776. — "Tuesday — Mr.  James  Sommer- 
ville,^  merchant,  was  chosen  dean  of  guild,  in  place  of  Mr.  Peter  Murdoch, 
who  has  declined  serving  that  office,  he  having  paid  his  fine,  being  ^40 
sterling." 

And  the  very  next  week — viz.  7th  November  1776 — the  said 
journal  announces  that  "  yesterday  Mr.  Hugh  Wyllie,  merchant, 
was  elected  dean  of  guild,  in  place  of  Mr.  James  Sommerville,  who 
was  elected  last  week,  he  having  declined  serving,  and  has  paid 
his  fine  of  .^40."  Here  the  deanship  was  at  a  sad  discount,  two 
deans  in  succession  having  refused  the  honour  of  being  the  head 
of  the  Merchants'  House,  and  of  a  seat  at  the  Council  Board. 
Perhaps,  however,  after  all,  the  exaction  of  those  fines  was  only  a 
shabby  way  of  raising  the  supplies  upon  the  part  of  the  Merchants' 
House,  their  funds  being  then  very  low,  as  the  following  advertise- 
ment shows  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  3d  October  1757.  —  "Since  the  present  set  of  the 
Merchants'  House  was  introduced  in  the  year  1747,  the  number  of  the  matri- 
culated members  who  make  up  that  House  has  decreased  by  death  and  other 
ways  about  one-third  part ;  it  is  therefore  to  be  hoped  that  this  loss  will  be 
supplied  by  the  subscription  of  many  of  the  Merchants'  rank  who  have  entered 


1  James  Sommerville  entered  the  Merchants'  House  in  1 771,  and  was  the  only 
entrant  of  that  year.  In  1772  there  were  no  entrants;  in  1773  there  were  two  ;  in 
1774  there  was  just  one  ;  but  in  1775  the  number  of  entrants  amounted  to  six  ;  so  that 
there  appears  to  have  been  some  plotting  at  the  time  of  the  election  in  question. 


278  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

since  that  time,  to  entitle  them  to  a  share  of  the  management  of  the  funds  of 
the  House,  which  in  that  case,  properly  belong  to  them,  on  their  pa.ymg/our 
shilli7igs  sterling  to  the  poor  yearly.  The  book  for  subscription  lyes  at  the  shop  of 
Messrs  Scott  and  Brown,  under  the  Exchange  Coffee- House."  {N.B. — The 
above-mentioned  shop  was  situated  in  the  Merchants'  Land,  at  the  north-west 
corner  of  the  Sahmarket,  opposite  the  present  statue  of  King  William.  This 
land  was  taken  down  a  few  years  ago,  and  has  been  replaced  by  the  present 
large  tenement.) 

Let  us  now  proceed  in  our  quotations. 

Glasgow  Mercury^  I2th  October  1780. — "On  Tuesday,  the  3d  instant, 
the  magistrates  of  this  city  were  elected,  when  John  Campbell  of  Clathic  was 
elected  lord  provost ;  but  Mr.  Campbell  having  declined  serving  in  that  office 
he  was  unanimously  chosen  dean  of  guild."  "On  Monday  the  i6th  October, 
Hugh  Wyllie  was  elected  lord  provost  in  the  room  of  Mr.  John  Campbell." 

Here  the  Merchants'  House,  seeing  that  Mr.  Campbell  had 
declined  the  provostship,  and  paid  his  fine,  no  doubt  wished  to 
have  a  share  of  the  bakes ;  and  jalousing  that  Mr.  Campbell, 
having  refused  to  accept  of  the  higher  dignity  of  lord  provost, 
would  certainly  refuse  the  offer  of  the  lower  dignity  of  dean  of 
guild,  and  thus  £^0  sterling  would  be  added  to  the  funds  of  the 
Merchants'  House  ;  but  Mr.  Campbell,  thinking  the  double  fine 
rather  "  saut"  accepted  of  the  deanship,  and  thereby  escaped  a 
second  penalty.  Hugh  Wyllie  seems  to  have  been  a  very  con- 
venient personage,  who  was  willing  to  take  the  leavings  of  either 
the  deanship  or  provostship  as  his  party  directed.  He  died  on 
the  20th  February  1782. 

On  the  23d  October  1783  Robert  Findlay,  the  father  of  Robert 
Findlay,  Esq.,  of  Easterhill,  was  elected  bailie  of  Glasgow,  in  the 
room  of  Henry  Ritchie,  who  had  declined  serving  the  office  of 
bailie,  and  had  paid  the  fine.  The  following,  however,  is  a  more 
important  case,  and  shows  in  black  colours  the  extreme  shabbiness 
of  the  Town  Council  and  Merchants'  House,  which  colours  are 
made  still  darker  when  contrasted  with  the  opposite  conduct  of 
the  Trades'  House,  regarding  their  regulations  as  to  the  convener- 
ship.  The  object  of  the  Merchants'  House  was  evidently  to 
pocket  the  fine  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  20th  Jantiarj'  1780,  — "  On  Wednesday  the  12th  curt., 
the  Court  of  Session  gave  judgment  in  the  following  cause  : — 'At  Michaelmas, 


MUNICIPAL  ELECTIONS.  279 

1778,  Mr.  Thomas  Hopkirk,  merchant  in  Glasgow,  having  been  elected  dean 
of  Guild  of  that  city,  and  having  refused  to  accept  of  the  office,  the  town  council, 
who  are  the  electors,  decerned  him  to  pay  the  sum  of  £40  sterling  in  name  of 
fine.  Mr.  John  M'Call,  merchant,  was  next  elected,  and  having  in  like  manner 
declined,  was  fined  in  ^40  sterling.'  Both  these  gentlemen  presented  suspen- 
sions, which,  being  pleaded  before  Lord  Gardenstown,  his  Lordship 'suspended 
the  letters  siinpUciter.^  The  town  council  reclaimed  by  petition  to  the  whole 
Lords.  The  chargers  rested  their  plea  upon  an  Act  of  Council  passed  in 
1748,  and  ratified  by  the  Convention  of  Royal  Burghs,  whereby  it  is  enacted, 
'  That  every  person  who  shall  be  elected  provost,  one  of  the  bailies,  dean  of 
guild,  deacon  convener,  or  treasurer,  shall,  on  his  refusal  or  declining  to  accept 
any  of  the  said  offices,  be  fined  in  the  sum  of  £i,o  sterling.'  The  defences 
stated  for  the  suspenders  were — ist.  That  the  decreets  charged  on  were  null 
and  void,  being  pronounced  by  the  town  council,  who  have  no  jurisdiction. 
2d,  That  the  town  council  had  no  power,  by  the  set,  to  impose  fines,  and  the 
Council  Act,  1748,  could  not  legally  invest  them  with  such  power.  3d,  That, 
by  a  special  clause  in  the  said  Act  of  Council,  1748,  it  is  provided  '  That  every 
person  hereafter  elected  a  councillor  shall  be  obliged  to  accept  of  his  office 
under  a  penalty  of  £10  sterling,  declaring  always  that  if  any  person  shall 
make  payment  of  the  above  fine  for  not  accepting  to  be  a  councillor,  he  shall 
not  again  be  compellable  to  accept  of  that  office?  That  Mr.  Hopkirk  was 
elected  a  councillor  in  1752,  and,  having  refused  to  accept,  was  fined  in  ^20, 
which  he  paid  accordingly  ;  and  Mr.  M'Call  having  been  elected  a  councillor 
in  1769,  and  declining  officiating,  he  also  paid  a  fine  of  ^20.  That  therefore 
the  suspenders  must  be  considered  as  having  purchased  an  exemption  from 
serving  as  councillors  at  any  future  period.  That  the  dean  of  guild  is,  ex  officio, 
a  councillor,  subjected  to  the  whole  duties  of  this  office  as  much  as  any 
ordinary  member :  and  therefore  the  suspenders  should  not  be  obliged  to 
accept  of  the  office  of  dean  of  guild,  luhich  includes  the  office  of  councillor, 
agreeably  to  the  express  terms  of  the  Act  of  Council,  1748,  on  which  the 
decreets  of  the  town  council  were  founded,  which  declares,  '  That  if  any 
person  shall  pay  the  fine  of  ^20  for  refusing  to  be  councillor,  he  shall  not 
again  be  compellable  to  accept  of  that  office.'' " 

"  The  suspenders,  in  order  to  obtain  a  judgment  on  the  merits  of  the 
cause,  dropt  their  first  defence ;  and,  upon  the  second,  it  appeared,  from  the 
reasonings  upon  the  bench,  to  be  the  opinion  of  the  court  that  town  councils 
have  an  inherent  power  at  common  law  to  inflict  moderate  fines  on  the 
burgesses  refusing  to  accept  of  the  offices,  in  the  duty  of  exercising  which  all 
the  members  of  the  community  are  bound  to  bear  a  share.  Ir^  considering 
the  third  point,  the  Lords  were  unanimously  of  opinion  that  the  suspenders, 
by  having  formerly  fined  off  when  elected  councillors,  could  not,  upon  a  fair 
construction  of  the  Act  of  Council,  1748,  be  again  fined  for  refusing  to  act  in 
the  office  of  dean  of  guild,  who  must,  ex  officio,  act  as  a  member  of  the  town 
council,  and  therefore  '  adhered  to  Lord  Gardenstown's  interlocutors.' " 

Some  further  particulars  of  this  curious  case  arc  to  be  found 


2  8o  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

in    the    Faculty   Collections,    13th    January    1780,   and    are    as 
follows  : — 

"  James  Hill  v.  Thomas  Hopkirk  and  John  M'Call. — By  the  regulations 
enacted  in  1748  by  the  town  council,  and  likewise  recorded  in  the  books  of 
council,  only  four  councillors  are  to  be  changed  every  year,  according  to  their 
seniority:  but  the  dean  of  guild  and  deacon -convener  must  continue  for  one 
year  after  the  expiiy  of  their  respective  offices,  and  ever  afterwards  to  be  removed 
in  rotation  with  the  other  members  of  the  council.  By  these  regulations  it 
was  further  provided  that  every  person  elected,  or  continued  as  councillor, 
should  be  obliged  to  accept  or  continue  in  office  under  a  penalty  of  ^20,  to 
be  paid  to  the  collector  for  the  poor  of  the  Merchants'  House.  After  this  he 
could  not  be  required  to  undertake  that  office.  In  the  same  manner,  every 
person  elected  dean  of  guild  was  obliged  to  accept,  under  a  penalty  of  ^40. 
Soon  after  these  regulations  were  made,  Mr.  Hopkirk  and  Mr.  M'Call  had 
been  elected  councillors,  and  paid  their  fines  for  non-acceptance.  In  1778  they 
were,  one  after  another,  elected  deans  of  guild,  and,  refusing  to  accept,  were  fined 
each  in  /40.  The  question  chiefly  agitated  was  the  legality  of  the  regulations 
of  1748,  which  introduced  a  considerable  change  in  the  set,  and  imposed  fines 
on  persons  declining  offices  in  the  burgh.  The  Lords  found,  '  in  respect  of 
the  special  circumstances  of  the  case,  particularly  that  the  suspenders  formerly 
fined  off  when  elected  into  office  as  councillors,  and  paid  that  fine  of  ^20 
sterling  each,  that  they  could  not  be  of  new  fined  for  refusing  to  accept  of  or 
act  in  the  office  of  the  dean  of  guild,  who,  ex  officio,  must  act  likewise  as  a 
member  of  council,  and  therefore  suspend  the  letters  siinplidter.' " 

In  this  action  the  Town  Council  of  Glasgow  appear  as 
chargers;  but  the  James  Hill  mentioned  in  the  Faculty  Collections 
as  conducting  the  case  in  Court  was  the  law-agent  of  the  Mer- 
chants' House,  and  the  fines,  if  recovered,  would  have  gone  into  the 
coffers  of  the  said  House,  Altogether  the  affair  looks  wonderfully 
like  a  conspiracy  between  the  Merchants'  House  and  the  Town 
Council  of  Glasgow  to  filch  a  few  pounds  from  the  pockets  of 
gentlemen  who,  they  well  knew  beforehand,  would  not  accept  of 
office,  while  at  the  same  time  they  were  perfectly  aware  that  there 
were  scores  of  equally  respectable  citizens  not  only  willing  but 
most  anxious  to  serve  the  office  in  question,  solely  on  account  of 
it  conferring  distinction  and  dignity.  The  case  certainly  showed 
a  gross  abuse  of  power  and  greed  of  pelf  We  must  remark, 
however,  from  the  report  of  the  foregoing  cases,  that  at  this  time 
the  members  of  the  Merchants'  House  did  not  possess,  or  did  not 
exercise,  the  right  of  electing  their  deans  of  guild.     When  John 


LOOSE  JOTTINGS  ABOUT  GLASGOW  IN  1775.         281 

Campbell  of  Clathic  was  elected  provost  in  1780,  and  refused  to 
serve,  the  Town  Council  immediately  after  he  had  declined  the 
said  office,  and  at  the  same  sederunt,  "  unanimously  chose  him 
dean  of  guild."  Again,  in  the  report  of  the  case  of  Hopkirk  and 
M'Call  it  is  expressly  stated  that  those  gentlemen  were  elected 
deans  of  guild  by  the  Town  Council  of  the  city,  "  who  are  the 
electors."  In  this  state  of  matters  it  may  easily  be  seen  that  the 
lord  provost  of  Glasgow  of  that  period  possessed  great  influence 
and  power,  not  only  at  the  Council  Board,  but  over  the  citizens 
in  general,  whom  he  and  his  party  could  either  favour  or  annoy 
by  getting  them  elected  into  office  in  the  burgh.  Tempora 
miitantur. 

{^th  February  i860.) 

LOOSE  JOTTINGS  REGARDING  GLASGOW  ABOUT  THE  YEAR  I  775. 

At  no  period  of  its  history  was  Glasgow  ever  more  prosperous 
than  at  the  time  immediately  previous  to  the  breaking  out  of  the 
American  War  of  Independence.  The  tobacco  trade,  the  estab- 
lished emporium  or  staple  of  Glasgow  commerce,  was  then  at  its 
acme,  and  her  lordly  Virginian  merchants  were  freely  distributing 
their  wealth  by  the  erection  of  princely  dwellings  in  the  favourite 
localities  of  the  city,  some  of  which  remain  to  this  day  as  orna- 
ments to  our  ancient  burgh  boundaries.  Denholm,  page  82,  says 
(1775):  — 

"  The  public  works  themselves  sufficiently  demonstrate  the  wealth  and 
prosperity  of  Glasgow  at  this  period.  In  this  year  Glasgow  employed  upwards 
of  sixty  thousand  tons  of  shipping,  having  in  a  single  article  of  tobacco  im- 
ported from  America  the  amazing  quantity  of  fifty-seven  thousand  one  hundred 
and  forty-three  hogsheads." 

This  was  more  than  one-half  of  all  the  tobacco  imported  into 
Great  Britain  in  1775. 
Denholm  also  states — 

"  Great  inconvenience  havmg  been  found  to  arise  to  the  inhabitants  at  large 
from  the  high  price  of  coals,  a  scheme  was  set  on  foot  and  adopted,  for  cutting 
a  navigable  canal  from  the  high  grounds  at  the  back  of  the  Cathedral  Church 


282  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

to  the  parish  of  Monkland,  with  the  view  of  lessening  the  price  of  that  article, 
by  bringing  it  at  once  to  the  town  in  larger  quantities  and  at  a  cheaper  rate 
than  formerly." 

That  this  step  was  necessary  sufficiently  appears  from  the 
annexed  advertisement : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  20th  July  1775. — "At  a  meeting  of  the  following  coal- 
masters — James  Buchanan,  lord  provost,  Colin  Dunlop  &  Son,  James  & 
Andrew  Gray,  John  &  Matthew  Orr,  James  M'Nair  &  Co.,  Archibald  SmelHe 
&  Son,  John  Ferrie  &  Richard  Cameron — it  was  resolved  that,  from  and  after 
the  I  5th  of  August  next,  they  will  sell  no  coals  from  any  of  the  works  they 
are  respectively  concerned  in  but  for  ready-vtoney  only." 

"1776,  June  13th. — As  John  &  Matthew  Orr  intend  for  the  future  to  lead  a 
great  part  of  their  coals  with  their  own  horses  and  carts,  they  will  be  very  much 
obliged  to  their  customers  to  send  their  orders  to  the  Camlachie  coal  office." 

The  following  notice  will  show  that  the  operatives  of  Glasgov/ 
were,  at  the  period  first  mentioned,  in  full  employment,  and  were 
then  receiving  high  wages  : — 

Weekly  Magazine,  Edinburgh,  14th  April  1775. — "  Extract  of  a  letter  from 
Glasgow — 'Trade  has  not  been  so  brisk  in  this  place  for  many  years  bygone 
as  it  is  at  present — not  a  single  hand  unemployed  ;  weavers'  wages  all  raised, 
and  ten,  fifteen,  and  twenty  shillings  given  as  a  premium  to  engage  them.'" 

The  money  market  appears  likewise  to  have  been  glutted 
in  1775. 

Scots  Magazine,  Edinburgh,  December  1775. — "Since  February  last  our 
banks  give  only  3  per  cent,  on  money  lent  them  for  a  full  year,  and  but  7.\  per 
cent,  if  lent  only  for  six  months." 

"Edinburgh,  23d  July  1776. — On  Tuesday  last  some  shares  in  the  Royal 
Bank  here  sold  at  the  rate  of  ^215,  which  is  ^^14  higher  than  ever  was  paid 
before,  owing  to  the  great  plenty  of  money  now  in  circle.  It  is  estimated  that 
there  is  above  half  a  million  sterling  at  present  lent  out  in  Edinburgh  at  3  per 
cent.,  and  more  money  ready  to  be  lent  on  land  security  than  ever  was  known 
in  Scotland  at  any  former  period." 

Glasgow  Journal,  30th  November  1775. — "Notice. — Messrs  Dunlop, 
Houston,  &  Co.,  bankers  in  Glasgow,  desire  those  who  have  money  lodged 
with  them  at  4  per  cent,  that  they  would  call  at  their  office  as  soon  as  possible 
to  receive  payment." 

It  further  appears  that  at  this  juncture  oatmeal  was  so  very 
plentiful  that  the  sheriff  of  Lanarkshire  prohibited  any  importation 
of  it  into  Glasgow. 


LOOSE  JOTTINGS  ABOUT  GLASGOW  IN   1775.         283 

Glasgow  Journal,  13th  February  1775. — "By  the  determination  of  the 
sheriff,  the  ports  of  this  county  (Lanarkshire)  are  shut  against  the  importation 
of  oats  and  oatmeal." 

It  must  not  be  forgotten  that  in  this  year  (1775)  the  following 
Act  of  Parliament  was  passed  regarding  an  invention  which  has 
made  a  greater  change  in  Glasgow  than  even  Arkwright's  cele- 
brated discovery  of  spinning  yarn  by  machinery.  The  title  is — "An 
Act  for  investing  in  James  Watt,  engineer,  his  executors,  adminis- 
trators, and  assigns,  the  sole  use  and  property  of  certain  steam 
engines,  commonly  called  '  Fire  Engines,'  of  his  invention,  de- 
scribed in  the  said  Act,  throughout  his  Majesty's  dominions,  for  a 
limited  time."  At  the  period  in  question  there  were  no  cotton 
mills  in  Scotland,  the  first  mill  there  having  been  erected  in 
Rothesay  by  an  English  company  in  1778.  It  was  about  two 
years  after  this  that  David  Dale  commenced  erecting  the  Lanark 
Cotton  Mills.  The  mill  which  was  first  built  was  accidentally 
burned  to  the  ground  a  few  weeks  after  it  had  begun  to  produce 
spun  yarn  ;  but  it  was  speedily  reconstructed,  and  the  manufacture 
proceeded  successfully. 

In  my  younger  days  the  principal  cotton  broker  in  Glasgow 
was  Mrs.  Mary  Brown.  Her  husband  was  a  shoemaker,  in  pretty 
extensive  business.  At  his  death  Mary  was  at  a  loss  how  to 
dispose  of  his  shoes  and  leather  to  advantage,  and  accordingly 
applied  to  David  Dale  for  his  advice  on  the  occasion.  Mr.  Dale 
advised  her  to  work  up  the  raw  materials  of  her  husband's  stock 
into  shoes  suitable  for  the  West  India  market,  and  then  to  consign 
the  whole  to  a  respectable  West  India  house  for  sale  in  the  West 
Indies.  Mary,  however,  said  that  this  was  too  great  a  venture  for 
her  to  engage  in  ;  but  Mr.  Dale  told  her  that  if  she  was  pleased 
with  the  proposal,  he  would  run  halves  in  the  adventure.  Mary 
at  once  jumped  to  the  offer,  and  accordingly,  the  whole  of  Mr. 
Brown's  finished  stock  was  shipped  to  the  West  Indies,  upon  joint 
account,  with  instructions  that  the  produce  of  the  sales  should  be 
remitted  in  cotton.  When  the  cotton  arrived  Mr.  Dale  proposed 
to  put  it  into  the  hands  of  a  cotton  broker  for  sale  ;  but  Mary  did 
not  approve  of  this  plan,  saying  that  she  would  sell  it  herself,  and 
thereby  save  the  broker's  commission.      Mary  was  very  successful 


2  84  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

in  selling  the  cotton  at  a  good  price,  and  immediately  thereafter 
she  commenced  the  business  of  a  cotton  broker. 

I  have  seen  Mary  bustling  about,  with  a  large  leather  pocket 
at  her  side,  containing  samples  of  cotton,  ready  to  show  to  any 
spinner  or  speculator  whom  she  might  meet.  She  thought  no- 
thing of  bargaining  offhand  for  thousands  of  pounds.  Mary  did 
not  care  for  the  company  of  ladies,  or  to  talk  about  flounces,  tucks, 
bowknots,  trimmings,  skirts,  or  edgings  ;  but  preferred  the  com- 
pany of  gentlemen,  and  to  discourse  with  them  upon  the  merits 
of  the  long  and  short  staple,  of  Surats,  Surinams,  Pernams,  Sea 
Islands,  and  Bowed  Georgias.  Mary  was  really  a  remarkable 
person,  and  I  believe  that  she  passed  more  money  through  her 
hands  than  any  woman  in  Scotland  ever  did.  Had  she  confined 
herself  solely  to  her  business  of  a  cotton  broker,  she  would  in  all 
probability  have  acquired  a  large  fortune  ;  but  she  most  unluckily 
became  an  extensive  speculator  in  cotton  upon  her  own  account, 
and  the  notice  below  will  show  the  result. 

Edinburgh  Gazette,  15th  March  1794. — "Sequestration. — Mary  Brown, 
cotton  dealer  in  Glasgow.  Creditors  to  meet  in  Claud  Currie's,  vintner  there, 
27th  current,  at  noon,  to  name  a  factor,  and  at  same  place  and  hour,  i8th 
April,  to  chuse  a  trustee." 

1 1  think  that  the  following  letter  will  be  perused  with  interest 
by  all  your  septuagenarian  readers.  It  was  addressed  to  me  by 
a  very  old  acquaintance,  Mr.  John  Aitcheson,  who  died  in  August 
last,  in  the  ninetieth  year  of  his  age  : — 

"Glasgow,  2d  Feb.,  1855. 
"  My  dear  Sir — Many  thanks  for  your  kind  letter  and  tree  of  the  old 
respectable  family.  I  do  not  recollect  any  cotton  brokers  in  our  auld  town, 
excepting  Messrs.  J.  &  G.  Buchanan  &  Co.,  that  is,  previous  to  1792.  My 
old  friend,  Mrs.  Mary  Brown,  was  a  direct  buyer  from  the  importers  ;  and 
sometimes  we — that  is,  Archd.  Calder  &  Co.,  and  Jo.  Aitcheson  &  Co.- — used 
to  join  with  her  in  purchasing  cotton  from  Messrs.  Leitch  &  Smith,  and  we 
also  joined  in  buying  cotton  with  my  old  friend,  the  late  Mr.  John  Bartholo- 
mew, direct  from  the  importer.  Mr.  Andrew  Templeton,  being  a  lodger  with 
Mrs.  Brown  when  he  was  clerk  with  Messrs.  Duguid,  the  sugar  refiners,  joined 
Mrs.  Brown,  and  their  firm  was  Maiy  Brown  &  Co.,  and  afterwards  Templeton, 
Jamieson,  &  Co.,  about  the  years  1798  and  1799.  Archibald  Sorely,  for  a 
short  time,  acted  as  broker,  but  became  an  extensive  cotton  speculator  attd  dealer 
in  1799,  and  failed  for  a  large  sum.     He  afterwards  joined  a  Mr.  Smith,  as 


GLASGOW  IN  THE  OLDEN  TIME.  285 

brokers,  and  the  business  continued  under  the  firm  of  Sorely  &  Smith,  and 
continued  for  some  time  afterwards  under  the  firm  of  Smith  and  Brown,  and 
latterly  under  the  name  of  John  Brown  (alias  Cotton  Jock).  He  was  unfortun- 
ate some  time  ago,  but  got  settled,  and  for  several  years  has  a  bonded  store, 
and  keeps  horses  and  carts,  and  I  believe  he  is  doing  well.  In  1799,  when  Mr. 
Owen  purchased  the  Lanark  Mills,  Mr.  Kelly  commenced  cotton  broker  and 
a  cotton  spinner  ;  his  partner,  I  think,  was  Mr.  William  Aitken  (of  Gilbert 
Shearer  &  Co.).  The  mill  was  near  Blackburn,  but  it  was  a  losing  concern. 
Mr.  Kelly  was  trustee  in  the  Rothesay  Spinning  Co. ;  he  afterwards  purchased 
the  mill,  but  it  was  a  bad  business.  Mr.  Kelly's  son  carries  on  as  cotton 
broker  at  present,  and  his  partner  is  Mr.  Hannay,  brother-in-law  to  Mr.  James 
Scott  of  Kelly.  James  Donaldson  was  partner  in  the  firm  of  Robertson  &  Co., 
extensive  muslin  manufacturers  ;  he  left  that  concern,  and,  along  with  James 
Kibble  and  Matthew  Robertson,  both  from  Paisley,  purchased  the  mill  built  by 
Mr.  James  Robertson  (my  father-in-law)  at  Milngavie.  This  was  at  a  public 
sale,  and  my  father-in-law,  old  Mr.  Robertson  of  Mill  Bank,  and  my  friend, 
Charles  Bennet,  of  Manchester,  opposed  them.  It  was  not  on  a  large  scale, 
and  only  fetched  ^3500.  I  rather  think  old  Mr.  Robertson  was  to  have  had 
a  share,  as  his  partner,  along  with  Charles  Bennet  and  old  Robert  Thompson, 
grandfather  to  the  present  Mr.  N.  Thompson  of  Camphill.  Mr.  Donaldson 
was  very  unfortunate  as  a  spinner  at  Milngavie,  but  Mr.  Dun  and  some  other 
friends,  after  his  misfortune,  patronised  him  as  a  cotton  broker.  I  don't  know 
who  the  company  of  James  Donaldson  are  who  carry  on  the  cotton  business 
under  that  firm  at  present.  You,  no  doubt,  recollect  the  extensive  firm  in  the 
cotton  trade  of  Sharp  &  Mackenzie,  but  they  were  regular  dealers  and  also 
manufacturers.  The  cold  is  so  very  severe,  I  am  afraid  you  can  scarcely  read 
this  short  note. — Yours  faithfully,  John  Aitcheson." 

^^P.S. — Pray,  were  you  a  full  Private  in  the  squad  that  met  in  the  Session 
House  and  yard  of  the  Chapel  of  Ease,  along  with  Gavin  Horn  (son  of  Wm. 
Horn,  who  built  Horn's  Court  and  Glassford  Street),  when  Archy  Paterson 
was  Fifer,  and  I  also  acted  with  him  in  that  time  ?  We  were  drilled  by  Sergt. 
M'Intosh  of  the  42d.  This  was  in  1793,  previous  to  our  joining  the  first 
Regiment  of  Volunteers.  You,  I  recollect,  joined  the  Cavalry  about  the  time 
when  Archy  joined  the  Volunteers." 


{2Z,th  February  i860.) 

GLASGOW    IN    THE    OLDEN    TIME. 

In  that  house  (viz.  at  the  north-west  corner  of  Bell  Street)  Mr. 
John  Alston  resided,  and  I  believe  that  there  George  Douglas  and\ 
Provost  John  Alston  were  born.  James  M'Kenzie,  the  father  of 
Provost   M'Kenzie,  also  resided   in  that   tenement.      He  is  thus 


286  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

described  by  his  son,  the  provost,  in  the  roll  of  the  Merchants' 
House,  when  the  provost  entered  as  a  member  of  the  said  House  : 
— "1788. — December  26th. — James  M'Kenzie,  son  of  James 
M'Kenzie,  teacher,  Glasgow."  I  remember  this  old  gentleman 
when  he  was  teacher  in  Hutcheson's  Hospital,  then  situated  in  the 
Trongate.  He  was  highly  respected,  and  associated  with  the 
wealthiest  of  our  citizens.  He  was  not  known,  however,  by  the 
name  of  M'Kenzie,  but  was  called  M'Keengie,  for  in  those  days 
there  were  no  M'Ketizies  in  Glasgow  ;  they  were  all  M'Keengies. 

The  whole  of  the  new  town  from  St.  David's  Church  west- 
wards has  been  erected  in  my  day.  The  following  notice  shows 
the  commencement  of  this  great  change  : — 

"  ^nii  Ju"^  5th- — Notice. — That  the  magistrates  and  council  of  Glasgow 
have  resolved  to  open  a  street  70  feet  broad,  in  a  straight  line  from  Queen 
Street  through  the  west  part  of  the  Ramshorn  ground,  belonging  to  the  city, 
and  to  sell  the  ground  on  each  side  of  the  said  intended  street,  in  steadings 
for  erecting  buildings  thereon.  As  also  to  set  the  north-westmost  plot  of  the 
said  Ramshorn  ground,  consisting  of  8129  yards,  lying  next  to,  and  above  the 
termination  of  the  said  intended  street,  conform  to  a  plan  in  the  hands  of  the 
town-clerks  of  Glasgow.  Any  person  inclining  to  purchase  the  above-mentioned 
grounds  may  give  in  their  proposals  to  the  said  clerks,  who  will  immediately 
communicate  them  to  the  magistrates  and  council.  Also,  those  eleven  acres 
of  ground,  or  thereby,  belonging  to  the  city,  lying  on  the  east  side  of  the  road 
belonging  to  Mr.  Peter  Bell,  of  Cowcaddens,  leading  from  the  road  to  Wishart's 
house  to  Bell's  Haugh,  is  to  set  in  tack  for  19  years,  by  public  roup,  within 
the  clerk's  chambers,  on  the  nth  day  of  June  current,  the  purchaser's  entry 
to  commence  immediately  after  the  roup ;  and  the  articles  of  roup  to  be  seen 
in  the  hands  of  the  town-clerks.  N.B. — Some  dung,  belonging  to  the  City 
of  Glasgow,  lying  near  the  place  where  the  Gallowgate  Toll  Bar  lately  stood 
(near  the  Saracen's  Head  Inn),  is  to  be  sold  by  roup,  time  and  place  as  above." 

"  ^llli  19th  June. — Notice. — That  the  roup  of  the  north-westmost  plot  of 
Ramshorn  ground  being  adjourned  to  Friday  the  20th  of  June  current,  the 
said  plot  will  be  sold,  by  public  roup,  between  the  hours  of  twelve  and  two 
o'clock  of  that  day,  in  the  clerk's  chambers,  and  will  be  set  up  at  2s  6d  each 
square  yard.  A  plan  of  the  ground,  with  the  articles  of  roup,  may  be  seen  in 
the  hands  of  the  town-clerks." 

This  roup  took  place  immediately  before  William  Cuninghame 
began  to  erect  his  spacious  house,  now  the  Royal  Exchange. 
When  Mr.  Cuninghame  was  building  the  said  house  in  1778  I 
visited  it,  for  it  was  a  wonder  and  a  show  to  all  the  citizens  of 
Glasgow,  the  cost  of  it  being  ;^  10,000. 


GLASGOW  IN  THE  OLDEN  TIME.  2 87 

No  part  of  our  city  in  my  day  has  undergone  a  greater 
change  than  the  Cross  of  Glasgow ;  for,  with  the  exception  of  the 
old  steeple,  it  , has  been  completely  renovated.  But,  alas!  the 
warblings  of  the  music  bells,  and  the  nice  promenade  under  the 
pillars  in  the  Trongate  and  Saltmarket,  long  the  pride  and  boast 
of  Glasgow,  are  now  the  tales  of  bygone  times.  The  first  great 
change  in  this  part  of  Glasgow  was  the  erection  of  the  Tontine 
and  its  reading-room  in  1781.  I  remember  of  playing  in  the 
foundation  of  the  present  reading-room  while  the  excavations  were 
going  on  by  the  workmen,  and  before  a  single  stone  of  this 
elegant  room  had  been  laid.  In  the  course  of  making  these  ex- 
cavations an  ancient  canoe  was  found,  as  more  particularly 
alluded  to  by  our  eminent  antiquary  John  Buchanan,  Esquire.  I 
subscribed  to  the  coffee-room  for  more  than  sixty  years,  and  I 
never  come  to  Glasgow  without  paying  it  a  visit  for  "  auld  lang 
syne."  When  I  first  subscribed  it  was  really  a  coffee-room,  nicely 
fitted  up  with  boxes,  where  parties  could  adjourn  and  enjoy  their 
beverage  in  quietness,  piping  hot  from  Mr.  Smart's  kitchen  upstairs. 

A  French  philosopher  has  said — "  I  would  not  choose  to  see 
an  old  post  pulled  up  with  which  I  had  been  long  acquainted." 
And  Dr.  Goldsmith  thus  elegantly  writes — "A  mind  long  habit- 
uated to  a  certain  set  of  objects  insensibly  becomes  fond  of  seeing 
or  speaking  of  them  ;  visits  them  frequently  from  habit,  and  parts 
with  them  with  reluctance.  From  whence  proceeds  the  care  of  the 
old,  in  every  kind  of  possession?  They  love  the  world,  and  all  that 
it  produces  ;  they  love  life,  and  all  its  advantages — NOT  because 
it  gives  them  pleasure,  BUT  because  they  have  known  it  LONG." 

In  the  Glasgoiv  Mcrciuy  of  29th  March  1781  we  have  the 
following  : — 

"  Notice. — The  subscription  for  the  Tontine  Coffee-house  will  continue 
open  till  the  1 3th  of  May  next,  and  no  longer.  Those  who  choose  to  subscribe, 
may  apply  to  John  Maxwell,  jun.,  writer,  who  is  empowered  to  receive  the 
subscriptions  of  all  who  may  wish  to  promote  the  scheme.  In  consequence  of 
a  resolution  of  the  subscribers,  at  their  general  meeting,  held  on  the  20th  of 
March  current,  all  persons  interested  in  the  Tontine  scheme  are  requested,  on 
or  before  the  i  5th  of  May  next,  to  lodge  with  Mr.  Maxwell  a  note  specifying 
the  name  of  the  person  on  the  duration  of  whose  life  their  interest  in  the 
scheme  is  to  depend.      If  this  is  not  complied  with,  the  subscriber's  own  life,  or 


288  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

the  person's  already  named,  where  that  is  the  case,  will  be  considered  as  the 
life  to  be  engrossed  in  the  deeds." 

The  shares  were  £$o  each,  but  any  subscriber  was  at  Hberty 
to  take  two  shares,  but  no  more.  There  were  107  subscribers  to 
this  scheme,  very  few  of  whom  took  two  shares.  A  very  interest- 
ing list  of  the  said  subscribers,  and  the  names  of  the  parties  on 
whose  Hves  their  interest  in  the  Tontine  depended,  was  pubHshed 
by  me  in  the  Glasgow  Herald  of  the  8th  and  15th  of  March 
1852,  to  which  reference  is  made. 

Of  the  107  subscribers,  and  of  the  parties  on  the  durability  of 
whose  lives  their  interest  in  the  scheme  depended,  the  last  survivor 
was  Miss  Cecilia  Douglas  (sister  of  the  late  Sir  Neil  Douglas), 
afterwards  Mrs.  Gilbert  Douglas  of  Orbiston.  She  died  on  the 
25th  of  July  1 862,  in  the  ninety-first  year  of  her  age.  Two  shares 
were  taken  on  her  life,  viz. — 

I  st  Nominator — Alexander  M'Caul,  merchant  in  Glasgow,  one 
share,  upon  the  life  of  Cecilia  Douglas,  daughter  of  John  Douglas, 
merchant  in  Glasgow. 

2d  Nominator — William  Douglas,  merchant  in  Glasgow,  one 
share,  upon  the  life  of  Cecilia  Douglas,  daughter  of  John  Douglas, 
merchant  in  Glasgow. 

Before  the  Assembly  Room  in  connection  with  the  Tontine 
Buildings  was  erected,  our  assemblies  and  public  concerts  were 
usually  held  in  the  Bridgegate  Hall ;  and  I  believe  that  the 
following  notice  shows  the  date  of  the  last  dancing  assembly 
which  was  held  in  the  Bridgegate  Hall  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  5th  October  1780.  —  "Assembly.  There  is  to  be  a 
dancing  assembly  on  Friday  first,  the  6th  instant,  in  the  Merchants'  Hall, 
Bridgegate.  Tickets  for  ladies  and  gentlemen,  to  be  had  at  Mr.  Aird's  music 
shop,  25  6d  each." 

Mr.  Aird's  music  shop  is  now  occupied  by  Mr.  Campbell 
Blair,  as  an  extensive  grocery  establishment ;  but  the  place  has 
been  wonderfully  improved  since  the  time  of  Mr.  Aird.  He  was 
at  the  date  in  question  the  principal  music -dealer  in  Glasgow, 
and  his  little  shop  was  situated  at  the  corner  of  the  Back  Wynd. 

The  following  notice  shows  us  that  the  New  Assembly  Room 
in  connection  with  the  Tontine  was  then  in  progress  of  erection  : — 


GLASGOW  IN  THE  OLDEN  TIME.  289 

Glasgow  Mercury,  2d  November  1780.  —  "Subscription  Concert.  The 
managers  of  the  subscription  concert  for  the  ensuing  winter  beg  leave  to 
acquaint  those  ladies  and  gentlemen  who  have  honoured  them  with  their 
subscription,  that  on  account  of  the  Assembly  Hall  not  being  ready,  the  first 
concert  will  be  held  in  the  Merchants'  Hall,  in  the  Bridgegate,  on  Wednesday 
next,  being  the  8th  of  November.  The  concert  will  begin  precisely  at  seven 
o'clock.  Subscriptions  taken  in  at  Messrs.  Dunlop  &  Wilson's;  at  the  Ton- 
tine Coffee-house  ;  at  Mr.  Heron's,  sign  of  the  Black  Bull ;  at  Mr.  Buchanan's, 
Saracen's  Head  ;  and  by  Messrs.  Dasti,  Wilson,  and  Reinagle,  at  their 
houses." 

The  Tontine  Coffee-house  here  alluded  to  most  likely  was 
then  situated  in  the  tenement  at  the  north-west  comer  of  the 
Saltmarket,  as  the  present  Tontine  Coffee-house  was  not  built  till 
1 78 1.  I  never  could  learn  any  particulars  regarding  this  old 
Tontine  Coffee-house,  which  I  think  could  not  have  had  any 
dependence  upon  the  durability  of  the  lives  of  those  interested,  as 
it  appears  to  have  been  sold  by  public  roup.  With  regard  to  the 
old  Gaol  and  ancient  Court-house,  they  have  been  superseded  by 
the  building  erected  on  their  site,  by  Dr.  Cleland,  about  the  year 
1816. 

I  feel  at  a  loss  to  say  whereabouts  the  Tontine  Coffee-house 
in  Argyll  Street  was  situated  which  is  mentioned  in  the  follow- 
ing advertisement ;  and  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  the  word 
"Tontine"  was  frequently  applied  at  that  time  to  coffee-houses 
which  had  no  title  to  assume  the  name  of  "  Tontine." 

Glasgow  Mercury,  30th  November  1780. — "To  be  exposed  to  sale,  by 
public  roup,  upon  Wednesday  the  13th  of  December,  1780,  within  the 
Exchange  Tavern  in  Glasgow,  at  one  o'clock  mid-day,  the  Tontine  Coffee-house 
in  Arg>'ll  Street,  Glasgow,  as  presently  possessed  by  Mr.  Matthew  Pool,  con- 
sisting of  seven  rooms,  light  closet,  and  other  conveniences  ;  a  very  com- 
modious large  kitchen,  larder,  and  cellars  below  stairs,  and  three  garret  rooms, 
and  pertinents.  The  price  to  be  paid,  and  the  purchaser  to  enter  to  the 
premises  at  Whitsunday  next." 

And  again — 

2ist  December  1780.  —  "Tontine  Tavern.  For  sale,  by  auction,  on 
Thursday  the  4th  of  January  1781,  at  11  o'clock  forenoon,  the  whole  standing 
furniture  of  the  Tontine  Tavern,  all  of  elegant  fashions  and  in  good  order  ; 
likewise  the  stock  on  hand  of  exceeding  old  wines,  of  a  fine  flavour,  and 
excellent  London  porter.  N.B. — The  gentlemen,  subscribers  to  the  coffee- 
house, are  desired  to  meet  there  to-morrow,  the  22d  instant,  at  12  o'clock, 
upon  business." 

VOL.  III.  U 


2 go  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

The  word  "  Tontine,"  as  is  well  known,  means  a  life  annuity 
with  benefit  of  survivorship,  and  was  so  called  from  the  inventor, 
Laurence  Tonti,  an  Italian.  In  1689,  the  first  Tontine  scheme 
was  set  on  foot  in  France,  but  it  was  executed  very  imperfectly, 
in  consequence  of  which,  another  scheme  of  the  same  kind  was 
projected  about  the  year  1726,  when  the  two  schemes  were 
united, — all  the  actions  of  both  of  which  schemes  came  to  be 
possessed  by  Charlotte  Bonnemay,  who  died  at  the  age  of  ninety- 
six.  She  had  ventured  about  £1$  in  each  scheme,  and  in  the 
last  year  of  her  life  she  came  into  possession  of  £2,600  a  year  for 
her  ^30. 

I  must  now  take  a  glance  at  the  opposite  corner  of  the  Cross 
— namely,  the  north-west  corner  of  Saltmarket  and  Trongate. 
Here  was  situated  of  old  a  very  handsome  tenement  belonging 
to  the  Merchants'  House  of  Glasgow,  as  the  following  notice 
shows  : — 

GlasgoTx' Journal,  14th  August  1766.  —  "That  all  and  whole  that  first 
storie  of  that  great  tenement  of  land,  sometime  belonging  to  the  Merchants' 
House  in  Glasgow,  lying  within  the  burgh  of  Glasgow,  fronting  to  both  these 
streets  called  the  Saltmarket  and  Trongate  Streets  of  Glasgow,  together  with 
two  Cellars  (formerly  three)  immediately  under  the  first  storie,  next  to  the 
staircase  of  the  said  tenement,  and  houff  under  the  said  Turnpike,  and  a  piece 
of  waste  ground  adjoining  to  the  houff  under  the  said  turnpike,  with  the  shade 
above,  together  with  the  middenstead  of  the  said  land,  and  benefit  of  the  dung 
or  fuilzie  thereof,  is  to  be  exposed  to  sale  by  voluntary  public  roup,  upon 
Tuesday,  the  fourth  day  of  Novenaber  next  to  come,  within  a  vacant  apart- 
ment of  the  said  storie. 

<^  N.B. — The  said  first  storie  may  be  commodiously  possessed  as  a  Public 
House." 

The  articles  and  conditions  of  the  roup,  etc. — 

♦'  Any  person  intending  to  make  a  private  purchase  of  the  premises  may 
apply  to  Messrs.  Arthur  Connel,  Alexand.  Campbell,  and  George  Buchanan, 
merchants  in  Glasgow." 

At  this  date  Provost  Connel,  the  father  of  Sir  John  Connel, 
and  David  and  James  Connel,  lived  in  the  third  storey  of  a  house 
situated  on  the  south  side  of  Bell's  Wynd,  which  is  thus  described 
— "  1766. — The  third  storie  is  possessed  by  Mr.  Connel,  dean  of 
guild,  consisting  of  four  rooms,  a  kitchen,  and  two  garret  rooms." 


GLASGOW  IN  THE  OLDEN  TIME. 


29] 


So  much  for  primitive  times.  Mr.  Connel  afterwards  acquired 
Eroch  Bank,  comprising  a  mansion-house  and  three  and  a  half 
acres  Scots  of  land. 

The  celebrated  printers,  the  Messrs.  Foulis,  had  their  place  of 
business  in  the  Merchants'  House  Land. 

"November  17th,  1755. — To  be  set,  just  now,  these  two  Rooms  in  the 
Old  Coffee  House,  which  front  the  Sahmarket  Street,  the  one  of  which  is 
at  present  possessed  by  Messrs.  Glen  and  Peter,  and  the  other  by  Messrs. 
Foulis." 

Journal,  2d  May  1757. — "Upon  the  3d  of  May  instant,  within  one  of  the 
rooms  of  the  corner  land  betwixt  the  Sahmarket  and  Trongate  Streets  of  the 
first  storie,  forming  the  Old  Coffee  House,  will  be  sold,  by  way  of  auction, 
for  ready  money  only,  to  the  highest  bidder,  a  large  assortment  of  Tea  and 
Table  China,  Glass,  and  Stone  ware,  &c." 

There  is  a  good  view  of  the  old  Merchants'  House  Land  in 
Stuart's  Views  of  Glasgoiv,  page  80,  with  a  perspective  of  the 
pillars  under  the  houses  of  the  south  side  of  the  Trongate,  west- 
ward to  the  Tron  Steeple.  On  the  third  and  fourth  floors  there 
was  a  curious  projection  overhanging  the  corner  of  the  street,  in 
which  there  were  two  windows  to  each  of  the  little  closets  which 
led  off  from  the  dining-rooms  of  the  respective  floors.  In  my 
boyish  days  the  third  floor  of  this  tenement  was  occupied  by 
David  Crawford,  Esq.,  who  so  long  filled  the  honorary  office  of 
Preceptor  to  the  Town's  Hospital.  This  gentleman  being  a 
relation,  I  had  free  access  to  the  little  closet  in  question  upon  the 
great  occasions — of  the  King's  birthday  ;  of  the  Lords  of  Justi- 
ciary walking  in  procession  to  the  Court  House,  attended  by  the 
Magistrates,  and  preceded  by  the  red -coat  officers  with  their 
halberts ;  of  the  whippings  and  hangings  at  the  Cross  ;  and  from 
the  said  little  windows  I  beheld  MTver,  M'Callum,  and  Herdman 
stand  in  the  pillory  in  1784,  probably  the  last  exhibition  of  the 
kind  that  will  ever  take  place  in  Glasgow. 

Mr.  Crawford  married  a  daughter  of  Mr.  William  Horn,  who 
built  Glassford  Street,  Horn's  Court,  and  numerous  edifices  in 
Glasgow.  There  were  two  daughters  of  the  marriage,  who  died 
in  their  teens  of  that  sad  complaint  consumption,  and  as  all  Mr. 
Horn's  estates  had  been  settled  on  them,  these  estates  at  their 
death  passed  to  a  distant  relation  of  Mr.  Horn  in  Stirling. 


292  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

The  north-east  corner  of  the  Saltmarket  at  the  Cross  was 
occupied  in  my  early  days  by  the  Trades'  Lands,  which  were 
pretty  extensive  both  in  the  Satmarket  and  in  the  Gallowgate. 

Journal,  loth  July  1766. — "That  the  little  laigh  fore  shop  or  booth,  lying 
on  the  north  side  of  the  close  leading  from  the  Saltmarket,  haill  houses, 
cellars,  garrets,  middenstead,  and  lands  in  the  closs,  high  and  laigh,  all 
commonly  called  the  '  Trades'  Land,'  lying  near  the  Market  Cross  of  Glasgow, 
and  a  great  part  of  which  lands  are  very  commodious  for  Warehouses,  are  to 
be  exposed  to  public  roup  and  sale,  in  different  lots  and  parcels,  within  the 
house  of  Mrs.  Armour,  at  the  Cross,  &c." 

Glasgow  Journal,  4th  October  1764.  —  "To  be  sold  by  public  roup,  on 
the  7th  November  next,  All  and  Haill  that  high  fore  shop  and  laigh  one,  lying 
under  that  great  tenement  of  land  belonging  to  the  Town  of  Glasgow,  being 
the  corner  land  betwixt  the  Gallowgate,  and  above  the  Cross,  and  which  fore 
shop  is  the  one  next  the  Cross,  presently  possessed  by  Andrew  Carrick, 
merchant. 

"  The  conditions  of  roup  and  progress  of  writs  are  to  be  seen  in  the  hands 
of  Peter  Paterson,  writer  in  Glasgow." 

(A^;^. — Purchased  by  David  Allan,  and  afterwards  by  John  M'Intyre  and 
Company.) 

The  burning  of  the  Long  Stairs  in  1792,  and  subsequent 
erections  on  their  site,  made  a  great  change  in  the  appearance  of 
the  city  of  Glasgow  at  the  Cross,  for  these  stairs  were  very  curious 
and  antique  in  their  structure,  and  gave  a  venerable  look  to  the 
place  ;  but  they  were  very  far  from  being  an  ornament  to  the 
locality,  and  their  destruction  was  lamented  by  none  of  our 
citizens,  except  by  those  who  were  directly  interested  in  their 
preservation. 

Thomas  Buchanan,  Esq.,  the  father  of  the  late  John  Buchanan, 
Esq.,  of  Ardoch,  had  his  place  of  business  in  the  first  iloor  of  the 
Trades'  Land,  at  the  north  corner  of  it.  He  was  the  most  exten- 
sive hat  manufacturer  in  Glasgow  of  his  day,  and,  from  the  following 
notice,  he  perhaps  was  also  the  best  maker  of  hats  in  the  city : — 

Scois  Magazine,  1757,  page  49. — "  Edinburgh,  January  22,  1757. — The 
Edinburgh  Society  for  Encouragement  of  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Manufactures, 
think  it  their  duty  to  acquaint  the  public  that  the  premiums  proposed  by  the 
society  for  the  year  1756,  have  been  adjudged  in  the  following  manner: — 

"For  the  best  dozen  of  hats.  Four  Guineas,  to  Thomas  Buchanan, 
Junior,  and  Company,  at  Glasgow. 

"  N.B. — These  gentlemen  appointed  the  premium  adjudged  to  them  to  be 
applied  as  a  premium  for  the  best  dozen  of  felt  hats  for  the  year  1757." 


GLASGOW  IN  THE  OLDEN  TIME.  293 

Our  townsman,  Thomas  Dunlop  Douglas,  Esq.,  commenced 
his  mercantile  career  with  the  Messrs.  Buchanan,  of  the  Trades' 
Land. 

One  of  our  Glasgow  characters,  Peter  Paterson,  writer,  alias 
"  Pawkie  Pate,"  had  his  writing  office  in  the  Trades'  Land.  I 
remember  him  when  he  was  a  clerk  with  John  Wilson  junior,  the 
town-clerk  of  Glasgow,  and  he  was  then  considered  a  shrewd, 
clever  fellow,  which  he  abundantly  proved  in  his  after  life.  To 
the  best  of  my  recollection,  William  Watson,  Esq.,  the  father  of 
the  Faculty  of  the  Glasgow  Procurators,  was  then  an  apprentice 
with  Clerk  Wilson,  at  the  foot  of  the  Saltmarket  ;  or  if  he  did 
not  sit  at  the  same  desk  with  Pawkie  Pate,  he  must  have  handled 
the  quill  there  very  soon  after  Pawkie  Pate  had  commenced 
business  for  himself. 

By  far  the  most  important  change,  however,  which  has  taken 
place  at  the  Cross  of  Glasgow  was  the  demolition  of  the  Trades' 
Land  and  contiguous  tenements,  and  the  opening  up  of  London 
Street — an  alteration  of  so  great  magnitude  that  the  Cross  of 
Glasgow  would  scarcely  be  known  to  our  grandfathers,  were  they 
to  come  back  now  and  take  a  look  at  the  place.  The  cost  of  the 
ground  paid  for  that  part  of  London  Street  which  opens  into 
Saltmarket  Street  was  no  less  than  ;^50  per  square  yard — perhaps 
the  highest  price  ever  paid  for  ground  in  Glasgow.  At  the  time 
when  London  Street  was  projected  it  was  illegal  to  sell  property 
by  way  of  public  lottery,  but  the  directors  of  this  joint- stock 
company  got  over  this  difficulty  by  making  it  a  private  drawing 
of  chances  among  the  subscribers  themselves.  In  Parliament 
this  was  considered  an  evasion  of  the  Lottery  Act,  and  the  direc- 
tors were  threatened  with  an  action  for  transgressing  the  law  ; 
but  as  the  improvement  was  represented  as  being  so  beneficial, 
and  so  important  for  the  city  of  Glasgow,  the  members  of  Parlia- 
ment who  denounced  the  scheme  as  a  direct  evasion  of  the 
Lottery  Act  were  induced  to  withdraw  their  opposition,  upon  the 
express  understanding  that  this  was  not  in  future  to  be  considered 
as  a  precedent. 

Now  let  us  take  a  look  at  the  remaining  corner  at  the  Cross 
of  olden  time.     The  ancient  tenement  at  the  south-east  corner  of 


2  94  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

the  High  Street  and  Gallowgate,  which  had  so  long  withstood 
the  ruthless  hand  of  change,  has  lately  undergone  the  fate  of  its 
fellow-corners,  and  has  been  demolished  to  make  room  for  a  new 
and  elegant  structure.  In  my  early  days  the  corner  shop  of  this 
old  tenement  was  a  small  and  dismal  apartment  under  the  pillars, 
and  was  occupied  by  David  Allan,  for  the  sale  of  duffles,  flannels, 
blankets,  linens,  fustians,  drugget,  harns,  durants,  and  a  variety  of 
woollen  stuffs.  After  Mr.  Allan's  death  his  widow  continued  the 
business  and  attended  to  the  affairs  of  the  shop,  which  throve 
greatly  under  her  management.  I  think  it  was  late  in  Mrs.  Allan's 
life  before  Mr.  John  M'Intyre  took  the  principal  charge  of  the 
establishment.  At  the  death  of  Mrs.  Allan,  her  daughter.  Miss 
Betty  Allan,  succeeded  not  only  to  the  said  business,  but  also  to 
a  respectable  competency,  in  consequence  of  which  she  did  not 
attend  the  shop  as  her  mother  had  done,  but  assumed  Mr. 
M'Intyre  as  the  managing  partner,  under  whose  energetic  direc- 
tion the  business  rapidly  increased.  The  little  dark  shop  was 
extended  in  size,  by  the  addition  to  it  of  the  space  under  the 
pillars,  and  it  then  had  a  light  and  cheerful  look.  After  the  death 
of  Miss  Betty,  Mr.  John  MTntyre  became  the  sole  partner  of  the 
concern,  which  still  increased  in  the  magnitude  of  its  dealings, 
under  his  able  exertions.  He  soon  required  more  space  to  show 
off  his  valuable  stock  of  goods,  which  now  consisted  of  all  the 
costly  articles  of  a  first-rate  haberdashery  establishment.  The 
first  storey  of  the  said  tenement  about  that  time  was  occupied 
as  the  printing  premises  of  the  Glasgoiv  Courier  newspaper,  and 
when  the  Courier  office  was  removed,  Mr.  MTntyre  took  this  flat, 
and  by  an  inside  stair  connected  it  with  the  ground  floor.  This 
addition  to  the  shop,  however,  continued  still  too  small  for  Mr. 
MTntyre's  rapidly-increasing  business,  so  that  he  from  time  to 
time  enlarged  his  premises,  by  adding  one  flat  after  another  to 
the  original  tenement,  until  Mr.  MTntyre  became  the  sole  pro- 
prietor of  the  corner  land  at  the  Cross  of  Glasgow,  so  well  known 
in  the  city  by  the  name  of  "  John  MTntyre's  shop  in  the  Gallow- 
gate." The  firm  of  John  MTntyre  and  Company  have  lately 
built  new  and  very  extensive  premises  in  Argyll  Street,  nearly 
opposite  to  Queen  Street,  at  the  cost  of  ;^2 6,000. 


GLASGOW  IN  THE  OLDEN  TIME.  295 

Although  the  four  corners  of  the  Cross  of  Glasgow  have  thus 
been  changed  and  renovated,  we  have  still  our  old  friend  King 
William,  remaining  to  keep  us  in  remembrance  of  olden  times  ; 
and  on  this  subject  I  can  only  repeat  what  I  said  about  ten  years 
ago  regarding  this  venerable  relic  of  bygone  days  : — 

"  I  believe  that  there  are  few  of  our  aged  citizens  who  do  not  feel  a  certain 
undefined  regard  for  the  statue  of  King  William,  and  can  never  look  up  to  it 
without  the  idea  flashing  upon  their  minds,  that  they  are  beholding  an  old  and 
intimate  friend.  I  must  confess  that  I  never  return  from  a  long  journey 
without  being  delighted  when  passing  the  Cross  to  see  my  ancient  acquaint- 
ance, with  his  bare  toes  and  baton  frappant,  still  gracing  our  old  Exchange. 
What  a  multitude  of  by-gone  events  does  this  statute  bring  to  mind  of  an 
aged  citizen  !" 

In  the  Glasgow  Mercury  oi  2d  February  1781,  we  find  the 
following  notice  regarding  the  statue  of  King  William  : — 

"  Yesterday  se'ennight,  a  young  man,  disordered  in  his  mind  by  intemper- 
ance, got  upon  the  pedestal  on  which  the  equestrian  statue  of  King  William 
stands  and  mounted  the  horse,  when  his  phrenzy  led  him  to  cut  off  the  laurel 
with  which  the  statue  was  crowned,  and  otherwise  maltrait  it.  What  is 
surprising,  he  got  up  and  down  without  receiving  any  hurt.  He  is  since 
confined  in  the  cells." 

From  the  following  extract,  it  appears  that  in  1766  there  was 
a  garden  in  the  Trongate  of  Glasgow,  and  that  the  Stamp  Office 
was  situated  at  the  Exchange  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  i6th  January  1766. — "The  garden  at  the  head  of  Mr. 
William  Anderson's  tenement,  and  Closs  of  houses  in  Trongate,  to  be  sold  off 
within  the  Stamp  Office,  at  the  Exchange,  in  Glasgow,  upon  Tuesday  the 
2 1st  inst.,  precisely  at  12  o'clock;  to  be  sold  in  whole  or  in  parcels, — entry 
at  Candlemass. — Apply  to  Jas,  Graham,  writer." 


296  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

(i2th  May  i860.) 

MUCH   ADO    ABOUT    NOTHING. 
A  GLASGOW  STORY  OF  OLDEN  TIME. 

"  Say  not  unto  thy  neighbour  *  Go,  and  come  again,  and  I  will  give,'  when 
thou  hast  it  by  thee." 

As  it  has  been  said  that  there  are  no  two  human  faces  exactly- 
alike,  so  also  it  has  been  asserted  that  there  is  no  individual  of  any 
mettle  who  does  not  possess  a  certain  odd  cast  of  mind,  some 
peculiar  hobby,  or  more  or  less  of  a  maggoty  fancy,  which  dis- 
tinguishes him  from  his  neighbour.  In  some  persons,  however, 
the  shade  of  difference  is  but  weak  and  feeble,  and  so  they  pass 
through  life  without  comment  or  remark  ;  while  in  others  the 
variance  is  so  manifest  and  striking  that  they  obtain  the  name  of 
"  eccentrics  "  or  "  originals,"  and  amongst  this  latter  class  I  must 
place  Captain  David  Peter  of  Crossbasket,^  the  justice  of  which 
location  will  be  sufficiently  shown  by  the  following  narrative : — 

In  the  year  1775  a  dispute  arose  between  Captain  Peter  of 
Crossbasket  and  Mr.  James  Tennant  of  Annfield,  regarding  the 
possession  of  a  sword  which  the  Captain  had  borrowed  from  Mr. 
Harry  Horseburgh,  a  merchant  in  Glasgow,  and  which  sword 
Captain  Peter  alleged  had  been  stolen  from  him  by  Mr.  Tennant. 
As  in  cases  of  this  kind  there  are  generally  two  ways  of  telling  a 
story,  I  shall  give  the  statement  of  both  of  these  gentlemen,  as  to 
the  manner  in  which  the  dispute  arose.  I  begin  with  that  of  Mr. 
Tennant  of  Annfield.^ 

1  To  the  best  of  my  recollection  the  first  wife  of  John  Gordon,  Esq.,  of  Aikenhead, 
was  Miss  Peter  of  Crossbasket.  Glasgow  Mercury,  20th  February  1788 — "  Friday  last 
died  Mrs.  Margaret  Peter,  spouse  of  John  Gordon,  Esq.,  merchant  in  this  city."  John 
Gordon's  father,  Alexander  Gordon,  was  bailie  of  Glasgow  in  1772  and  1775.  In  1758 
Thomas  Peter  of  Crossbasket,  the  father  of  Captain  Peter,  besides  his  mansion  at  Cross- 
basket,  had  a  dwelling  in  Wilkinshaw's  Close,  in  the  Saltmarket  of  Glasgow.  He  was 
dean  of  guild  in  1707  and  1708,  and  bailie  of  Glasgow  in  1712. 

'^  In  1758  Annfield  belonged  to  Adam  Tennant,  tobacconist,  the  father  of  James 
Tennant.     It  then  consisted  of  8  acres  of  garden  ground  (let  to  Archibald  M'Kenzie, 


MUCH  ADO  ABOUT  NOTHING.  297 

In  the  year  1776,  or  thereby,  Captain  Peter,  being  about  to 
take  a  trip  to  Lisbon  on  board  of  a  ship  then  lying  at  Greenock, 
and  bound  for  that  port,  borrowed  a  sword  from  Mr.  Harry 
Horseburgh,  a  merchant  in  Glasgow,  in  order  that  he  might  make 
a  proper  appearance  in  the  capital  of  Portugal,  where  every  person 
then  wore  a  sword,  even  common  labourers  and  mechanics.  He 
borrowed  it,  however,  for  that  specific  purpose  only,  and  merely 
for  the  time  he  might  be  absent  from  home.  He  was  therefore 
bound  in  honour  and  in  justice  to  have  restored  the  sword  to  Mr. 
Horseburgh  on  his  arrival  in  Glasgow  from  his  Continental  trip. 
Nevertheless  Captain  V^tex  forgot  to  return  the  said  sword,  though 
often  put  in  mind  of  it  by  Mr.  Horseburgh,  who  was  extremely 
unwilling  to  enter  into  a  process  upon  so  trifling  and  insignificant 
a  subject,  although  he  began  to  fear  that  he  should  be  obliged  to 
do  so,  unless  he  could  fall  upon  some  more  eligible  way  of  getting 
it  out  of  his  hands.  At  length,  happening  to  dine  one  day  at 
Hamilton,  in  company  with  Mr.  James  Tennant,  the  conversation 
over  a  bowl  of  punch  turned  upon  this  same  sword.  Both  of  them 
knew  that  but  a  short  time  before  Captain  Peter  had  borrowed  a 
ring  from  Mr.  Fleming,  a  merchant  in  Glasgow,  that  he  had  for- 
gottcn  to  restore  it,  and  that  a  process  had  been  actually  brought 
against  him,  in  which  he  had  been  effectually  forced  to  make 
restitution,  and  condemned  in  expenses  of  process.  Mr.  Horse- 
burgh wished  to  recover  his  sword  without  that  trouble,  while  Mr. 
Tennant  was  willing  to  assist  him  ;  and  accordingly  it  was  agreed 
that,  as  Crossbasket^  was  little  out  of  the  road  to  Glasgow,  they 
should  take  it  on  their  way,  and  try  to  get  back  the  sword. 
Accordingly,  having  got  tolerably  merry,  away  they  go  to  Captain 
Peter's,  where,  after  drinking  a  little  more,  they  observed  the  very 
identical  sword,  standing  in  an  open  closet  off  the  room  where 
they  were  sitting :  and,  in  going  away,  Mr.  Tennant  took  up  the 
sword,  and  carried  it  into  the  chaise  in  which  he  and  Mr.  Horse- 
burgh were  returning  to  Glasgow. 

gardener),  on  the  north  side  of  Camlachie  Road,  with  a  house,  stable,  and  byre,  and  of  4.^ 
acres  of  ground  on  the  south  side  of  the  said  road,  which  were  occupied  by  Mr.  Adam 
Tennant  himself.      He  was  bailie  of  the  river  and  Firth  of  Clyde  in  1 74 1. 

^  In  1455  Crossbasket  (along  with  Hamilton  farm  and  some  others)  was  erected  into 
a  lordship,  called  the  Lordship  of  Hamilton. — Hamilton's  Lanarkshire,  p.  16. 


298  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

In  this  manner  Mr.  Horseburgh  got  possession  of  his  own 
sword,  and  it  did  not  once  occur  to  him  that  either  he  or  Mr. 
Tennant  had  been  guilty  of  the  least  impropriety,  far  less  that 
they  had  committed  an  act  of  tJieft  or  of  spuilzie,  as  Captain  Peter 
alleged  they  had  done  on  this  occasion. 

Nevertheless,  three  or  four  days  after  their  return  to  Glasgow, 
Mr.  Tennant  received,  to  his  great  surprise,  the  following  very 
extraordinary  letter  from  Captain  Peter  : — 

"August,  1775. — Sir — You  was  not  gone  far  on  Sunday  last  before  I 
missed  the  small  sword,  was  given  in  a  complitnent  by  Mr.  Horseburgh.  It  is 
no  person  but  you  that  is  suspected  for  the  trick,  though  it  is  a  very  bad  one. 
It  may  pass  very  well  amongst  acquaintances,  but  let  me  tell  you,  it  is  below 
the  character  of  a  gentleman  to  be  guilty  of  the  like." 

Mr.  Tennant  immediately  showed  this  epistle  to  Mr.  Horse- 
burgh, and  both  of  them  were  equally  astonished  at  its  contents. 
Mr.  Horseburgh  in  particular  was  infinitely  surprised  to  see  Cap- 
tain Peter  boldly  asserting  that  the  sword  had  been  given  to  him 
in  a  compliment,  when  he  knew  very  well  that  no  such  thing  ever 
was  done  or  intended,  as  he  had  only  got  the  use  of  it  in  order  to 
make  a  figure  upon  a  single  trip  to  Lisbon,  Mr.  Tennant,  how- 
ever, did  not  choose  to  take  the  letter  in  a  serious  light,  or  to 
answer  the  abuse  it  contained  in  kind.  He  really  could  not 
believe  that  Captain  Peter  actually  meant  what  he  said,  and 
therefore  did  all  in  his  power  for  the  Captain's  satisfaction,  by 
writing  to  him  that  the  sword  was  taken  away  by  him  and  Mr. 
Horseburgh  in  co77ipany,  who  was  the  undoubted  proprietor  of  it, 
and  who  then  had  it  actually  in  his  oivn  possession. 

Let  us  now  look  at  Captain  Peter's  version  of  the  story,  which 
is  as  follows  : — The  Captain  said,  that  having  occasion  to  go  to 
Lisbon  upon  business,  at  which  place  it  is  the  general  custom  for 
every  person  to  wear  a  sword,  he  found  it  necessary  to  equip  him- 
self in  that  article  of  dress  ;  but,  as  the  particular  kind  of  small 
sword  required  was  not  necessary  to  him  in  his  profession,  and 
was  a  piece  of  dress  he  had  no  occasion  to  use  anywhere  else,  he 
was  willing  to  save  himself  the  expense  of  purchasing  one ;  and, 
with  this  view,  he  applied  to  Mr.  Harry  Horseburgh,  merchant  in 
Glasgow,  for  a  loan  of  his,  not  having  at  that  time  one  of  his  own 


MUCH  ADO  ABOUT  NOTHING.  299 

suitable  for  the  occasion.  Captain  Peter  further  said  that  the 
sword  had  been  in  his  possession  above  ten  years,  during  which 
period,  as  Mr.  Horseburgh  had  no  use  for  the  sword  himself,  he 
had  never  desired  it  to  be  returned  to  him,  from  whence,  the 
Captain  said,  he  was  led  to  imagine  that  Mr.  Horseburgh  meant 
to  allow  him  to  keep  it  altogether,  and,  from  this  idea,  he  never 
made  any  offer  to  return  it.  The  following  is  Captain  Peter's 
account  of  the  mode  in  which  Mr.  Tennant  and  Mr.  Horseburgh 
had  abstracted  the  said  sword  from  Crossbasket  House  : — 

In  the  month  of  August  1775  James  Tennant,  merchant  in 
Glasgow,  along  with  Mr.  Horseburgh,  paid  Captain  Peter  a  visit 
on  a  Sunday,  at  his  house  at  Crossbasket.  It  happened  that  on 
this  occasion  the  Captain  had  other  company  with  him,  whom  he 
entertained  along  with  his  two  visitors  in  the  best  manner  he 
could,  and  in  the  evening  they  took  their  leave.  Two  days  after 
this  Captain  Peter,  in  looking  for  the  sword  in  dispute,  which  had 
been  lying  in  a  room  adjoining  to  that  in  which  they  had  been 
sitting,  found  that  it  was  amissing.  As  most  natural,  his  first 
suspicion  fell  upon  his  own  servants.  However,  on  examining 
them,  he  could  get  no  light  into  the  matter ;  and  therefore  he 
proposed  to  advertise  the  loss  at  the  church  doors  and  in  the 
Glasgow  newspapers,  in  order,  if  possible,  to  discover  the  offender; 
but  he  afterwards  heard  that,  while  he  was  entertaining  his 
company  in  the  dining-room,  Mr.  Tennant  had  gone  into  the  next 
room  where  the  sword  was  lying,  and  had  privately  carried  it  off. 
On  receiving  this  information  he  applied  to  Mr.  Tennant,  desiring 
him  to  restore  the  said  sword,  and  to  acknowledge  that  he  had 
acted  improperly  in  carrying  it  away  in  the  above-mentioned 
clandestine  manner.  To  make  this  demand  Mr.  Peter  considered 
himself  well  entitled,  as  Mr.  Tennant  was  not  the  proprietor  of  the 
sword,  seeing  that  he  did  not  originally  receive  it  from  Mr.  Horse- 
burgh ;  and  further,  seeing  that  even  Mr,  Horseburgh  himself 
would  not  have  been  entitled  to  have  recovered  the  said  sword  in 
any  other  manner  than  by  demanding  it  regularly  from  Captain 
Peter  himself  The  Captain  was  therefore  not  a  little  surpised  to 
find  that  Mr.  Tennant  not  only  refused  to  return  the  sword,  or  to 
make  any  acknowledgment  for  abstracting  it,  but  even  to  give  any 


300  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

reason  for  his  conduct,  treating  the  apph'catlon  with  ridicule  and 
contempt.  As  the  Captain  said  that  he  held  himself  bound  in 
honour  as  well  as  in  justice  to  preserve  the  sword  for  Mr.  Horse- 
burgh  himself,  its  right  owner,  and  to  restore  it  to  him,  if  ever  he 
should  demand  it,  the  Captain  thought  it  incumbent  on  him  to 
apply  in  a  legal  manner  for  redress,  seeing  that  he  was  refused 
satisfaction  in  this  matter  by  Mr.  Tennant.  Accordingly,  in  the 
month  of  September  1775,  Captain  Peter  raised  a  process  before 
the  sheriff-depute  of  Lanark  against  Mr.  Tennant,  concluding  that 
he  should  be  ordained  to  deliver  to  the  petitioner  the  sword  above 
mentioned,  with  the  sheath  thereof,  or  to  make  payment  of  the 
value  of  the  same,  with  damages  and  expenses,  etc.  The  following 
is  the  tenor  of  the  summons  against  Mr.  Tennant,  which  was 
brought  before  the  sheriff,  and  which  set  forth — 

"  That  upon  the  sixth  of  August  preceding,  Mr.  James  Tennant  had,  at  his 
own  hand,  and  without  any  order  of  law,  carried  away  a  silver-hilted  small 
sword,  and  sheath  thereof,  which  then,  and  for  some  time  before,  were  in  the 
possession  of  the  pursuer.  Captain  David  Peter,  which  sword  and  sheath  the 
defender,  James  Tennant,  carried  away  with  him,  without  the  consent  or 
privity  of  the  pursuer,  and,  though  often  required,  refused  to  restore  the  same." 
It  concludes — "  That  the  said  defender  ought  and  should  be  decerned  and 
ordained  to  restore,  and  deliver  back  to  the  pursuer  the  foresaid  sword,  and 
sheath  thereof,  in  the  like  good  condition  the  same  were  in  when  the  defender 
dispossessed  the  pursuer  thereof  in  manner  foresaid,  or  otherwise  make  pay- 
ment to  him  of  the  sum  of  £s  sterling,  as  the  value  thereof;  and  for  proving 
which  value  the  pursuer  ought  to  be  allowed  his  oath  m  litem."  The  summons 
further  concluded — "That  he  should  be  decerned  in  £1  sterling  of  expenses  of 
process,  besides  the  expenses  of  extract." 

Let  us  now  hear  Mr.  Horseburgh's  version  of  the  story. 

At  the  very  first  calling  of  the  summons,  and  along  with  Mr. 
Tennant's  defences,  in  which  the  facts  were  stated  exactly  in  the 
same  way  as  above  mentioned  by  Mr.  Tennant,  Mr.  Horseburgh 
sisted  himself  as  a  party,  and  gave  in  a  compearance  in  the 
following  words  : — 

**  That  a  number  of  years  ago  the  pursuer,  David  Peter,  borrowed  from 
the  compearer  a  silver-hilted  small  sword  and  sheath  ;  and  as  the  pursuer  did 
not  appear  disposed  to  return  the  same,  so  the  compearer  and  defender,  being 
at  Hamilton,  a  little  way  distant  from  Crossbasket,  they  went  by  that  place, 
and  took  the  sword  and  sheath  to  Glasgow  with  them  ;   that  the  said  sword 


MUCH  ADO  ABOUT  NOTHING.  301 

and  sheath  were  the  compearer's  property,  and  were  in  his  possession,  and  he 
knew  no  law  that  could  take  them  from  him  ;  and  if  the  pursuer,  David  Peter, 
thought  otherwise,  he  might  bring  an  action  against  the  compearer  for  delivery 
of  the  sword  and  sheath,  or  payment  of  the  value  thereof,  and  he  would  defend 
himself.^'' 

Notwithstanding  of  Mr.  Horseburgh's  compearance  in  the 
action,  Captain  Peter  gave  in  replies  to  the  sheriff,  in  which, 
although  he  admitted  that  the  sword  was  Mr,  Horseburgh's 
property,  and  that  it  was  only  lent  him  for  a  particular  purpose, 
now  long  ago  answered,  nevertheless  that  both  Mr.  Horseburgh 
and  Mr.  Tennant  had  been  guilty  of  a  spuilsic,  or  of  a  species  of 
theft,  and  insisted  that  the  sword  and  sheath  should  be  restored 
to  him,  with  expenses.  After  considerable  litigation,  the  sheriff 
pronounced  the  following  interlocutor  : — 

"  Having  considered  the  hbel,  answers,  and  replies,  and  compearance 
made  for  Harry  Horseburgh,  found  it  acknowledged  that  the  sword  and  sheath 
libelled  were  the  property  of  Mr.  Horseburgh,  the  said  compearer,  who  had 
obtained  possession  thereof  in  manner  mentioned  in  his  compearance ;  where- 
fore dismissed  the  process,  and  found  no  expenses  due  on  either  side,  but 
found  the  pursuer  and  defender  and  their  procurators  censurable  for  the 
illiberal  strain  of  the  debate,  and  fined  and  amerciated  each  of  them  mjive 
shillings  sterling,  for  behoof  of  the  poor,  and  ordained  execution  therefor  at 
the  instance  of  the  collector  for  the  poor,  and  found  them  liable  for  the  expense 
of  the  extract,  in  case  payment  was  not  made  before  extracting,  and  decerned 
for  the  same  accordingly,  as  it  should  be  certified  by  the  clerk  of  the  court." 

The  amand  awarded  by  the  sheriff  having  been  paid  by  all 
the  parties,  the  litigation  for  some  time  was  still  continued  with 
as  much  obstinacy  as  ever  before  the  sheriff ;  but  on  the  9th  of 
February  1777  this  knotty  question  was  brought  by  suspension 
before  Lord  Braxfield,  the  bill  having  been  passed  in  the  course 
of  the  rolls,  although  the  case  had  been  previously  debated  before 
Lord  Covington,  Ordinary,  who,  after  having  heard  parties,  with 
their  answers,  replies,  and  duplies,  had  refused  to  pass  the  bill  of 
suspension.  Lord  Braxfield  was  generally  called  "  Old  Braxy." 
He  spoke  broad  Scotch,  and  was  nearly  as  great  an  original  as 
Captain  Peter  himself;  but  nevertheless  was  esteemed  one  of  the 
most  acute  and  learned  judges  on  the  Bench.  Whether  his  Lord- 
ship was  diverted  at  the  oddity  of  the  case,  or  thought  that  Lord 


302  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

Covington  had  been  in  error  for  not  passing  the  bill  of  suspension, 
does  not  exactly  appear  ;  but  at  all  events,  "  Old  Braxy  "  passed 
the  bill,  and  so  the  whole  question  came  to  be  debated  before  him 
as  Lord  Ordinary,  on  which  occasion  Captain  Peter  employed  the 
celebrated  Henry  Erskine  as  his  advocate  and  counsel.  On  the 
20th  February  1777  Lord  Braxfield  was  pleased  to  pronounce 
the  following  curt  interlocutor : — 

"  Having  considered  the  debate,  suspends  the  letters  simpliciter,  and 
decerns  :  Finds  the  charger  liable  in  expenses,  and  allows  an  account  to  be 
given  in." 

His  Lordship  appeared  to  think  that  the  action  itself  was  truly 
"  infra  observantium  Judicisl'  and  that  the  Roman  maxim,  "  de 
minimis  Jion  curat  Prcstor"  was  applicable  to  a  case  of  the  descrip- 
tion in  question. 

Against  the  foregoing  interlocutor  the  petitioner  offered  a 
representation,  on  advising  which,  of  date  8th  March  1777,  Lord 
Braxfield  pronounced  the  following  interlocutor  : — 

'*  The  Lord  Ordinary  having  considered  this  representation  and  the  former 
proceedings  in  the  cause,  in  respect  it  is  admitted  that  Harry  Horseburgh  was 
the  owner  of  the  sword,  and  that  the  representer,  Captain  Peter,  had  no 
objection  against  restoring  the  same  to  him  when  desired,  and  that  Harry 
Horseburgh  was  in  company  with  James  Tennant,  and  were  travelling  in  the 
same  chaise  together,  when  the  sword  was  carried  from  the  representer's 
house,  and  consequently  it  could  not  be  unknown  to  Mr.  Horseburgh,  the 
owner,  that  the  sword  was  carried  away ;  and  in  respect  that  Mr.  Horseburgh 
compeared  before  the  inferior  court,  and  concurred  with  James  Tennant  in 
defending  the  action  that  was  brought  for  restoring  the  sword  ;  adheres  to  his 
former  interlocutor,  and  refuses  the  desire  of  the  representation ;  superseding 
extract  till  the  15th  of  June  next." 

Captain  Peter,  having  been  dissatisfied  with  this  and  other 
interlocutors  of  the  Lords  Ordinary,  gave  in  a  petition  to  the 
Lords  of  the  Inner  House  for  leave  to  submit  the  same  to  their 
review,  which  petition,  on  presentation,  having  been  appointed  to 
be  answered,  the  case  came  to  be  fully  debated  before  their  Lord- 
ships. Captain  Peter's  petition  was  not  a  long  one  ;  he  seemed 
to  rely  almost  wholly  upon  the  following  quotation  from  Erskine, 
b.  4,  tit.  I,  15  : — 

*<  Thus  spuilzie  may  be  committed,  not  only  by  strangers,  but  even  by  the 


MUCH  ADO  ABOUT  NOTHING.  303 

owner  of  moveable  goods  carried  off;  because  a  right  of  property  itself  cannot 
justify  the  proprietor  in  assuming  a  power  of  judging  in  his  own  case.  The 
pursuer,  therefore,  in  an  action  of  spuilzie,  need  prove  no  more  than  that  he 
was  in  the  lawful  possession  of  the  subject  libelled,  which  gives  him  a  right  to 
be  ante  omfita  restored  to  the  possession  ;  for  the  action  is  grounded  on  this 
plain  principle,  that  no  man  is  to  be  stript  of  his  possession  but  by  the  order 
of  law." 

And  accordingly,  Captain  Peter  insisted  that,  whether  the 
said  sword  was  carried  off  by  Mr.  Tennant  or  by  Mr.  Horseburgh ; 
whether,  if  Mr.  Tennant  took  it,  he  had,  or  he  had  not  Mr.  Horse- 
burgh's  authority  ;  and  whether  the  sword  be  or  be  not  now  in 
Mr.  Horseburgh's  possession,  the  consequence  is  all  the  same  ;  in 
short,  either  the  law  with  regard  to  spidlzies  is  totally  nugatory, 
or  in  the  power  of  judges  to  apply  it  in  one  case  and  not  in 
another,  or  Mr.  Tennant  was  guilty  of  a  spuilzie. 

Mr.  Fergusson,  the  counsel  for  Mr.  Tennant,  in  reply  to  the 
above  arguments  of  Captain  Peter,  made  a  short  reply,  seeing  that 
Lord  Braxfield's  interlocutor  had  already  exhausted  the  subject : 
he,  however,  thus  addressed  the  Bench  : — 

"  My  Lords,  it  is  not  supposed  that  your  Lordships  will  incline  to  appoint 
the  respondent,  Mr.  Tennant,  to  give  up  the  sword  to  Captain  Peter,  in  order 
that  it  may  in  the  next  place  be  delivered  to  the  real  owner.  Even  supposing 
that  the  sword  was  in  Mr.  Tennant's  possession,  it  would  be  rather  easier  to 
make  him  give  it  to  the  owner  himself;  but  when  it  is  admitted  that  Mr. 
Horseburgh  has  it  already,  Mr.  Tennant  frankly  owns  that  it  passes  his  com- 
prehension to  conceive  what  it  is  that  the  petitioner,  Captain  Peter,  would  have 
your  Lordships'  order  on  the  respondent  to  do.  Surely  he  will  hardly  desire 
that  you  should  appoint  it  to  be  delivered  up,  in  order  that  he  may  keep  it  to 
himself,  for  he  admits  that  it  does  not  belong  to  him,  neither  will  he  desire 
your  Lordships  to  appoint  it  to  be  delivered  up,  in  order  that  it  may  be  restored 
to  Mr.  Horseburgh,  for  this  very  satisfactory  reason,  because  Mr.  Horseburgh 
has  it  already  !'" 

Although  the  following  quotation  was  not  urged  by  Mr. 
Fergusson,  there  can  be  little  doubt  but  it  was  well  known  to  their 
Lordships,  and  tended  to  influence  them  in  their  decision  of  the 
case  : — 

Balfour,  472 — "He  quha  makis  lauchful  retributioun  of  the  gudis  may  not 
be  callit  for  spuilzie'^ 


304 


OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 


"  Gif  ony  man  be  persew  it  forspoliatioun  and  away-taking  of  ony  gudis 
and  gear,  he  aucht  and  sould  be  assoilzeit  thairfra,  gif  he,  or  ony  in  his  name, 
restorit  reallie  and  with  effect,  efter  the  committing  of  the  spuilzie,  and  befoir 
the  intenting  of  the  summoundis,  the  samin  gudis  and  gear  to  the  owner 
thairof,  or  to  his  wife  and  servandis,  als  gude  as  thay  wer  the  time  thay  wer 
takin  away.      1 6th  JuHj,  1532." 

Their  Lordships,  after  the  case  had  been  fully  debated  before 
them,  affirmed  Lord  Braxfield's  interlocutor,  with  expenses,  and 
so  ended  this  piigna  gladiatoria. 


COLLECTORS   OF    CUSTOMS   IN   OLDEN   TIME. 

I  have  read  with  much  interest  the  two  articles  in  your  papers  of 
the  6th  and  nth  instant,  regarding  the  Custom-House  of  Glas- 
gow in  olden  time,  by  your  antiquarian  correspondent,  A.  Ross, 
Esq.,  which  throw  considerable  light  upon  the  state  of  the  King's 
customs  in  the  ports  of  Clyde  a  century  and  a  half  ago.  An 
eminent  member  of  the  Antiquarian  Society  in  Edinburgh  lately 
placed  in  my  hands  an  Edinburgh  newspaper,  published  shortly 
after  the  union  of  the  two  Crowns,  from  which  I  have  taken  the 
following  curious  extract  : — 

Extract  from  No.  1 11  of  the  Evenhig  Post  or  the  Nnv  Edinburgh 
Gazette,  from  Saturday,  i8th  August,  to  Saturday,  21st  August 
1711. 

"  Notice  is  hereby  given  to  all  Merchants,  Captains,  and  Masters  of  Ships, 
and  all  others  concerned,  that  Mr.  John  Hamilton,  appointed  by  the  Com- 
missioners of  the  Stampt  Dutys  at  London,  to  be  General  or  Head  Distributor 
of  Stampt  Vellum,  Parchment,  and  Paper,  and  Chief  Collector  of  all  Dutys  and 
sums  of  money  arising  therefrom  in  Scotland,  is  to  be  spoke  with,  or  got 
notice  of  at  the  Custom  House  in  the  Parliament  Closs,  Edinburgh,  where  all 
concerned  may  repair  to  be  furnished  with  the  said  Stampt  Paper,  Parchment, 
&c.  And  for  the  greater  ease  and  encouragement  of  the  Lieges  living  at  a 
distance  from  Edinburgh,  the  said  Mr.  Hamilton  has,  by  the  power  and 
authority  committed  by  the  said  Commissioners  for  appointing  Sub-Distributors 
of  the  said  Paper,  Parchment,  &c.,  and  Sub -Collectors  of  the  said  Dutys 
thereon,  constituted  and  appointed  the  Collectors  of  Her  Majesty's  Customs 
at  the  several  Sea  Ports  in  North  Britain  to  be  his  Distributors  thereof  Likeas, 
the  Publishers  of  Almanacks,  and  Makers  of  Cards  and  Dice,  are  hereby 


COLLECTORS  OF  CUSTOMS  IN  OLDEN  TIME.        305 

advertised  that  they  are  not  to  print  or  publish  any  Almanacks,  or  to  make 
any  Cards  or  Dice,  without  first  acquainting  the  said  Mr.  Hamilton  therewith, 
under  the  peins  and  penalties  contained  in  the  Act  of  Parliament." 

It  appears  that  there  were  no  stamp-duties  levied  in  Scotland 
before  the  Union,  and  that  the  first  British  Parliament  appointed 
the  collectors  of  Customs  in  Scotland  to  be  also  the  distributors 
of  stamps.  Perhaps  some  of  your  antiquarian  correspondents 
may  be  able  to  say  when  the  collectors  of  Customs  at  Glasgow 
ceased  to  be  distributors  of  stamps,  and  when  the  first  independ- 
ent distributor  of  stamps  in  Glasgow  was  appointed  to  the  office 
in  question. 

The  first  institution  of  stamp-duties  was  by  Statute  5  and 
6  William  and  Mary,  c.  2  ;  and  they  have  since  in  many 
instances  been  increased  ten  times.  After  this  Act  of  Parliament 
had  passed  it  became  difficult  to  forge  deeds  of  any  standing,  as 
the  officers  of  this  branch  of  the  revenue  varied  their  stamps 
frequently  by  marks  perceptible  to  none  but  themselves.  A  man 
that  would  forge  a  deed  of  King  William's  time  must  know  and 
be  able  to  counterfeit  the  stamp  of  that  date  also. 

The  first  notice  regarding  the  Glasgow  Stamp  Office  that  I 
have  laid  my  hands  upon  is  the  following : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  12th  May  1785. — "Stamp  Office.  The  Stamp  Office 
is  to  be  removed  to-morrow,  from  Dreghorn's  land,  foot  of  the  Stockwell,  to 
Shortridge's  land,  Argyle  Street.  Entry  by  Dunlop  Street,  and  second  door 
of  the  stair. — Glasgow,  12  May,  1785." 

The  distributor  of  stamps  at  this  time  was  Mr.  Peter  Black- 
burn, the  grandfather  of  Peter  Blackburn,  Esq.,  M.P.  Mr.  Black- 
burn resided  in  Shortridge's  Land,  and  the  Stamp  Office  was  in  a 
room  of  his  dwelling. 

Shortridge's  Land  was  built  in  1766,  as  the  following  advertise- 
ment shows  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  24th  April  1766. — "To  be  sold,  by  public  roup,  upon 
Tuesday  the  loth  of  June,  betwixt  the  hours  of  twelve  and  two,  within  the 
house  of  Mrs.  Armour,  at  the  Cross  of  Glasgow,  iwo  storeys  of  that  large 
tenement  of  land,  newly  built  by  John  Shortridge,  lying  on  the  south  side  of 
Argyle  Street,  each  storey  consisting  of  a  kitchen  and  eight  fore  rooms,  with 
closets  to  most  of  the  rooms,  and  two  large  cellars,  and  a  garret  room  to  each 
VOL.  III.  X 


3o6  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

storey.  To  be  sold  unfinished,  that  the  purchasers  may  finish  them  to  their 
liking.  The  rooms  and  passes  are  all  well  lighted  ;  the  braces  and  bed  places 
well  disposed.  Two  rooms  in  each  storey  have  private  doors  from  the  stairhead, 
for  writing  rooms  or  kitchens ;  and  each  storey  is  laid  out  so  as  to  serve  two 
families,  if  needful.  Several  of  the  rooms  are  large,  and  the  roof  high  ;  and 
at  the  head  of  the  closs  there  is  a  private  well,  with  very  fine  soft  water. 

»  TV.^. — Any  person  who  inclines  to  make  a  private  purchase  may  apply 
to  John  Shortridge  betwixt  and  the  roup." 

Mr.  John  Shortridge  was  the  father  of  the  late  James  Short- 
ridge (younger  brother  of  Mr.  Shortridge,  of  Todd  and  Shortridge). 
Mr.  James  Shortridge  took  the  name  of  "  Spreull,"  in  consequence 
of  succeeding  to  property  bequeathed  to  him  by  Miss  Spreull, 
whose  death  is  thus  recorded  : — 

Glasgow  Mercury,  12th  February  1784.  —  "On  Friday  the  6th  current, 
died,  in  the  84th  year  of  her  age,  much  and  justly  esteemed,  Mrs.  Margaret 
Spreull,  daughter  of  the  deceased  Mr.  John  Spreull,  merchant  in  this  city." 

Miss  Spreull  possessed  an  old  tenement  in  the  Trongate, 
which  I  remember  very  well.  It  stood  about  midway  between 
Hutcheson's  Hospital  and  the  Shawfield  Mansion.  Immediately 
after  it  became  the  property  of  Mr.  James  Spreull,  he  took  it 
down,  and  built  upon  its  site  the  present  elegant  tenement,  now 
called  SpreuU's  Land.  This  property  is  strictly  entailed,  and  I 
believe  that  it  is  the  only  burgage  heritage  in  Glasgow  subjected 
to  the  stringent  fetters  of  an  entail. 

The  site  of  the  Shortridge  Land,  and  of  the  large  tenement  on 
its  west  side,  belonged  to  my  grandfather,  who  was  born  in  1696 
and  died  in  1741.  Upon  these  lands  there  stood  a  large  range 
of  malt-kilns  and  malt-barns,  with  their  pendicles,  which  were  let 
by  my  grandfather  to  Mr.  Miller  of  Westerton,  for  his  malting 
establishment.  Some  of  these  malt  kilns  and  barns  existed  in 
my  day.     Miller  Street  was  named  for  Mr.  Miller  of  Westerton. 

John  Buchanan,  Esq.,  an  eminent  Glasgow  antiquary,  has 
given  us  an  interesting  account  how  the  entry  to  Dunlop  Street 
from  Argyll  Street  came  to  be  so  contracted,  when  it  could  have 
been  so  easily  made  as  wide  as  the  lower  part  of  that  street,  by 
taking  a  portion  of  the  ground  which  had  belonged  to  my  grand- 
father. 


FRIENDS  OF  THE  PEOPLE.  307 

Mr.  Ross,  in  his  article  in  the  Herald  of  the  iith  instant, 
informs  us  that  James  Loudoun,  collector  at  Glasgow,  hired  a 
large  chamber  in  the  coffee-house  there,  from  Mrs.  Shields,  for  a 
"  Custom-House."  This  seems  to  settle  the  question  regarding 
Glasgow  having  a  regular  Custom-House  at  an  early  date, 
although  it  might  have  been  merely  a  pendicle  of  the  lower  ports. 
I  think  that  the  coffee-house  here  alluded  to  was  in  the  corner 
tenement  at  the  Cross  and  Saltmarket,  and  is  thus  alluded  to  by 
a  notice  in  the  Glasgow  Mercury  of  i  ith  January  i/Sr  : — "The 
newspapers  belonging  to  the  Tontine  Coffee-house  are  removed  to 
Mr.  Thomas  Durie's,  vintner,  in  the  Trongate."  This  could  not 
have  reference  to  the  present  Tontine  Coffee-house,  for  it  was  not 
then  built,  as  the  following  notice  shows  : — 

Glasgow  Journal,  13th  June  1782.  —  "Notice. — The  committee  of  the 
Tontine  are  now  ready  to  contract  for  the  wright  work  of  the  coffee-house  and 
other  buildings  at  the  back  of  the  Exchange.  Those  who  propose  to  give 
in  proposals  may  call  on  John  Maxwell,  the  society's  clerk,  who  will  show  the 
articles  for  finishing  the  work.  Proposals  will  be  received  till  the  ist  day  of 
July  next." 

I  have  not  been  able  to  find  any  written  evidence  that 
Mrs.  Shields  was  tenant  or  proprietor  of  the  coffee-house  at  the 
Cross,  or  that  the  Glasgow  Custom-House  was  a  room  in  the 
said  coffee-house,  but  I  think  it  very  likely  to  have  been  the 
case. 

Mr.  Ross  says  that  "  the  sale  by  inch  of  candle  would  astonish 
a  modern  auctioneer,"  but  such  a  mode  of  sale  in  my  young  days 
was  by  no  means  uncommon,  as  the  following  advertisement 
shows  : — 

Mercury^  31st  May  1781. — "For  sale,  by  the  candle,  at  Lawson's  Coffee- 
house in  Leith,  on  Monday  the  nth  day  of  June,  betwixt  the  hours  of  twelve 
and  one  afternoon,  the  frigate  Le  Calonne,  about  400  tons,"  etc.  etc. 


FRIENDS    OF    THE    PEOPLE. 

The  following  quotation  from  an  Edinburgh  newspaper  will  give 
some  insight  into  the  politics  of  our  Glasgow  authorities  at  the 


3o8  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

commencement  of  the  French  Revolution  in  1789,  and  will  show 
that  many  members  of  our  city  authorities  then  entertained  the 
same  political  views  as  Thomas  Muir,  younger  of  Huntershill  ; 
but  Provost  John  Campbell  and  Bailies  John  Dunlop,  John  Alston, 
and  Ninian  Glen  were  strong  Pittites,  as  well  as  Alexander  Low, 
dean  of  guild,  and  John  Tennant,  convener  of  the  trades.  A 
great  proportion  of  the  deacons  of  the  crafts,  however,  were 
energetic  Foxites,  and  so  were  the  generality  of  the  operative 
classes  of  the  city,  who  at  that  time  loudly  applauded  all  the  acts 
of  the  French  National  Assembly,  and  particularly  their  famous 
"  Declaration  of  the  Rights  of  Men,  and  of  Citizens,"  in  which  it 
was  judicially  proclaimed,  "  That  the  Nation  is  essentially  the 
source  of  all  Sovereignty  ;  nor  can  any  individual,  or  any  body 
of  men,  be  entitled  to  any  authority  which  is  not  expressly  derived 
from  it." 

At  the  period  of  1789  the  Magistrates  of  Glasgow  elected 
themselves  into  office,  and  allowed  no  reporters  to  enter  the 
Council  Chamber,  It  is  a  curious  circumstance  that  Thomas 
Muir  did  not  attack  this  system  as  being  contrary  to  the  rights 
of  men  and  citizens.  The  times  which  followed  the  outbreak  of 
the  French  Revolution  were  certainly  dangerous,  and  Mr.  Muir 
was  at  least  incautious  in  his  harangues  to  the  populace  of 
Glasgow. 

Edinburgh  Advertiser,  9th  January  1789. — "  On  Monday  last,  the  Trades' 
House  of  Glasgow  having  met  to  vote  a  letter  of  thanks  to  the  Right  Hon. 
WilUam  Pitt,  for  his  late  constitutional  conduct  in  the  House  of  Commons, 
the  same  was  carried  by  a  majority  of  five,  and  the  Deacon  Convener  (John 
Tennant),  requested  to  forward  the  letter  immediately.  Twenty-five  members 
voted  for  the  address,  and  twenty  against  it.  The  dissenting  members  entered 
a  protest. 

"  The  following  account  is  sent  us  by  some  of  the  gentlemen  who  were  in 
the  minority  on  the  above-mentioned  question  : — 

"  On  the  ist  January,  the  friends  of  the  Minister,  in  the  Town  Council  of 
Glasgow,  attempted  to  get  a  vote  of  thanks  also  from  the  Trades'  House  of 
the  place,  being  a  representation  of  the  manufacturing  inhabitants  ;  but  it  was 
carried  by  a  majority  of  ONE,  to  delay  the  measure.  And  it  was  agreed  that 
the  Convener  should  call  no  meeting  on  the  same  subject,  till  about  Thursday, 
the  8th  current ;  but  the  ministerialists,  fearing  that  even  this  short  delay 
might  open  the  eyes  of  the  people,  called  a  meeting  suddenly  and  unexpectedly, 
on  the  5th  current,  and  carried  the  vote  of  thanks  by  a  majority  of  Five, — 


FRIENDS  OF  THE  PEOPLE.  309 

there  being  twenty  against  twenty -five,  and  a  considerable   number  of  the 
members  absent. 

"  A  spirited  protest  has  been  taken  against  the  proceedings  of  the  majority 
on  that  occasion." 

Glasgow  Mercury,  9th  October  1792, 

"  Glasgow,  3^  October  1792. 

"  A  number  of  Gentlemen,  consisting  of  this  City,  and  of  several  who 
reside  in  the  adjoining  country,  having  previously  communicated  their  senti- 
ments to  each  other  upon  the  Present  State  of  the  Nation,  agreed  to 
form  a  Society  :  and  having  this  day  met  in  the  Star  Inn,  they  constituted 
themselves  into  a  permanent  Society  under  the  name  of  *  The  ASSOCIATED 
Friends  of  the  Constitution  and  of  the  People.' 

"  Lieutenant-Colonel  Dalrymple,  of  Fordell,  was  elected  President. 

"Thomas  Muir,  Esq.,  younger  of  Huntershill,  Advocate,  Vice-President. 

"  George  Crawfurd,  Writer  in  Glasgow,  Secretary. 

"  The  following  Resolutions  were  then  agreed  to  : — 

"  Resolved, — '  To  co-operate  with  the  Association  of  the  Friends  ot  the 
People  in  London,  in  all  proper  measures  to  accomplish  an  equal  Representa- 
tion of  the  People  in  Parliament.' 

"  Resolved, — '  To  enter  into  every  legal  and  constitutional  measure  to 
obtain  a  shorter  duration  of  Parliamentary  Delegation.' 

"Resolved, — 'That  none  shall  be  admitted  Members  of  this  Society  who 
do  not  subscribe  their  concurrence  to  the  two  previous  Resolutions.' 

"  Resolved, — '  That  these  Resolutions,  forming  the  primary  objects  of 
our  Association,  be  printed  in  the  Scots  and  English  Newspapers.' 

"  Resolved, — '  That  the  thanks  of  this  meeting  are  due  to  the  Gentlemen 
who  have  acted  upon  the  occasion  as  our  President  and  Secretary.' 

"  \Vm.  Dalrymple,  Chairman.''' 

Glasgow  Mercury,  30th  October  1792. 

"Star  Inn,  Glasgow,  17M  October  1792. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Friends  of  the  Constitution,  and  of  the  People, — 
Colonel  Dalrymple  in  the  chair  ; 

"Resolved  unanimously,  —  'That  Charles  Grey,  Esq.,  Member  for 
Northumberland,  who  announced  in  the  House  of  Commons  that  he,  at  an 
early  period  of  next  Session,  would  move  the  House  to  bring  in  a  bill  for 
shortening  the  duration  of  Parliaments,  and  for  a  more  equal  Representation, 
deserves  well  of  his  Country,  and  merits  the  thanks  of  this  Society.' 

"Resolved  unanimously,  —  'That  the  most  noble  the  Marquis  of 
Lansdowne,  for  supporting  the  cause  of  the  People,  merits  the  approbation 
of  his  Country,  and  the  thanks  of  this  Society.' 

"Resolved  unanimously,  —  'That  the   Honourable  Thomas   Erskine 


3IO  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

merits  the  thanks  of  this  Society,  for  having  pledged  himself  to  second  the 
motion  to  be  made  by  Mr.  Grey  in  the  House  of  Commons,  of  a  Reform 
Parliament.' 

"Resolved  unanimously,  —  'That  the  Associated  Friends  of  the 
People  in  London,  for  their  exertions,  merit  the  thanks  of  the  People,  and 
ought  to  have  their  constitutional  support,  in  their  endeavours  to  restore  the 
constitution  to  its  genuine  principles.' 

"  William  Dalrymple,  Chairman. 

"  Thomas  Muir,  Vice-President. 

"  George  Crawfurd,  Secretary.'" 

"  To  the  Members  of  the  Associated  Societies  of  the  Association  of  the 
Friends  of  the  Constitution,  and  of  the  People  of  Glasgow, 

"  Gentlemen — In  following  out  their  original  plan,  the  Association  has 
resolved  that  each  affiliated  Society  shall  send  Delegates  to  a  meeting  which 
is  to  be  held  in  Winton's  Tavern,  at  8  o'clock  in  the  evening,  upon  Wednes- 
day next.  It  is  no  longer  necessary  for  the  Association  to  hold  weekly  general 
meetings,  in  which  all  its  members  are  personally  present.  The  constitutional 
firmness,  moderation,  and  virtue,  of  these  general  meetings,  have  rendered 
them  respectable  in  the  eyes  of  all  good  men,  and  of  all  to  whom  the  peace 
and  prosperity  of  their  country  is  dear.  In  spite  of  the  artifices  of  malevolence, 
the  Association  knows  with  confidence,  that  the  Affiliated  Societies  will  act 
up  to  their  principles,  and  that  no  conduct  upon  their  part  shall  ever  occasion 
a  sentiment  of  regret  in  the  breast  of  any  virtuous  man  who  may  have  joined 
them. — I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Gentlemen,  your  most  obedient  Servant, 

"  G.  Crawfurd,  Sec. 

''Glasgow,  Oct.  29,  1792." 


Thomas  Muir,  younger  of  Htmtershill. 

It  has  generally  been  supposed  that  the  estate  of  Huntershill 
had  been  for  many  generations  the  family  property  of  Mr.  Thomas 
Muir's  ancestors,  but  from  the  following  advertisement  it  will  be 
seen  that  Huntershill  appears  to  have  been  purchased  by  Mr. 
Thomas  Muir's  father  so  late  as  1782,  being  only  about  ten  years 
before  the  first  meeting  of  the  Associated  Friends  of  the  Constitu- 
tion and  of  the  People  was  held  in  Glasgow  : — 

Glasgow  Jotn-nal,  21st  February  1782. 
"  For  Private  Sale. 
"  To  be  sold,  and  entered  into  immediately, 
"  The   Lands  of  Huntershill,  in  the   Parish  of  Calder,  consisting  of 


THE  OLDEST  HOUSE  IN  THE  TRONGATE.  311 

about  thirty  acres  of  arable  Ground,  and  ten  acres  of  Moss,  or  thereby, 
together  with  the  new  Dwelling-House  built  thereon,  by  the  deceased  James 
Martin. 

"  For  particulars,  apply  to  James  Brown,  painter  in  Glasgow;  or  Archibald 
Gardner,  merchant  in  Paisley." 

(Mr.  James  Brown,  painter,  above  named,  was  the  father  of  William  Brown, 
Esq.,  Stockwell  Street,  late  of  Kilmardinny.) 


THE    OLDEST    HOUSE    IN    THE   TRONGATE    OF    GLASGOW. 

The  writer  of  this  article  having  been  requested  to  throw 
together  any  information  which  he  possessed  regarding  the  ancient 
building  and  its  pertinents,  No.  142  Trongate,  and  also  to  state 
such  anecdotes  of  its  old  proprietors,  or  former  occupants,  as 
might  be  thought  worthy  of  recording,  now  complies  with  the 
request. 

The  first  object  to  be  attended  to  with  regard  to  this  (now 
perhaps),  the  oldest  house  in  the  Trongate,  is  the  small  family 
escutcheon  placed  near  the  eastmost  window  of  the  floor  imme- 
diately above  the  shop  of  Mr.  George  Love,  stationer,  No.  138 
Trongate,  and  close  to  the  water-pipe.  It  bears  the  date  of 
1596;  but  in  none  of  the  histories  of  Glasgow  is  there  any 
reference  made  with  regard  to  the  original  proprietor  of  this 
building.  It  appears,  however,  from  the  above  date,  to  have  been 
erected  during  the  time  of  the  Reformation,  about  seven  years 
before  the  old  Tolbooth  at  the  Cross  was  erected,  and  when  Sir 
Matthew  Stuart  of  Minto  was  lord  provost  of  Glasgow.  As  for 
the  bailies  of  the  city,  the  dean  of  guild,  deacon  convener, 
treasurer,  bailies  of  the  river,  and  of  Gorbals,  with  the  officials,  the 
town-clerk,  and  master  of  works,  of  the  above  date  of  1596,  the 
names  of  all  these  parties  have  perished,  or  escaped  the  notice  of 
our  Glasgow  historians. 

It  would  be  difficult  now  to  trace  back  the  names  of  the 
different  proprietors  of  this  property,  for  although  it  bears  every 
mark  of  having  been  in  former  times  the  family  mansion  (with 
extensive  offices  and  garden)  of  a  wealthy  Glasgow  patrician,  yet 
it  seems  in  after-times  to   have   been  parcelled  out  to  different 


312  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

proprietors,  down  to  our  own  days.  Even  in  the  chronicles  of 
honest  John  M'Ure  it  is  difficult  to  trace  this  property ;  for, 
notwithstanding  of  his  having  given  us  a  list  of  all  the  tene- 
ments on  the  north  side  of  the  Trongate  in  the  year  1736,  we 
nevertheless  are  not  sure  of  being  in  the  right  when  we  fix  upon 
his  description  as  being  applicable  to  the  property  in  question  ; 
we  can  merely  say  that  it  comes  nearest  to  it  agreeably  to  his 
statement,  which  is  as  follows  : — 

*'  The  great  tenement  belonging  to  the  heirs  of  Michael  Coulter,  late  bailie  ; 
the  tenement  within  the  closs  thereof  belonging  to  William  Anderson,  late 
bailie ;  the  tenement  at  the  back  thereof,  within  the  closs,  belonging  to  the 
heirs  of  Charles  Crawford,  merchant ;  the  tenement  at  the  back  thereof  be- 
longing to  the  heirs  of  John  Bryson,  of  Craigallion ;  the  Flesh  Market,  and 
shades  within  the  same,  belonging  to  the  city  of  Glasgow." 

A  question  here  occurs  very  fit  for  the  Notes  and  Queries : 
Was  the  back  court  of  this  building  our  old  Flesh  Market,  and  if 
not,  pray  where  was  it  situated  ?  We  all  know  where  the  Country, 
or  Bell  Street,  Market,  was  then  situated  ;  but  there  seems  no 
existing  trace  of  this  market,  which  appears  to  have  been  carried 
from  the  Trongate  to  the  Candleriggs,  and  ultimately  from  thence 
to  King  Street,  in  1754,  when  the  present  markets  there  were 
erected. 

By  examining  the  map  of  Glasgow  in  Stuart's  Views  (dated 
1 783)}  we  will  see  an  accurate  sketch  of  the  property  in  question, 
as  it  stood  at  that  time.  Mr.  Baird  of  Craigton  then  occupied 
the  back  premises,  and  also  the  long  stripe  of  ground  (now 
Brunswick  Street)  extending  to  the  back  Cow  Loan,  or  Ingram 
Street.  Mr.  Baird  kept  this  park  or  garden  wholly  in  grass, 
which  afforded  pasture  for  his  horses.  He  was  a  sporting  gentle- 
man ;  and  at  the  south  end  of  this  said  garden  (now  the  narrow 
part  of  Brunswick  Street)  he  erected  a  leaping  bar,  encircled  with 
furze  and  thorns,  about  four  and  a  half  feet  high,  over  which  he 
trained  his  young  hunting  horses  to  leap.  Mr.  Baird  also,  in  the 
centre  of  his  garden,  and  extending  its  whole  length  from  north 
to  south,  formed  a  bioad  roadway,  all  laid  down  with  tan  bark, 
which  made  a  pleasant  soft  path  for  giving  his  horses  exercise 
upon.     In  these  days  here,  daily,  might  have  been  seen  Mr.  Baird's 


THE  GLASGOW  SHOWS  OF  OLDEN  TIME. 


313 


jockeys  trying  his  horses  in  all  their  paces.  This  ground  was 
known  over  the  city  by  the  name  of  "  Baird's  yard."  But  Mr. 
Baird  having  died,  and  times  having  changed,  Mr.  Baird's  house 
became  a  tavern,  and  his  garden  Brunswick  Street.  At  present 
Mr.  Baird's  house  is  occupied  as  the  Christian  News  office. 

As  for  the  front  property,  in  after  times,  the  ground  floor 
having  been  turned  into  shops,  they  at  first  were  let  for  about 
five  pounds  of  rent  for  each  shop;  but  they  soon  rose  in  value, 
and  at  the  beginning  of  the  present  century  Mr.  Robert  Gray, 
jeweller,  bought  the  eastmost  shop,  at  what  was  then  considered 
the  enormous  price  of  £600.  James  Hamilton,  grocer,  occupied 
the  next  to  it ;  and  John  Swanson,  grocer,  the  westmost  one. 
Provost  Mills  had  his  writing  office  in  the  second  floor  above  the 
street  The  first  floor  above  the  shops  and  the  attics  belonged 
to  the  late  Francis  Reid,  Esq.,  of  Greenlaw,  who  was  bailie  of 
Gorbals  in  1771. 

Glasgoui  Mercury,  22d  September  1789. — "To  be  sold  by  public  roup, 
on  the  20th  inst.,  that  garden,  belonging  to  the  magistrates  of  Glasgow  and 
town  council  of  the  city,  sometime  ago  acquired  by  them  from  John  Clark, 
trustee  of  John  Baird,  merchant  in  Glasgow,  lying  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Trongate  Street,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Candleriggs  Street,  and  on  the  south 
side  of  Ingram  Street,  together  with  an  entry  of  thirty  feet  wide  from  the 
Candleriggs  into  the  said  garden,  with  the  houses  and  buildings  erected  on  the 
said  entr>'. — Apply  to  the  town  clerks." 

Mercury,  29th  July  1794.— "To  be  sold  by  public  roup,  on  the  7th  of 
August  next,  a  tenement  of  land  in  the  fifth  close  west  from  the  Candleriggs, 
Trongate,  as  possessed  formerly  by  Mr.  Baird  of  Craigton,  and  last  by  Mr. 
John  Auchincloss,  with  a  piece  of  garden  ground  at  the  back,  or  on  the  north 
side  of  it,  which  lies  in  the  line  of  Brunswick  Street,  and  which  will  come  to 
be  of  consideration  when  the  junction  of  that  street  with  the  Trongate  is 
carried  on. — Apply  to  James  Mathie,  writer." 


iZthJidy  1861.) 

THE    GLASGOW    SHOWS    OF    OLDEN    TIME. 

It  is  said  to  be  as  natural  for  an  author  to  make  an  ostenta- 
tious display  of  his  reading,  by  giving  quotations,  as  it  is  for  an 


314  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

old  man  to  amuse  himself  by  telling  the  stones  of  his  early  days. 
Now,  I  have  to  apologise  to  your  readers  on  the  present  occasion, 
seeing  that  I  am  about  to  transgress,  by  indulging  myself  in  both 
propensities.  Whosoever  implicitly  follows  his  propensities  may 
act  very  rightly  ;  but  he  may  err  most  egregiously  ;  for  he  is  apt 
to  think  that  the  road  before  him  is  easy,  and  as  smooth  and  trim 
as  if  causewayed  with  Mr.  Carrick's  best  Furnace  granite ;  and 
therefore  he  very  likely  sets  off  at  a  loose  canter,  which  soon 
increases  to  racecourse  speed,  and  then  generally  ends  in  a 
ivhinnblc.  "  Tam  hoc  tibi  in  proclivi  quam  imber  quando  pluit." 
So  says  Plautus, 

It  is  well  known  that  the  ancient  Greeks  and  Romans  were 
very  fond  of  sports  and  shows,  and  that  large  sums  of  money  were 
frequently  expended  from  the  public  purse  to  gratify  the  propen- 
sities of  the  populace  for  such  amusements  ;  but  it  was  quite 
otherwise  in  Scotland  in  former  times,  her  rulers  setting  their  faces 
against  patronising  even  the  innocent  recreations  of  the  lieges,  as 
the  following  quotations  show  : — 

"  3d  Parliament,  James  IV.,  1491. — Item  :  It  is  statute  and  ordained  that 
in  na  place  of  the  Realme  there  be  vsed  fute  ball,  golf,  or  vther  sik  vnprofit- 
able  sportes." 

"6th  Parliament,  Mary,  1555. — Item:  It  is  statute  and  ordaned  that  in 
all  times  cumming  na  maner  of  person  be  chosens  Robert  Hude,  nor  Little 
John,  Abbot  of  Un-reason,  Queen  of  May,  nor  vthervvise  nouther  in  burgh 
nor  to  Landwart  in  onie  time."  1 

This  last-mentioned  Act  of  the  Scottish  Parliament  was  pro- 
bably passed  in  consequence  of  the  enthusiastic  preaching  of  John 
Knox,  the  great  champion  of  the  Scottish  Reformation,  who  had 
just  returned  from  Geneva,  where  he  had  imbibed  all  the  tenets 
and  fervour  of  the  celebrated  John  Calvin.  In  1555  Knox 
travelled  about  from  place  to  place  throughout  Scotland,  enforc- 
ing, with  great  energy  and  effect,  his  views  of  the  Protestant 
doctrine,  and  railing  against  sports  and  shows  as  vain  and  empty 
shadows,  totally  unworthy  the  regard  of  an  evangelical  disciple. 

It  is  curious  to  observe  how  entirely  the  amusements  of  Robin 

^  So  late  as  1592  we  find  the  General  Assembly  complaining  of  the  profanation  of 
the  Sabbath  by  making  of  Robin  Hood  plays. — Boo):  of  Universal  Kirk,  page  414. 


THE  GLASGOW  SHOWS  OF  OLDEN  TIME.  315 

Hood  and  Little  John  have  disappeared  from  amongst  us.  They 
are  even  more  obsolete  than  many  of  our  ancient  Druidical  rites 
and  practices. 

The  following  ballad  regarding  Robin  Hood  and  Little  John 
shows  one  of  the  scenes  which  delighted  the  populace  of  former 
years,  and  was  acted  as  a  drama  on  the  Sabbath-days  : — 

"  Story  of  Little  John  and  the  Four  Beggars  ;  or,  A  Merry  Song  of 
Robin  Hood  and  Little  John,  showing  how  Little  John  went  a-begging, 
and  of  his  fighting  with  four  beggars,  and  what  a  prize  he  took  from  them. 

*'  All  you  that  delight  to  spend  some  time, 
A  merry  song  for  to  sing, 
Unto  me  draw  neer,  and  you  shall  hear 
How  Little  John  went  a-begging. 
As  Robin  Hood  walked  the  forest  along. 
And  his  yeomandree. 

Says  Robin,  '  Some  of  you  must  a-begging  go, 
And,  Little  John,  it  must  be  thee.' 
Says  John,  '  If  I  must  a-begging  go, 
I  will  have  a  Palmer's  ^  weed ; 
With  a  staff  and  a  coat,  and  Bags  of  sorts, 
The  better  then  shall  I  speed.' 
Come,  now  give  me  a  Bag  for  my  Bread, 
And  another  for  my  Cheese  ; 
And  one  for  a  Penny,  if  I  get  any, 
That  nothing  I  may  leese. 
Now  Little  John  is  a-begging  gone, 
Seeking  for  some  relief. 
But  of  all  the  Beggars  he  met  on  the  way. 
Little  John  was  the  chief. 
But  as  he  was  walking  all  alone, 
Four  Beggars  he  chanced  to  spy. 
Some  Deaf,  some  Blind,  and  some  came  behind  : 
Says  John,  Here's  brave  company  ! !  ! 
Good  morrow,  said  John,  my  Brethren  dear. 
Good  fortune  I  had  you  to  see  : 
Which  way  do  you  go .?     Pray  let  me  know  ? 
For  I  want  some  company. 
OH  !  What's  here  to  do .?  said  Little  John  ; 
Why  ring  these  Bells  ?  said  he  : 
What  dog  is  hanging  ?     Come,  let  us  be  ganging. 


1  Palmer — a  pilgrim  who  returned  from  the  Holy  Land  cariying  palm. — ^JOHNSON. 


3i6  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

That  we  the  truth  may  see. 
There  is  no  dog  hanging,  one  of  them  said, 
Good  Fellow,  I  tell  unto  thee  ; 

But  here  is  one  dead,  that  will  give  cheese  and  bread, 
And  it  may  be,  one  single  penny. 
We  have  Brethren  in  London.     Another  he  said. 
So  have  we  in  Coventry, 

In  Berwick  and  Dover,  and  all  the  world  over, 
But  ne'er  a  crooked  carle  like  thee : 
Therefore,  stand  thee  back !  thou  crooked  carle, 
And  tak  that  knock  on  the  crown. 
Nay,  said  Little  John,  I'll  not  yet  be  gone, 
For  a  Bout  I  will  have  with  you  round. 
Now,  have  at  you  all !  then  said  Little  John, 
If  you  be  so  full  of  blows. 
Fight  on  all  Four,  and  never  give  o'er, 
Whether  you  be  friends  or  foes. 
John  nipp'd  the  dumb,  and  made  them  roar. 
And  the  blind  that  could  not  see, 
And  those  who  had  been  cripples  for  seven  years. 
He  made  them  run  faster  than  he  ; 
And  flinging  them  all  against  the  wall. 
With  many  a  sturdy  bang, 
It  made  John  to  sing,  to  hear  the  gold  ring, 
And  against  the  wall  cry  twang. 
Then  he  got  out  of  the  Beggar's  cloak 
Three  hundred  pounds  in  gold. 
Good  fortune  had  I,  said  Little  John, 
Such  a  good  sight  to  behold. 
But  what  found  he  in  the  Beggars'  Bags  ? 
Just  three  hundred  pounds  and  three  !  !  ! 
If  I  drink  water  while  this  does  last. 
Then  an  ill  death  may  I  dee  ; 
And  my  begging  trade  I  will  give  o'er. 
My  fortune  hath  been  so  good : 
Therefore,  I'll  not  stay — I  will  away 
To  the  Forest  of  merry  Sherwood. 
But  when  to  the  forest  of  Sherwood  he  came, 
His  master  stood,  bold  Robin  Hood, 
And  all  his  company. 

What  7ie'ws  ?   What  news  ?  said  bold  Robin  Hood, 
Come,  Little  John,  tell  unto  me  ? 
How  hast  thou  sped,  with  thy  Beggar's  trade  ? 
For  that  I  fain  would  see. 
No  news  but  good,  said  Little  John  ; 
With  begging  full  well  have  I  sped  : 


THE  GLASGOW  SHOWS  OF  OLDEN  TIME.  317 

Three  hundred  and  three  I  have  for  thee, 

In  silver  and  gold  so  red. 

Then  Robin  Hood  took  Little  John  by  the  hand, 

And  danced  about  the  oak  Tree ; 

If  we  drink  water  while  this  doth  last, 

Then  an  ill  death  may  we  dee." 

The  first  show  that  I  attended  took  place  more  than  eighty 
years  ago,  and  was  that  of  a  white  polar  bear  {Ursus  maritiimis). 
It  was  stationed  alongside  of  a  large  tin  trough  or  tank,  filled 
with  water,  in  which  it  had  the  liberty  of  taking  a  bath.  It  was 
a  very  fine  specimen  of  the  species,  being  upwards  of  12  feet  in 
length,  with  hair  long,  soft,  and  white.  It  had  more  of  a  placid 
than  of  a  ferocious  look,  but  appeared  extremely  uneasy  at  being 
confined,  and  seemed  to  feel  that  it  was  quite  out  of  its  natural 
element,  which  it  showed  by  occasionally  roaring  dolefully,  as  if  in 
distress.  In  order  to  silence  it,  the  keeper  used  to  dash  a  pailful 
of  water  in  its  face,  which  it  took  very  kindly,  and  so  ceased  its 
clamouring.  It  was  not  shut  up  in  a  cage,  but  only  confined  to 
the  floor  by  an  iron  chain,  which  was  of  a  length  sufficient  to 
enable  it  to  climb  into  the  water  trough  or  tank  at  its  pleasure. 
There  was  no  display  of  any  other  animal  at  this  show.  A  polar 
bear  has  seldom  been  exhibited  at  any  of  our  menageries,  although 
no  great  difficulty  has  been  felt  by  our  Arctic  whalers  in  capturing 
that  animal. 

The  next  show  that  I  went  to  see  was  that  of  the  celebrated 
lion  tiger  (as  it  was  called).  This  was  perhaps  the  finest  specimen 
of  the  Royal  tiger  {Tigris,  Felis)  that  ever  was  brought  to  this 
country,  both  as  to  its  size  and  as  to  the  variety  and  brilliancy  of 
its  colours.  From  my  remembrance  of  it,  I  think  it  must  have 
been  upwards  of  6  feet  long,  from  the  point  of  the  muzzle  to  the 
origin  of  the  tail ;  it  was,  however,  a  most  fierce  and  savage 
animal,  and  required  to  be  strongly  confined  in  a  cage  encom- 
passed with  iron  bars.  The  keeper  having  given  the  company 
strong  injunctions  not  to  use  any  freedoms  with  it,  on  account  of 
its  extreme  ferocity,  I  felt  a  little  alarmed,  and  did  not  approach 
it  very  closely,  but  was  content  to  take  a  cautious  view  of  it  at  a 
safe  distance.     Naturalists,  writing  of  the  Royal  tiger,  say  that  it 


3i8  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

seems  to  have  no  other  instinct  but  a  constant  thirst  after  blood, 
a  blind  fury  which  knows  no  bounds  or  distinction.  Neither  force, 
restraint,  nor  violence  can  tame  the  tiger  ;  it  is  equally  irritated 
with  good  as  with  bad  treatment ;  it  tears  the  hand  which 
nourishes  it  with  equal  fury  as  that  which  administers  blows  to  it. 
This  is  a  just  character  of  the  animal  exhibited  at  this  show  as 
the  lion  tiger.  Besides  the  said  tiger,  there  were  several  monkeys 
in  this  show,  and  some  foreign  birds  of  rich  plumage,  which 
attracted  my  attention  more  than  the  tiger.  The  end  of  this  last- 
mentioned  noble  animal  was  rather  tragical.  During  the  night- 
time it  broke  out  of  its  cage,  and  immediately  attacked  one  of  the 
small  monkeys,  which  it  not  only  devoured,  but  also  swallowed 
the  iron  collar  which  encompassed  the  monkey's  neck  ;  the  con- 
sequence was,  that  this  collar  remained  fast  in  its  bowels,  and  in 
a  few  days  caused  its  death. 

Although,  from  the  novelty  of  the  exhibitions,  these  two 
shows  afforded  me  much  pleasure,  nevertheless  my  gratification 
was  not  without  some  alloy,  for  I  could  not  altogether  divest  my- 
self of  feeling  a  certain  kind  of  dread,  lest  these  wild  and  powerful 
animals  should  break  loose  and  tear  me  to  pieces.  The  next 
show,  however,  which  I  attended  was  one  of  a  very  different  kind, 
as  it  yielded  me  the  most  intense  pleasure  and  delight,  without 
any  fear  of  being  worried  and  devoured.  This  was  the  celebrated 
puppet  show  of  Punch's  Opera.  It  was,  however,  after  all  but  a 
paltry  itinerant  exhibition,  or  children's  penny  show,  and  had  not 
even  the  advantage  of  any  scenic  decoration,  for  the  performances 
were  confined  to  a  small  open  space  in  a  wooden  structure,  little 
larger  than  a  common  soldier's  sentry-box.  In  the  lower  part  of 
this  box^  the  operator  of  the  movements  remained  ensconced  and 
invisible  to  the  audience,  while  the  upper  part  of  the  said  box 
formed  the  exposed  theatre,  where  the  puppets  were  exhibited. 
On  this  occasion  there  were  only  four  figures  as  dramatis  personce^ 
viz.  Punch,  Joan  (his  wife),  little  Judy,  and  the  Devil.  The 
operator  certainly  possessed  considerable  comic  powers  and  a 
great  share  of  low  humour,  by  which  he  kept  the  company  in  a 
constant  roar  of  laughter.  The  imitations  of  the  voices  of  Joan 
and  of  Judy  were  excellent,  and  his  buffoonery,  by  making  the 


THE  GLASGOW  SHOWS  OF  OLDEN  TIME.  319 

figures  the  vehicles  of  his  scurril  mirth  and  vulgar  jests,  showed 
great  talents  for  ridicule  and  burlesque.  The  Devil  (as  usually 
represented)  had  two  horns  on  his  head,  a  jet-black  face,  and 
flaming  fiery  eyes.  If  at  any  time  he  popped  up  his  head  from 
a  corner  of  the  stage  to  take  a  sly  peep  of  what  was  going  on, 
Mr.  Punch  never  failed  to  give  him  a  tremendous  thwack  on  the 
crown,  which  sent  him  headlong  to  the  lower  regions,  amidst  the 
immense  cheering  and  loud  plaudits  of  the  audience.  Our  music 
consisted  of  various  tunes  from  a  small  barrel-organ,  and  of  a  few 
humorous  songs,  such  as  the  "  Taylor  Done  Over  ;"  also  of  some 
infantile  recitatives,  as — 

"  Yin-erie,  twa-erie,  tick-erie,  seven, 
Alibi,  crack-erie,  ten  or  eleven. 
Pin,  pan,  muskie  dan, 
Tweedle-um,  Twaddle-um,  twenty-one," 
etc.  etc. 

For  nearly  a  month  after  having  seen  this  show  my  leisure 
hours  were  wholly  occupied  in  manufacturing  Mr.  Punch  and  the 
above-mentioned  puppets,  and  exhibiting  them  at  home  to  my 
companions  and  others,  from  a  pavilion  and  stage  got  up  for  the 
purpose  with  chairs  and  old  carpets. 

The  following  notice  of  a  show  in  Glasgow  took  place  before 
my  day,  but  the  effects  of  this  exhibition  extended  to  my 
juvenile  years,  as  it  then  became  quite  the  rage  in  Glasgow  for 
young  ladies,  as  a  piece  of  education,  to  be  taught  the  art  of  con- 
structing grottoes,  shell  fruits,  shell  flowers,  and  other  testaceous 
ornaments  ;  some  of  which  were  to  be  seen  adorning  the  draw- 
ing-room mantlepieces  of  all  our  fashionable  folks  of  the  day  ; 
and  I  daresay  that  many  of  your  readers  yet  see  some  of  the 
beautiful  foreign  shells  of  those  bygone  days  still  forming  the 
ornaments  of  the  brace-pieces  of  many  of  our  old  Glasgow 
dowagers. 

Glasgow  Journal,  12th  February  1759. — "Mr.  Perrot  has  just  arrived 
here  from  London  with  the  most  exact  and  beautiful  models  of  the  following 
grottoes  and  shellwork,  viz. — 

I  St,  The  Royal  Grotto  at  Marli,  in  France. 

2d,  Sir  Nathaniel  Curzon's  Grotto  in  Derbyshire. 


320  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

3d,   A  piece  of  Shellwork  in  the  Grand  Signer's  Palace. 
4th,  A  Royal  Grotto  at  Lisbon. 

5th,  The  Royal  Shellwork  of  the  Emperor  of  Germany. 
6th,  The  Royal  Shellwork  at  Herenhausen,  in  Hanover. 
7th,  Trees  made  of  sea-weeds. 
8th,  A  piece  ditto  in  the  garden  of  Versailles. 
"Also,  some  fine  pieces  in  the  Chinese  and  Gothic  tastes,  which  were 
never  before  exhibited. 

"  The  above  are  composed  of  the  most  curious  and  valuable  shells,  fine 
red  and  white  corals,  and  other  materials,  arranged  with  great  propriety  and 
elegance,  and  perfectly  resembling  those  famous  works  (on  the  models  of 
which  they  are  formed),  whose  beauty  of  design  and  rural  simplicity  render 
them  the  admiration  of  all  who  see  them. 

"  The  above  are  all  to  be  seen  with  the  naked  eye,  and  may  be  viewed  by 
two  or  more  at  any  hour  from  ten  in  the  morning  till  ten  at  night,  at  Mr, 
TurnbuU's,  the  Crown  and  Anchor,  directly  opposite  the  Guard — Price  Six 
pence. 

"  Mr.  Perrot  instructs  ladies  and  gentlemen  in  the  art  of  making  shell- 
work on  reasonable  terms." 

Mr.  Perrot,  however,  was  not  permitted  to  monopolise  the 
instruction  of  young  ladies  in  the  elegant  art  of  making  grottoes 
and  shellwork  ;  for  John  Gibson  advertises  that  he  has  opened  a 
warehouse  on  the  first  storey  of  Buchanan's  Land,  opposite  the 
Main  Guard,  where  he  teaches  ladies  the  following  works  (which 
he  says,  "  have  been  always  esteemed  a  necessary  piece  of  their 
education "),  viz.  japanning  upon  wood,  painting  upon  glass, 
making  jars  of  glass  (painted  in  imitation  of  china),  shell  flowers, 
and  all  sorts  of  shell  and  grotto  work,  in  the  most  genteel  taste, 
etc.  The  prices  are  a  guinea  per  month  if  the  ladies  attend  the 
school,  and  a  guinea  and  a  half  if  they  are  taught  at  their  houses. 

In  my  early  days  there  was  a  Miss  Gardiner,  from  Edinburgh, 
who  came  to  Glasgow,  and  advertised  to  teach  our  young  ladies 
the  following  branches  of  fashionable  accomplishments,  as  a 
necessary  part  of  their  education,  viz.  to  make  gumflowers,  shell- 
work, glass  jars  (in  imitation  of  china),  Dresden  fabrics,  to  work 
watch  chains  and  strings,  fringes  and  net  purses  (in  imitation  of 
lace),  etc.  etc.  This  lady  also  boarded  young  ladies  at  her  house 
in  Marshall's  Land,  Saltmarket,  and  undertook  to  improve  and 
polish  their  manners,  in  conformity  to  those  of  the  most  fashion- 
able circles  in  London.       I  remember  this  lady  very  well.      She 


THE  GLASGOW  SHOWS  OF  OLDEN  TIME.  321 

was  extremely  conceited  and  formal,  and  prided  herself  upon  being 
able  to  7iap  the  King's  English  in  the  purest  style.  I  have  seen 
many  of  the  productions  of  the  scholars  of  this  lady  ;  in  particular, 
one  of  Adam  and  Eve,  placed  in  a  shell  grotto,  surrounded  with 
trees  of  sea-weeds,  and  the  celebrated  tree  of  knowledge  of  good 
and  evil  in  front,  having  clusters  of  tempting  apples  upon  it,  made 
from  small  red  coral  beads.  The  serpent,  however,  was  awanting. 
I  have  further  had  in  my  possession  one  of  the  famous  glass  jars 
made  in  imitation  of  china  by  one  of  Miss  Gardiner's  pupils.  It 
consisted  of  a  crystal  jar,  in  the  inside  parts  of  which  were  pasted 
Chinese  prints,  richly  decorated  by  the  young  artist  in  brilliant 
red,  blue,  and  green  colours  ;  having  views  of  tea-parties  enjoying 
themselves  in  arbours,  amidst  willow  trees,  Tartar  pagodas,  crooked 
bridges,  and  clumsy  barges  floating  in  ponds.  The  inside  of  the 
jar  was  coated  with  stucco,  which  gave  it  the  appearance  of  rich 
porcelain,  and  on  the  whole  it  formed  a  pretty  enough  toy. 

The  following  is  an  advertisement  from  the  Glasgow  news- 
papers of  the  times,  and  shows  how  valuable  a  shell  grotto  was 
then  esteemed  : — 

"  The  RafHe  of  the  Grotto  belonging  to  Miss  M'Lean  is  obliged  to  be  post- 
poned to  Friday  the  2d  of  January  next,  at  the  house  of  James  Graham, 
vintner  (Saracen's  Head).  It  is  requested  that  such  ladies  and  gentlemen 
who  were  entrusted  with  subscription  papers  will  lodge  them,  with  the  money, 
in  the  hands  of  James  Graham,  betwixt  and  said  date." 

At  this  time  the  principal  watering-places  on  the  west  coast 
were  Gourock^  and  Inverkip.  Largs  was  then  considered  to  be 
rather  too  far  distant,  and  difficult  of  access,  in  consequence  of 
which  only  a  few  families  from  Glasgow  took  up  their  summer 
residence  there.  Rothesay,  for  a  like  reason,  had  still  fewer  Glas- 
gow visitors  as  salt-water  lodgers.  Helensburgh  might  then  have 
been  said  to  be  non-existent;  and  in  the  year  1779  our  family  were 

^  Glasgow  JotD'ftal,  15th  March  1764. — "Goat  Whey  Quarters.  To  be  let 
this  present  year,  the  mansion  house  of  Gourock,  with  a  large  garden,  and  enclosure  of 
grass  that  will  keep  half-a-dozen  of  horses  and  a  couple  of  cows.  It  will  easily  divide 
for  several  families,  as  it  has  separate  entries.  The  house  is  two  short  miles  from 
Greenock  ;  and  as  there  is  a  turnpike  road  almost  the  whole  way,  the  communication  is 
equally  good  to  Glasgow  by  land  or  water.  There  is  also  to  sett,  a  large  thatch  house, 
for  a  change  house,  in  the  south  end  of  Gourock." 

VOL.  III.  Y 


322  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

the  sole  summer  occupiers  of  lodgings  at  Dunoon,  or  upon  any 
part  of  the  coast  of  Cowal,  which  was  at  that  period  looked  upon 
as  altogether  a  wild  uncultivated  Highland  district.  The  young 
ladies  and  children  of  the  families  who  then  visited  the  west  coast 
employed  their  whole  vacant  and  idle  hours  in  search  of  curious 
shells  along  the  shores  of  the  Firth,  and  in  industriously  picking 
up  all  the  Buccinse,  Cochleae,  Voltuae,  and  Tellinse  from  the  sands, 
and  in  particular  the  beautiful  small  shells  of  the  orange-coloured 
peck  ten,  or  scallop  shell,  in  order  to  form  their  grottoes  and  shell 
works.  These  elegant  small  scallop  shells  were  in  great  demand 
to  make  purses  and  pin-cushions  of  them.  There  was,  however, 
a  great  drawback  to  the  use  of  these,  our  Firth  shells  for  fashion- 
able shell  work — viz.,  that  they  were  rough  and  unpolished.  At 
this  time  the  importation  into  London  of  rare  and  beautiful  shells 
from  India,  China,  the  West  Indies,  and  indeed  from  every  quarter 
of  the  world,  had  become  an  extensive  and  important  branch  of 
business.  These  shells,  on  arrival  in  London,  were  subjected  to 
a  regular  process  of  cleaning,  polishing,  and  varnishing,  so  as  to 
suit  them  to  the  taste  of  the  market.  The  Dutch,  in  particular, 
excelled  in  the  art  of  polishing  up  shells.  They  not  only  filed 
them  down  on  all  sides,  but  also  subjected  them  to  the  action  of 
the  wheel,  by  which  the  very  character  of  the  species  became  a 
riddle  ;  nor  did  they  stop  at  this,  but  being  determined  to  have 
beauty  at  any  rate,  they  set  about  improving  nature,  and  fre- 
quently added  some  lines  and  colours  with  a  pencil,  and  after- 
wards covered  them  over  with  a  fine  coat  of  varnish,  so  that  they 
seemed  to  be  the  natural  lineations  of  the  shell.  It  was  with 
such  like  rare  and  finely-polished  shells,  brought  from  London, 
that  nearly  all  our  Glasgow  school  grottoes  and  shell  works  were 
constructed  ;  and  the  more  uncommon  the  appearance  of  the  shell 
seemed  to  be,  so  much  the  more  valuable  it  became.  I  must  say 
that  many  of  these  shells  were  extremely  beautiful,  and  would 
have  claimed  the  admiration  of  any  professed  conchologist.  I 
have  in  my  possession  some  of  the  beautiful  polished  shells  of 
those  bygone  days,  which  still  ornament  the  mantelpiece  of  my 
bedroom,  and  are  yet  much  admired. 

About  this  time  a  Signior  Powell  went  about  the  country 


THE  GLASGOW  SHOWS  OF  OLDEN  TIME.  323 

exhibiting  very  wonderful  deeds  of  fire -eating.  He  swallowed 
red-hot  coals,  taken  directly  from  a  blazing  pile,  and  gulped  down 
large  draughts  of  liquid  fire,  flaming  sealing-wax,  and  burning 
brimstone.  He  also  broiled  steaks  upon  his  tongue,  and  washed 
his  mouth  with  oil  of  vitriol.  He  likewise  performed  numerous 
other  extraordinary  feats  of  pyrotechnics,  to  the  extreme  astonish- 
ment of  the  beholders. 

In  the  Journal  des  Scavans  there  is  the  following  explanation 
how  these  fire-eating  performances  were  effected,  viz. — 

"  The  secret  of  fire-eating  was  made  public  by  a  servant  to  one  Richardson, 
an  Englishman,  who  showed  it  in  France  about  the  year  1667,  and  was  the 
first  performer  of  the  kind  that  ever  appeared  in  Europe.  This  secret  con- 
sisted only  in  rubbing  the  hands,  and  thoroughly  washing  the  mouth,  lips, 
tongue,  teeth,  and  other  parts  that  are  to  touch  the  fire,  with  pure  spirit  of 
sulphur,  or  a  mixture  of  spirits  of  sulphur,  sal-ammoniac,  and  essence  of 
rosemary.  This  burns  and  cauterises  the  epidermis  or  upper  skin,  until  it 
becomes  as  thick  leather,  and  every  time  that  the  experiment  is  tried  it 
becomes  still  easier  than  before  to  perform  the  operation  with  safety.  In 
broiling  a  veal  cutlet  in  his  mouth,  the  performer  first  lays  on  a  very  thin  slice 
on  his  tongue,  then  the  red-hot  charcoal  above  that,  and  lastly  places  the 
cutlet  about  to  be  broiled  on  the  said  glowing  materials,  and  so  dresses  it,  fit 
to  be  presented  at  the  table.  The  red-hot  coals  cannot  burn  him  before  they 
are  extinguished  by  the  saliva  which  soon  insensibly  fills  the  cavity  of  his 
mouth.  After  the  performer  has  retired  from  the  exhibition,  he  generally 
drinks  a  plentiful  dose  of  warm  water  and  oil,  till  he  has  vomited  up  whatever  of 
the  materials  he  had  been  obliged  to  swallow  in  the  course  of  his  fiery  opera- 
tions." 

The  hands  of  many  blacksmiths  and  forgemen  acquire  such  a 
degree  of  callosity,  by  often  handling  red-hot  materials,  that  these 
men  will  carry  a  glowing  bar  of  iron  from  the  furnace  to  the  anvil 
in  their  naked  fists  without  the  least  hurt.  Tavernier,  in  his  Voy- 
ages, says  that  he  met  with  a  slave  who  would  suffer  himself,  for 
a  small  reward,  to  be  hung  round  with  heavy  chains  of  red-hot 
iron,  and  would  keep  them  on  till  they  were  quite  cold,  without 
the  least  apparent  sense  of  pain.  (This,  however,  appears  to  me 
to  be  a  little  hyperbolical.)  The  ordeal  by  fire  was  a  Saxon 
mode  of  trial,  in  which  an  appeal  was  made  to  Heaven,  when  the 
accused  undertook  to  walk  blindfold  between  nine  red-hot  plough- 
shares, and  if  he  or  she  escaped   unhurt,  it  was  looked  upon  as  a 


324  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

proof  of  innocence.  Queen  Emma,  a  Saxon  princess,  successfully 
underwent  this  ordeal — no  doubt  previously  instructed  by  the 
priesthood  in  what  manner  to  guard  herself  against  the  effects  of 
the  ardent  ploughshares. 

The  next  show  that  I  shall  take  notice  of  was  certainly  a  very 
curious  one  ;  and  I  believe  that  nothing  of  the  kind  has  ever  since 
been  exhibited  in  Europe.  We  have  had  many  shows  of  learned 
horses,  learned  dogs,  and  even  learned  pigs  ;  but  who,  nowadays, 
ever  saw  a  learned  flea  ?  The  very  idea  of  the  thing  appears 
ludicrous.  Nevertheless,  such  was  the  novel  spectacle  exhibited 
to  our  wondering  citizens  of  olden  time,  as  the  following  advertise- 
ment fully  explains  : — 

Glasgow  J otirnal,  4th  August  1763. 
'*  This  is  to  Acquaint  the  Curious, 

"  That  there  is  to  be  exhibited  by  the  inventor  and  maker,  S.  Boverick, 
from  nine  in  the  morning  till  eight  in  the  evening,  at  the  sign  of  the  Mason's 
Arms,  opposite  the  Main  Guard,  Trongate,  at  one  shilling  each  person,  the  so 
much  admired  collection  of  Miniature  Curiosities,  consisting  of  the  following 
pieces  : — 

"  I.  An  ivory  chaise  with  four  wheels,  and  all  the  proper  apparatus  be- 
longing to  them,  turning  readily  on  their  axis  together,  with  a  man  sitting  on 
the  chaise,  all  drawn  by  a  flea,  without  any  seeming  difficulty,  the  chaiseman 
and  flea  being  barely  equal  to  a  single  grain. 

"  2.  A  flea  chained  to  a  chain  of  200  links,  with  a  padlock  and  key — all 
weighing  less  than  one-third  of  a  grain.  The  padlock  locks  and  unlocks. 
These  two  pieces  are  mentioned,  with  admiration,  by  Mr.  Henry  Baker,  of  the 
Royal  Society,  in  his  book  called  '  Microscope  made  Easy,' which  the  inventor 
and  maker  has  by  him,  to  show  if  required. 

"  3.  A  landau,  which  opens  and  shuts  by  springs,  hanging  on  braces,  with 
four  persons  therein,  two  footmen  behind,  a  coachman  on  the  box,  with  a 
dog  between  his  legs,  six  horses  and  a  postillion,  all  drawn  by  single  flea ! 

"  4.  A  pair  of  steel  scissors  weighing  but  the  sixteenth  part  of  a  grain, 
which  will  cut  a  large  horse-hair. 

"  5.  Thirty-six  dozen  of  well-fashioned  silver  spoons  in  a  pepper  corn,  and 
still  room  for  several  dozens  more. 

"N.B. — The  above  curiosities  have  been  shown  to  the  Courts  of  England, 
France,  and  Holland,  the  Royal  Society  in  London,  the  Professors  of  Mathe- 
matics at  Leyden,  who  have  done  the  maker  the  honour  to  give  testimonies  of 
their  approbation  under  their  hands,  in  Latin,  and  nether  Dutch,  which  may 
be  seen  by  any  person  who  desires  it. 

**i^"  To  be  exhibited  here  no  longer  than  the  13th  inst. — August  1763." 


THE  GLASGOW  SHOWS  OF  OLDEN  TIME.  325 

In  speaking  about  the  show  of  the  h'on- tiger,  I  stated  that 
the  death  of  that  noble  animal  was  rather  tragical  ;  but,  on  the 
contrary,  the  death  of  this  poor  flea  was  truly  comical.  It  took 
place  thus,  as  reported  to  me  : — A  country  wife,  from  Pollokshaws, 
having  come  to  Glasgow  on  a  market  day  to  sell  her  fowls  and 
eggs,  happened  to  see  people  going  into  the  above-mentioned 
show  in  Buchanan's  Land,  and,  as  she  had  made  very  favourable 
sales  that  day  of  her  stock,  she  resolved  to  see  the  said  show  ; 
accordingly,  without  knowing  exactly  what  she  was  about  to  see, 
she  paid  her  admission  money,  and  directly  thereafter  marched 
up  to  the  table  on  which  the  flea  was  performing  its  task  of  draw- 
ing the  ivory  coach  and  coachman.  The  poor  woman  looked 
only  to  the  flea,  and  instantly  turning  down  her  thumb  nail  upon 
it,  cracked  it  in  a  moment,  exclaiming — "  Filthy  beast,  wha  could 
hae  brought  you  here?"  The  showman,  in  a  violent  rage,  seized 
the  woman  by  the  throat,  and  demanded  how  she  dared  to  kill  the 
flea.  On  the  other  hand,  the  astonished  woman,  not  knowing 
that  she  had  done  anything  wrong,  exclaimed — "  Losh  me,  man, 
makin'  sic  a  wark  about  a  flea  ;  gif  you  come  wi'  me  to  the 
Shaws,  we'll  gi'e  ye  a  peck  o'  them,  and  be  muckle  obliged  to  you 
for  takin'  them."  As  the  woman  was  a  widow,  and  possessed 
little  or  no  property,  Mr.  Boverick  thought  it  most  prudent  to 
put  up  with  his  loss,  in  place  of  going  into  a  court  of  law  for 
damages.  In  the  present  times,  the  value  of  a  flea  would  be  a 
curious  question  at  a  jury  trial.  The  flea  {Ptdex)  had  six  legs  ; 
nevertheless  it  seldom  walks,  but  is  remarkable  for  its  agility  in 
leaping  to  a  height  equal  to  200  times  that  of  its  own  body. 
This  bloodthirsty  insect,  which  fattens  at  the  expense  of  the 
human  species,  is  said  to  prefer  the  more  delicate  skin  of  young 
ladies,  in  which,  with  its  piercer  or  sucker,  it  first  makes  an  entrance, 
and  then  thrusts  it  farther  into  the  flesh,  so  as  to  make  the  blood 
flow  from  the  adjacent  parts,  and  thus  occasions  that  round  red 
spot,  with  a  hole  in  the  centre,  called  "  a  flea  bite."  The  learned 
flea  in  question,  however,  was  not  favoured  with  such  a  delicate 
morsel  as  a  mouthful  from  the  limb  of  a  young  lady,  but  took  its 
meals  from  the  plump  and  juicy  arms  of  Mr.  Boverick  himself, 
who  fed   it  carefully  with  his    own  blood,  and  at  night  kept  it 


326  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

snugly  domiciled  in  a  little  box  lined  with  soft  velvet  and  select 
silken  caddis,  by  which  attentions  it  came  to  be  on  friendly  and 
intimate  terms  with  its  master. 

Glasgow  Journal^  5th  January  1764. — "To  the  lovers  of  real  curiosities. — 
This  is  to  acquaint  the  nobihty,  gentry,  and  others,  that  the  brother  of  the 
famous  Mr.  Zucker,  a  high  German  (who  has  gained  such  universal  applause), 
is  just  come  to  town,  and  will  perform  at  James  Buchanan's,  at  the  White 
Hart,  in  the  Gallowgate,^  on  Friday  the  6th  instant,  and  continue  to  do  so 
every  day.  The  door  to  be  opened  at  eleven  forenoon,  and  begin  exactly 
half-an-hour  after,  and  ends  at  one  ;  and  in  the  evening  at  half  an  hour  after 
six,  and  ends  at  eight.  He  had  the  honour  to  perform  his  surprising  feats 
of  arts,  Avith  general  approbation,  before  the  Royal  family,  nobility,  and 
gentry,  at  the  great  concert  room  in  Panton  Street,  London,  for  near  two 
years  successively.  He  has  brought  with  him  the  most  amazing  learned  little 
horse  from  Courland,  whose  wonderful  knowledge  is  not  to  be  paralleled  by  any 
animal  in  this  kingdom,  or  perhaps  in  the  whole  world.  He  wants  only 
speech.  As  a  specimen  of  his  abilities,  we  shall  mention  the  following  par- 
ticulars, viz. — He  makes  a  polite  and  curious  compliment  to  the  company  ; 
tells  the  value  of  anything  which  is  shown  to  him  ;  he  plays  at  cards,  and  finds 
the  place  where  the  card  is  hid  ;  shows  by  a  watch  the  hour  of  the  day,  and 
understands  arithmetic  ;  he  distinguishes  ladies  from  gentlemen  ;  he  under- 
stands the  almanack,  and  demonstrates  the  day  of  the  month  ;  he  plays  at 
dice,  and  is  always  sure  to  win  ;  he  drinks  the  company's  health  like  a  human 
person  ;  his  master  borrows  a  piece  of  money  of  one  of  the  company,  and 
throws  it  on  the  floor  ;  the  horse  takes  it  up,  and  returns  it  to  the  person  that 
lent  it ;  when  he  is  told  that  he  is  to  leave  the  empire  or  go  to  the  Grand 
Turk  he  shams  lame,  and  walks  about  the  room  as  cripple  ;  but  when  he  is 
told  he  shall  be  excused,  he  immediately  recovers,  makes  his  compliments  on 
his  knees,  and  thanks  the  company.  The  master  himself  will  likewise 
entertain  the  company  with  many  curiosities.  He  turns  two  dishes  at  once 
in  so  dexterous  a  manner  as  gives  pleasure  and  surprise  to  the  spectators. 
There  will  be  given  an  entertainment  on  the  musical  glasses,  and  also  on 
common  drinking  glasses,  several  tunes.  Amongst  others — '  Tweedside,' 
'Corn  Riggs  are  Bonny,'  'Hearts  of  Oak,'  ' Artaxerxes,'  'Voi  Amanta,' &c., 
&c.     Price,  one  shilling." 

Of  all  quadrupeds  subject  to  the  rule  of  man  there  are  none 
so  valuable  as  the  horse  ;  he  is  not  only  extremely  docile,  but  is 
also  the  fleetest  of  all  animals,  and  capable  of  running  down 
the    winged    ostrich    itself.       The    famous    racehorse,     Childers 

^  This  inn  then  stood  without  the  Gallowgate  Port.  In  1754  Robert  Tennent 
occupied  it,  but  having  built  the  Saracen's  Head  Inn  in  1755  he  removed  to  that  large 
inn,  and  the  White  Hart  Inn  came  to  be  occupied  by  James  Buchanan. 


THE  GLASGOW  SHOWS  OF  OLDEN  TIME.  327 

(commonly  called  the  Flying  Childers),  ran  the  long  course  at 
Newmarket  in  7|-  minutes.  This  course  was  exactly  4  miles 
and  380  yards,  so  that  he  ran  at  the  rate  of  more  than  49  feet  in 
a  second.  At  every  bound  he  covered  a  space  of  upwards  of  24 
feet. 

The  little  learned  horse  in  question,  although  of  German  breed, 
might  have  been  taken  for  one  of  our  small  Highland  shelties, 
and,  owing  to  its  diminutive  size,  seemed  very  suitable  for  ex- 
hibition in  a  room  so  contracted  as  the  one  in  the  White  Hart, 
where  it  was  shown. 

Perhaps  some  of  your  elderly  readers  may  remember  that 
an  attempt  was  made  in  the  theatre,  Dunlop  Street,  to  give  a 
representation  of  the  Newmarket  races.  Part  of  the  pit  was  then 
laid  off  to  form  a  racecourse,  and  there  the  starting-post  was 
placed.  The  course  itself  extended  to  the  extremity  of  the  stage. 
The  racehorses  consisted  of  two  diminutive  Shetland  ponies, 
which  were  mounted  by  two  smart  boys,  in  full  jockey  costume. 
The  race  consisted  of  three  courses,  and,  to  all  appearance,  the 
boys  exerted  their  utmost  abilities  to  be  first  at  the  goal.  The 
course,  however,  was  greatly  too  short  and  too  narrow  for  such  an 
exhibition  ;  and,  besides,  the  feet  of  the  horses  made  a  disagreeable 
clattering  noise  in  racing,  in  consequence  of  the  foundations  of  the 
said  course  having  been  composed  of  deal  boards,  which  yielded 
to  the  weight  of  the  horses  and  the  riders  as  they  ran  along :  this 
took  away  all  idea  of  a  race  upon  the  turf.  On  the  whole,  the 
exhibition  was  a  failure,  and  has  never  since  been  repeated. 

There  have  been  several  exhibitions  in  Glasgow  of  learned 
dogs — some  of  which,  I  have  no  doubt,  were  seen  by  many  of  your 
readers.  All  these  dogs  performed  similar  feats  to  those  of  the 
above-mentioned  learned  horse  ;  but  there  was  one  very  intelli- 
gent dog  shown  in  my  day,  which,  besides  telling  the  time  by  a 
watch,  finding  out  hidden  money,  and  doing  the  usual  sagacious  acts 
of  learned  animals,  also  spelled  any  common  word  proposed  by  the 
company.  The  letters  of  the  alphabet  were  printed  on  loose  slips 
and  laid  upon  the  floor  of  the  room,  and  when  any  person  of  the 
company  requested  the  dog  to  spell  a  particular  word  of  common 
conversation,  the  show-master  addressed  the  dog,  desiring  him  to 


328    ,  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

spell  the  word  then  named,  which  the  dog  did  by  drawing  from 
the  alphabet  lying  on  the  floor  the  letters  constituting  the  word 
required  to  be  spelled  ;  words,  however,  which  were  uncommon  or 
difficult  to  spell  were  excepted. 

I  remember  of  being  present  on  one  of  these  occasions,  when 
a  gentleman  of  the  company  asked  the  dog  to  spell  the  word 
"  Antigua."  The  show-master  said  that  that  was  rather  a  hard 
word  for  a  dog  to  spell,  but  he  would  try  what  could  be  done  ; 
and  accordingly  he  told  the  dog  that  a  gentleman  in  the  room 
wished  the  word  "Antigua"  to  be  spelled,  on  which  the  dog  pro- 
ceeded to  the  loose  slips  of  the  alphabet  lying  on  the  floor  of  the 
room,  and  with  his  paw  drew  out  from  amongst  them  the  capital 
letters  "  Antigua,"  to  the  great  delight  of  the  company.  This  I 
myself  saw  done. 

According  to  Bailey,  the  longest  word  in  the  English  language 
is  "  Honorificabilitudinity,"  but  I  am  afraid  that  the  spelling  of 
this  word  would  be  beyond  the  most  profound  canine  sagacity. 
How  droll  it  would  sound  to  say  that  such  a  man  is  a  person 
of  the  greatest  "honorificabilitudinity"!  or  to  call  him  by  the 
name  of  "  Mr,  Honorificabilitudinitas "  (see  Bailey)  ;  but  how- 
ever difficult  it  may  appear  to  pronounce  this  jaw-breaking  word, 
nevertheless,  from  the  following  advertisement  it  will  be  seen  that 
a  "learned  pig"  was  exhibited  in  Glasgow  which  was  capable  of 
joining  together  the  letters  which  form  this  polysyllable. 

Although  none  of  your  readers  may  have  seen  a  "  learned 
flea,"  I  believe  that  many  of  them  have  viewed  with  admiration 
the  pranks  of  a  "  learned  horse,"  for  there  have  been  more  than 
one  exhibition  of  this  kind  in  Glasgow  in  the  course  of  the  last 
eighty  years  ;  few  of  these  performances,  however,  were  at  all 
equal  to  those  of  the  learned  little  pig  undernoted  : — 

Glasgow  Mefciiry,  9th  May  1787.  —  "Among  the  infinite  number  of 
curiosities  hitherto  offered  to  the  inspection  and  attention  of  the  public,  there 
are  none  which  lay  so  great  a  claim  to  our  attention  and  approbation  as  the 
wonderful  and  astonishing  performances  of  the  '  learned  pig'  now  exhibiting  in 
Mr.  Frazer's  Dancing  Hall,  M'Nair's  Land,  King  Street,  from  eleven  o'clock, 
forenoon,  to  three  in  the  afternoon,  and  from  five  to  nine  at  night,  where  it 
may  be  seen  this  and  every  day  in  the  ensuing  week,  at  the  expiration  of 
which  the  proprietor  is  under  engagement  to  set  off  for  Edinburgh. 


THE  GLASGOW  SHOWS  OF  OLDEN  TIME. 


329 


"  This  most  singular  phenomenon  is  one  of  the  many  surprising  instances 
of  the  ingenuity  of  Mr.  Nicholson — a  man  who  is  possessed  of  an  exclusive 
and  peculiar  power  over  the  most  irrational  part  of  animated  nature.  Many 
of  the  first  personages  in  the  three  kingdoms  have  been  witnesses  to  his 
persevering  temper  and  patience  in  the  tuition  of  beasts,  birds,  etc.,  in  a  degree 
that  has  seldom  fallen  to  the  lot  of  human  infirmity.  To  evince  this,  we  need 
only  mention  his  having  in  his  lifetime  taught  a  turtle  to  fetch  and  carry 
articles  at  his  pleasure  ;  his  overcoming  the  timidity  of  a  hare  by  making  her 
beat  a  drum  ;  his  perfectimg  six  turkey-cocks  in  a  regular  country  dance  ;  his 
completing  a  small  bird  in  the  performance  of  many  surprising  feats  ;  his 
having  taught  three  cats  to  strike  several  tunes  on  the  dulcimer  with  their 
paws,  and  to  imitate  the  Italian  manner  of  singing  ;  but  above  all,  his  conquer- 
ing the  natural  obstinacy  and  stupidity  of  a  pig,  by  teaching  him  to  unite  the 
letters  of  any  person's  name,  to  tell  the  number  of  persons  present  in  the  room 
and  the  hour  and  minute  by  any  watch,  &c.  &c.  This  singular  creature  may 
justly  be  deemed  the  greatest  curiosity  in  the  kingdom,  and  the  proprietor 
makes  no  doubt  but  he  will  give  that  satisfaction,  and  receive  that  approbation, 
from  the  ladies  and  gentlemen  of  this  city,  &c.  &c.,  which  he  has  done  in 
London  and  Edinburgh.     Admittance,  6d  each." 

Had  Pope  seen  this  learned  pig,  perhaps  he  would  not  have 
written — 

"  How  instinct  varies,  in  the  grov'lling  swine, 
Compar'd,  half-reasoning  elephant,  with  thine  ! 
'Twixt  that  and  reason,  what  a  nice  barrier, 
For  ever  separate,  yet  for  ever  near." 

I  paid  my  sixpence  and  witnessed  the  above-mentioned  per- 
formances, which  I  must  confess  were  truly  very  extraordinary, 
more  especially  knowing  how  obstinate  and  intractable  an  animal 
a  pig  is. 

These  performances  were  very  similar,  and  quite  equal  to  those 
exhibited  by  the  learned  horse  and  learned  dog ;  but  still  the 
great  drawback  to  the  pleasure  of  the  show  was  the  incongruity  of 
making  a  pet  of  a  pig  in  a  handsome  room,  while  the  natural 
element  of  the  animal  is  the  cloaca.  A  Roman  author  has  justly 
written — 

"Volutatio  in  luto  est  Suum  requies,  ut  lavatio  hominum." 

Mons.  Buffon  has  stated  that  the  hog  is  the  most  impure  and 
filthy  of  all  animals,  and  is  naturally  stupid,  inactive,  and  drowsy  ; 
that  all   its  habits  are  gross  ;  all   its  appetites    nauseous  ;  all   its 


330  OLD  GLASGOW  AND  ITS  ENVIRONS. 

sensations  confined  to  a  furious  lust  and  a  brutal  gluttony.  It 
devours  indiscriminately  everything  that  comes  in  its  way — even  its 
own  progeny,  the  moment  after  their  birth.  Who  could  fondle  with 
pleasure  such  an  animal,  however  learned  ? 

During  the  time  that  this  learned  pig  was  in  the  progress  of 
exhibition,  I  was  attending  our  Glasgow  Grammar  School,  when 
the  following  Latin  saying  used  to  be  handed  to  the  tyros  for 
translation — it  admitting  of  a  double  meaning — "Men  Mater  Sus 
estl'  which  may  be  translated  either,  "  My  mother  is  a  sow,"  or 
"  Run,  mother,  the  sow  is  eating."  ^ 

But  from  these  shows  of  the  lower  class  of  animals  I  must 
depart,  and  now  advert  to  some  exhibitions  of  a  higher  description 
of  beings  — I  mean  Giants.  We  are  informed  by  the  Scripture 
that  "  giants  were  produced"  from  the  marriages  of  the  "  sons  of 
God"  with  the  "daughters  of  MEN  ;"  but  we  have  no  account  of 
the  dimensions  of  this  mongrel  race,  nor  of  any  valiant  deeds 
which  they  performed  :  I  therefore  leave  it  to  our  learned  Hebrew 
commentators  to  explain  this  mysterious  passage. 

In  the  Glasgozv  Mercury  of  iith  January  1781  there  is  the 
following  advertisement : — 

"  By  Permission. 

"  Just  arrived  in  this  City,  and  to  be  seen  at  Mr.  Heron's,  at 

"  the  Bull,  the  surprising 

"  Irish  Giant, 

*'  Only  twenty  years  old,  yet  measures  eight  feet  high,  who  is  allowed  to 

be  the  most  extraordinary  man  for  size  and  proportion  that  ever  appeared  in 

Europe.     Admission,    is    each.      Hours    of  admittance,  from    eleven   in  the 

forenoon  till  three  in  the  afternoon,  and  from  four  till  nine  o'clock  at  night. 

To  continue  one  week  only." 

The  giant  seems  to  have  been  very  well  pleased  with  his 
reception  in  Glasgow,  for  in  the  ensuing  paper  of  the  i8th  of 
January  we  find  the  following  intimation  : — 

"January  17,  1781. — The  Irish  Giant  presents  his  most  respectful  compli- 

1  The  following  scrap  of  Latin  was  also  another  of  the  Grammar  School  puzzles  of 
my  early  clays: —  "Malo,  malo,  malo,  malo,  malo,  malo,  malo,  quam  dente  vento 
occurrere."  The  translation  of  which  is — "  I  would  rather  meet  with  a  bad  apple  with 
a  bad  tooth,  than  a  bad  mast  with  a  bad  wind." 


THE  GLASGOW  SHOWS  OF  OLDEN  TIME.  331 

ments  to  the  ladies  and  gentlemen  of  Glasgow,  and  desires  to  inform  them 
that  (by  permission)  he  intends  to  remain  at  his  lodgings,  at  the  Bull,  one 
week  from  the  date  hereof." 

I  did  not  see  this  giant,  and  therefore  cannot  give  any  par- 
ticular description  of  him.  The  exhibition,  however,  was  pretty 
well  attended  by  the  public. 

On  the  2 1st  October  1784  the  Glasgow  Mercury  announces 
as  follows  : — 

"  Irish  Giants. — The  most  gigantic  Twin  Brothers  are  just  arrived  in  this 
city,  and  to  be  seen  at  Mr.  Brown's  Auction  Room,  head  of  Saltmarket,  from 
eleven  in  the  forenoon  till  three  in  the  afternoon,  and  from  four  i